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Source file src/runtime/mwbbuf.go

Documentation: runtime

  // Copyright 2017 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
  // Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
  // license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
  // This implements the write barrier buffer. The write barrier itself
  // is gcWriteBarrier and is implemented in assembly.
  // The write barrier has a fast path and a slow path. The fast path
  // simply enqueues to a per-P write barrier buffer. It's written in
  // assembly and doesn't clobber any general purpose registers, so it
  // doesn't have the usual overheads of a Go call.
  // When the buffer fills up, the write barrier invokes the slow path
  // (wbBufFlush) to flush the buffer to the GC work queues. In this
  // path, since the compiler didn't spill registers, we spill *all*
  // registers and disallow any GC safe points that could observe the
  // stack frame (since we don't know the types of the spilled
  // registers).
  package runtime
  import (
  // testSmallBuf forces a small write barrier buffer to stress write
  // barrier flushing.
  const testSmallBuf = false
  // wbBuf is a per-P buffer of pointers queued by the write barrier.
  // This buffer is flushed to the GC workbufs when it fills up and on
  // various GC transitions.
  // This is closely related to a "sequential store buffer" (SSB),
  // except that SSBs are usually used for maintaining remembered sets,
  // while this is used for marking.
  type wbBuf struct {
  	// next points to the next slot in buf. It must not be a
  	// pointer type because it can point past the end of buf and
  	// must be updated without write barriers.
  	// This is a pointer rather than an index to optimize the
  	// write barrier assembly.
  	next uintptr
  	// end points to just past the end of buf. It must not be a
  	// pointer type because it points past the end of buf and must
  	// be updated without write barriers.
  	end uintptr
  	// buf stores a series of pointers to execute write barriers
  	// on. This must be a multiple of wbBufEntryPointers because
  	// the write barrier only checks for overflow once per entry.
  	buf [wbBufEntryPointers * wbBufEntries]uintptr
  const (
  	// wbBufEntries is the number of write barriers between
  	// flushes of the write barrier buffer.
  	// This trades latency for throughput amortization. Higher
  	// values amortize flushing overhead more, but increase the
  	// latency of flushing. Higher values also increase the cache
  	// footprint of the buffer.
  	// TODO: What is the latency cost of this? Tune this value.
  	wbBufEntries = 256
  	// wbBufEntryPointers is the number of pointers added to the
  	// buffer by each write barrier.
  	wbBufEntryPointers = 2
  // reset empties b by resetting its next and end pointers.
  func (b *wbBuf) reset() {
  	start := uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(&b.buf[0]))
  	b.next = start
  	if gcBlackenPromptly || writeBarrier.cgo {
  		// Effectively disable the buffer by forcing a flush
  		// on every barrier.
  		b.end = uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(&b.buf[wbBufEntryPointers]))
  	} else if testSmallBuf {
  		// For testing, allow two barriers in the buffer. If
  		// we only did one, then barriers of non-heap pointers
  		// would be no-ops. This lets us combine a buffered
  		// barrier with a flush at a later time.
  		b.end = uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(&b.buf[2*wbBufEntryPointers]))
  	} else {
  		b.end = start + uintptr(len(b.buf))*unsafe.Sizeof(b.buf[0])
  	if (b.end-b.next)%(wbBufEntryPointers*unsafe.Sizeof(b.buf[0])) != 0 {
  		throw("bad write barrier buffer bounds")
  // discard resets b's next pointer, but not its end pointer.
  // This must be nosplit because it's called by wbBufFlush.
  func (b *wbBuf) discard() {
  	b.next = uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(&b.buf[0]))
  // putFast adds old and new to the write barrier buffer and returns
  // false if a flush is necessary. Callers should use this as:
  //     buf := &getg().m.p.ptr().wbBuf
  //     if !buf.putFast(old, new) {
  //         wbBufFlush(...)
  //     }
  // The arguments to wbBufFlush depend on whether the caller is doing
  // its own cgo pointer checks. If it is, then this can be
  // wbBufFlush(nil, 0). Otherwise, it must pass the slot address and
  // new.
  // Since buf is a per-P resource, the caller must ensure there are no
  // preemption points while buf is in use.
  // It must be nowritebarrierrec to because write barriers here would
  // corrupt the write barrier buffer. It (and everything it calls, if
  // it called anything) has to be nosplit to avoid scheduling on to a
  // different P and a different buffer.
  func (b *wbBuf) putFast(old, new uintptr) bool {
  	p := (*[2]uintptr)(unsafe.Pointer(b.next))
  	p[0] = old
  	p[1] = new
  	b.next += 2 * sys.PtrSize
  	return b.next != b.end
  // wbBufFlush flushes the current P's write barrier buffer to the GC
  // workbufs. It is passed the slot and value of the write barrier that
  // caused the flush so that it can implement cgocheck.
  // This must not have write barriers because it is part of the write
  // barrier implementation.
  // This and everything it calls must be nosplit because 1) the stack
  // contains untyped slots from gcWriteBarrier and 2) there must not be
  // a GC safe point between the write barrier test in the caller and
  // flushing the buffer.
  // TODO: A "go:nosplitrec" annotation would be perfect for this.
  func wbBufFlush(dst *uintptr, src uintptr) {
  	// Note: Every possible return from this function must reset
  	// the buffer's next pointer to prevent buffer overflow.
  	if getg().m.dying > 0 {
  		// We're going down. Not much point in write barriers
  		// and this way we can allow write barriers in the
  		// panic path.
  	if writeBarrier.cgo && dst != nil {
  		// This must be called from the stack that did the
  		// write. It's nosplit all the way down.
  		cgoCheckWriteBarrier(dst, src)
  		if !writeBarrier.needed {
  			// We were only called for cgocheck.
  	// Switch to the system stack so we don't have to worry about
  	// the untyped stack slots or safe points.
  	systemstack(func() {
  // wbBufFlush1 flushes p's write barrier buffer to the GC work queue.
  // This must not have write barriers because it is part of the write
  // barrier implementation, so this may lead to infinite loops or
  // buffer corruption.
  // This must be non-preemptible because it uses the P's workbuf.
  func wbBufFlush1(_p_ *p) {
  	// Get the buffered pointers.
  	start := uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(&_p_.wbBuf.buf[0]))
  	n := (_p_.wbBuf.next - start) / unsafe.Sizeof(_p_.wbBuf.buf[0])
  	ptrs := _p_.wbBuf.buf[:n]
  	// Reset the buffer.
  	if useCheckmark {
  		// Slow path for checkmark mode.
  		for _, ptr := range ptrs {
  	// Mark all of the pointers in the buffer and record only the
  	// pointers we greyed. We use the buffer itself to temporarily
  	// record greyed pointers.
  	// TODO: Should scanobject/scanblock just stuff pointers into
  	// the wbBuf? Then this would become the sole greying path.
  	gcw := &_p_.gcw
  	pos := 0
  	arenaStart := mheap_.arena_start
  	for _, ptr := range ptrs {
  		if ptr < arenaStart {
  			// nil pointers are very common, especially
  			// for the "old" values. Filter out these and
  			// other "obvious" non-heap pointers ASAP.
  			// TODO: Should we filter out nils in the fast
  			// path to reduce the rate of flushes?
  		// TODO: This doesn't use hbits, so calling
  		// heapBitsForObject seems a little silly. We could
  		// easily separate this out since heapBitsForObject
  		// just calls heapBitsForAddr(obj) to get hbits.
  		obj, _, span, objIndex := heapBitsForObject(ptr, 0, 0)
  		if obj == 0 {
  		// TODO: Consider making two passes where the first
  		// just prefetches the mark bits.
  		mbits := span.markBitsForIndex(objIndex)
  		if mbits.isMarked() {
  		if span.spanclass.noscan() {
  			gcw.bytesMarked += uint64(span.elemsize)
  		ptrs[pos] = obj
  	// Enqueue the greyed objects.
  	if gcphase == _GCmarktermination || gcBlackenPromptly {
  		// Ps aren't allowed to cache work during mark
  		// termination.

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