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Run Format

Source file src/net/url/url_test.go

Documentation: net/url

  // Copyright 2009 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
  // Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
  // license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
  
  package url
  
  import (
  	"bytes"
  	encodingPkg "encoding"
  	"encoding/gob"
  	"encoding/json"
  	"fmt"
  	"io"
  	"net"
  	"reflect"
  	"strings"
  	"testing"
  )
  
  type URLTest struct {
  	in        string
  	out       *URL   // expected parse; RawPath="" means same as Path
  	roundtrip string // expected result of reserializing the URL; empty means same as "in".
  }
  
  var urltests = []URLTest{
  	// no path
  	{
  		"http://www.google.com",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "www.google.com",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// path
  	{
  		"http://www.google.com/",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "www.google.com",
  			Path:   "/",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// path with hex escaping
  	{
  		"http://www.google.com/file%20one%26two",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:  "http",
  			Host:    "www.google.com",
  			Path:    "/file one&two",
  			RawPath: "/file%20one%26two",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// user
  	{
  		"ftp://webmaster@www.google.com/",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "ftp",
  			User:   User("webmaster"),
  			Host:   "www.google.com",
  			Path:   "/",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// escape sequence in username
  	{
  		"ftp://john%20doe@www.google.com/",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "ftp",
  			User:   User("john doe"),
  			Host:   "www.google.com",
  			Path:   "/",
  		},
  		"ftp://john%20doe@www.google.com/",
  	},
  	// empty query
  	{
  		"http://www.google.com/?",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:     "http",
  			Host:       "www.google.com",
  			Path:       "/",
  			ForceQuery: true,
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// query ending in question mark (Issue 14573)
  	{
  		"http://www.google.com/?foo=bar?",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:   "http",
  			Host:     "www.google.com",
  			Path:     "/",
  			RawQuery: "foo=bar?",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// query
  	{
  		"http://www.google.com/?q=go+language",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:   "http",
  			Host:     "www.google.com",
  			Path:     "/",
  			RawQuery: "q=go+language",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// query with hex escaping: NOT parsed
  	{
  		"http://www.google.com/?q=go%20language",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:   "http",
  			Host:     "www.google.com",
  			Path:     "/",
  			RawQuery: "q=go%20language",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// %20 outside query
  	{
  		"http://www.google.com/a%20b?q=c+d",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:   "http",
  			Host:     "www.google.com",
  			Path:     "/a b",
  			RawQuery: "q=c+d",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// path without leading /, so no parsing
  	{
  		"http:www.google.com/?q=go+language",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:   "http",
  			Opaque:   "www.google.com/",
  			RawQuery: "q=go+language",
  		},
  		"http:www.google.com/?q=go+language",
  	},
  	// path without leading /, so no parsing
  	{
  		"http:%2f%2fwww.google.com/?q=go+language",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:   "http",
  			Opaque:   "%2f%2fwww.google.com/",
  			RawQuery: "q=go+language",
  		},
  		"http:%2f%2fwww.google.com/?q=go+language",
  	},
  	// non-authority with path
  	{
  		"mailto:/webmaster@golang.org",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "mailto",
  			Path:   "/webmaster@golang.org",
  		},
  		"mailto:///webmaster@golang.org", // unfortunate compromise
  	},
  	// non-authority
  	{
  		"mailto:webmaster@golang.org",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "mailto",
  			Opaque: "webmaster@golang.org",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// unescaped :// in query should not create a scheme
  	{
  		"/foo?query=http://bad",
  		&URL{
  			Path:     "/foo",
  			RawQuery: "query=http://bad",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// leading // without scheme should create an authority
  	{
  		"//foo",
  		&URL{
  			Host: "foo",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// leading // without scheme, with userinfo, path, and query
  	{
  		"//user@foo/path?a=b",
  		&URL{
  			User:     User("user"),
  			Host:     "foo",
  			Path:     "/path",
  			RawQuery: "a=b",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// Three leading slashes isn't an authority, but doesn't return an error.
  	// (We can't return an error, as this code is also used via
  	// ServeHTTP -> ReadRequest -> Parse, which is arguably a
  	// different URL parsing context, but currently shares the
  	// same codepath)
  	{
  		"///threeslashes",
  		&URL{
  			Path: "///threeslashes",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	{
  		"http://user:password@google.com",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			User:   UserPassword("user", "password"),
  			Host:   "google.com",
  		},
  		"http://user:password@google.com",
  	},
  	// unescaped @ in username should not confuse host
  	{
  		"http://j@ne:password@google.com",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			User:   UserPassword("j@ne", "password"),
  			Host:   "google.com",
  		},
  		"http://j%40ne:password@google.com",
  	},
  	// unescaped @ in password should not confuse host
  	{
  		"http://jane:p@ssword@google.com",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			User:   UserPassword("jane", "p@ssword"),
  			Host:   "google.com",
  		},
  		"http://jane:p%40ssword@google.com",
  	},
  	{
  		"http://j@ne:password@google.com/p@th?q=@go",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:   "http",
  			User:     UserPassword("j@ne", "password"),
  			Host:     "google.com",
  			Path:     "/p@th",
  			RawQuery: "q=@go",
  		},
  		"http://j%40ne:password@google.com/p@th?q=@go",
  	},
  	{
  		"http://www.google.com/?q=go+language#foo",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:   "http",
  			Host:     "www.google.com",
  			Path:     "/",
  			RawQuery: "q=go+language",
  			Fragment: "foo",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	{
  		"http://www.google.com/?q=go+language#foo%26bar",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:   "http",
  			Host:     "www.google.com",
  			Path:     "/",
  			RawQuery: "q=go+language",
  			Fragment: "foo&bar",
  		},
  		"http://www.google.com/?q=go+language#foo&bar",
  	},
  	{
  		"file:///home/adg/rabbits",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "file",
  			Host:   "",
  			Path:   "/home/adg/rabbits",
  		},
  		"file:///home/adg/rabbits",
  	},
  	// "Windows" paths are no exception to the rule.
  	// See golang.org/issue/6027, especially comment #9.
  	{
  		"file:///C:/FooBar/Baz.txt",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "file",
  			Host:   "",
  			Path:   "/C:/FooBar/Baz.txt",
  		},
  		"file:///C:/FooBar/Baz.txt",
  	},
  	// case-insensitive scheme
  	{
  		"MaIlTo:webmaster@golang.org",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "mailto",
  			Opaque: "webmaster@golang.org",
  		},
  		"mailto:webmaster@golang.org",
  	},
  	// Relative path
  	{
  		"a/b/c",
  		&URL{
  			Path: "a/b/c",
  		},
  		"a/b/c",
  	},
  	// escaped '?' in username and password
  	{
  		"http://%3Fam:pa%3Fsword@google.com",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			User:   UserPassword("?am", "pa?sword"),
  			Host:   "google.com",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// host subcomponent; IPv4 address in RFC 3986
  	{
  		"http://192.168.0.1/",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "192.168.0.1",
  			Path:   "/",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// host and port subcomponents; IPv4 address in RFC 3986
  	{
  		"http://192.168.0.1:8080/",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "192.168.0.1:8080",
  			Path:   "/",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// host subcomponent; IPv6 address in RFC 3986
  	{
  		"http://[fe80::1]/",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "[fe80::1]",
  			Path:   "/",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// host and port subcomponents; IPv6 address in RFC 3986
  	{
  		"http://[fe80::1]:8080/",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "[fe80::1]:8080",
  			Path:   "/",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// host subcomponent; IPv6 address with zone identifier in RFC 6874
  	{
  		"http://[fe80::1%25en0]/", // alphanum zone identifier
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "[fe80::1%en0]",
  			Path:   "/",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// host and port subcomponents; IPv6 address with zone identifier in RFC 6874
  	{
  		"http://[fe80::1%25en0]:8080/", // alphanum zone identifier
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "[fe80::1%en0]:8080",
  			Path:   "/",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// host subcomponent; IPv6 address with zone identifier in RFC 6874
  	{
  		"http://[fe80::1%25%65%6e%301-._~]/", // percent-encoded+unreserved zone identifier
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "[fe80::1%en01-._~]",
  			Path:   "/",
  		},
  		"http://[fe80::1%25en01-._~]/",
  	},
  	// host and port subcomponents; IPv6 address with zone identifier in RFC 6874
  	{
  		"http://[fe80::1%25%65%6e%301-._~]:8080/", // percent-encoded+unreserved zone identifier
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "[fe80::1%en01-._~]:8080",
  			Path:   "/",
  		},
  		"http://[fe80::1%25en01-._~]:8080/",
  	},
  	// alternate escapings of path survive round trip
  	{
  		"http://rest.rsc.io/foo%2fbar/baz%2Fquux?alt=media",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:   "http",
  			Host:     "rest.rsc.io",
  			Path:     "/foo/bar/baz/quux",
  			RawPath:  "/foo%2fbar/baz%2Fquux",
  			RawQuery: "alt=media",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// issue 12036
  	{
  		"mysql://a,b,c/bar",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "mysql",
  			Host:   "a,b,c",
  			Path:   "/bar",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// worst case host, still round trips
  	{
  		"scheme://!$&'()*+,;=hello!:port/path",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "scheme",
  			Host:   "!$&'()*+,;=hello!:port",
  			Path:   "/path",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// worst case path, still round trips
  	{
  		"http://host/!$&'()*+,;=:@[hello]",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:  "http",
  			Host:    "host",
  			Path:    "/!$&'()*+,;=:@[hello]",
  			RawPath: "/!$&'()*+,;=:@[hello]",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// golang.org/issue/5684
  	{
  		"http://example.com/oid/[order_id]",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:  "http",
  			Host:    "example.com",
  			Path:    "/oid/[order_id]",
  			RawPath: "/oid/[order_id]",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// golang.org/issue/12200 (colon with empty port)
  	{
  		"http://192.168.0.2:8080/foo",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "192.168.0.2:8080",
  			Path:   "/foo",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	{
  		"http://192.168.0.2:/foo",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "192.168.0.2:",
  			Path:   "/foo",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	{
  		// Malformed IPv6 but still accepted.
  		"http://2b01:e34:ef40:7730:8e70:5aff:fefe:edac:8080/foo",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "2b01:e34:ef40:7730:8e70:5aff:fefe:edac:8080",
  			Path:   "/foo",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	{
  		// Malformed IPv6 but still accepted.
  		"http://2b01:e34:ef40:7730:8e70:5aff:fefe:edac:/foo",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "2b01:e34:ef40:7730:8e70:5aff:fefe:edac:",
  			Path:   "/foo",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	{
  		"http://[2b01:e34:ef40:7730:8e70:5aff:fefe:edac]:8080/foo",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "[2b01:e34:ef40:7730:8e70:5aff:fefe:edac]:8080",
  			Path:   "/foo",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	{
  		"http://[2b01:e34:ef40:7730:8e70:5aff:fefe:edac]:/foo",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "[2b01:e34:ef40:7730:8e70:5aff:fefe:edac]:",
  			Path:   "/foo",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// golang.org/issue/7991 and golang.org/issue/12719 (non-ascii %-encoded in host)
  	{
  		"http://hello.世界.com/foo",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "hello.世界.com",
  			Path:   "/foo",
  		},
  		"http://hello.%E4%B8%96%E7%95%8C.com/foo",
  	},
  	{
  		"http://hello.%e4%b8%96%e7%95%8c.com/foo",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "hello.世界.com",
  			Path:   "/foo",
  		},
  		"http://hello.%E4%B8%96%E7%95%8C.com/foo",
  	},
  	{
  		"http://hello.%E4%B8%96%E7%95%8C.com/foo",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "hello.世界.com",
  			Path:   "/foo",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// golang.org/issue/10433 (path beginning with //)
  	{
  		"http://example.com//foo",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "example.com",
  			Path:   "//foo",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// test that we can reparse the host names we accept.
  	{
  		"myscheme://authority<\"hi\">/foo",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "myscheme",
  			Host:   "authority<\"hi\">",
  			Path:   "/foo",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  	// spaces in hosts are disallowed but escaped spaces in IPv6 scope IDs are grudgingly OK.
  	// This happens on Windows.
  	// golang.org/issue/14002
  	{
  		"tcp://[2020::2020:20:2020:2020%25Windows%20Loves%20Spaces]:2020",
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "tcp",
  			Host:   "[2020::2020:20:2020:2020%Windows Loves Spaces]:2020",
  		},
  		"",
  	},
  }
  
  // more useful string for debugging than fmt's struct printer
  func ufmt(u *URL) string {
  	var user, pass interface{}
  	if u.User != nil {
  		user = u.User.Username()
  		if p, ok := u.User.Password(); ok {
  			pass = p
  		}
  	}
  	return fmt.Sprintf("opaque=%q, scheme=%q, user=%#v, pass=%#v, host=%q, path=%q, rawpath=%q, rawq=%q, frag=%q, forcequery=%v",
  		u.Opaque, u.Scheme, user, pass, u.Host, u.Path, u.RawPath, u.RawQuery, u.Fragment, u.ForceQuery)
  }
  
  func BenchmarkString(b *testing.B) {
  	b.StopTimer()
  	b.ReportAllocs()
  	for _, tt := range urltests {
  		u, err := Parse(tt.in)
  		if err != nil {
  			b.Errorf("Parse(%q) returned error %s", tt.in, err)
  			continue
  		}
  		if tt.roundtrip == "" {
  			continue
  		}
  		b.StartTimer()
  		var g string
  		for i := 0; i < b.N; i++ {
  			g = u.String()
  		}
  		b.StopTimer()
  		if w := tt.roundtrip; b.N > 0 && g != w {
  			b.Errorf("Parse(%q).String() == %q, want %q", tt.in, g, w)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  func TestParse(t *testing.T) {
  	for _, tt := range urltests {
  		u, err := Parse(tt.in)
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("Parse(%q) returned error %v", tt.in, err)
  			continue
  		}
  		if !reflect.DeepEqual(u, tt.out) {
  			t.Errorf("Parse(%q):\n\tgot  %v\n\twant %v\n", tt.in, ufmt(u), ufmt(tt.out))
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  const pathThatLooksSchemeRelative = "//not.a.user@not.a.host/just/a/path"
  
  var parseRequestURLTests = []struct {
  	url           string
  	expectedValid bool
  }{
  	{"http://foo.com", true},
  	{"http://foo.com/", true},
  	{"http://foo.com/path", true},
  	{"/", true},
  	{pathThatLooksSchemeRelative, true},
  	{"//not.a.user@%66%6f%6f.com/just/a/path/also", true},
  	{"*", true},
  	{"http://192.168.0.1/", true},
  	{"http://192.168.0.1:8080/", true},
  	{"http://[fe80::1]/", true},
  	{"http://[fe80::1]:8080/", true},
  
  	// Tests exercising RFC 6874 compliance:
  	{"http://[fe80::1%25en0]/", true},                 // with alphanum zone identifier
  	{"http://[fe80::1%25en0]:8080/", true},            // with alphanum zone identifier
  	{"http://[fe80::1%25%65%6e%301-._~]/", true},      // with percent-encoded+unreserved zone identifier
  	{"http://[fe80::1%25%65%6e%301-._~]:8080/", true}, // with percent-encoded+unreserved zone identifier
  
  	{"foo.html", false},
  	{"../dir/", false},
  	{"http://192.168.0.%31/", false},
  	{"http://192.168.0.%31:8080/", false},
  	{"http://[fe80::%31]/", false},
  	{"http://[fe80::%31]:8080/", false},
  	{"http://[fe80::%31%25en0]/", false},
  	{"http://[fe80::%31%25en0]:8080/", false},
  
  	// These two cases are valid as textual representations as
  	// described in RFC 4007, but are not valid as address
  	// literals with IPv6 zone identifiers in URIs as described in
  	// RFC 6874.
  	{"http://[fe80::1%en0]/", false},
  	{"http://[fe80::1%en0]:8080/", false},
  }
  
  func TestParseRequestURI(t *testing.T) {
  	for _, test := range parseRequestURLTests {
  		_, err := ParseRequestURI(test.url)
  		if test.expectedValid && err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("ParseRequestURI(%q) gave err %v; want no error", test.url, err)
  		} else if !test.expectedValid && err == nil {
  			t.Errorf("ParseRequestURI(%q) gave nil error; want some error", test.url)
  		}
  	}
  
  	url, err := ParseRequestURI(pathThatLooksSchemeRelative)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("Unexpected error %v", err)
  	}
  	if url.Path != pathThatLooksSchemeRelative {
  		t.Errorf("ParseRequestURI path:\ngot  %q\nwant %q", url.Path, pathThatLooksSchemeRelative)
  	}
  }
  
  var stringURLTests = []struct {
  	url  URL
  	want string
  }{
  	// No leading slash on path should prepend slash on String() call
  	{
  		url: URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "www.google.com",
  			Path:   "search",
  		},
  		want: "http://www.google.com/search",
  	},
  	// Relative path with first element containing ":" should be prepended with "./", golang.org/issue/17184
  	{
  		url: URL{
  			Path: "this:that",
  		},
  		want: "./this:that",
  	},
  	// Relative path with second element containing ":" should not be prepended with "./"
  	{
  		url: URL{
  			Path: "here/this:that",
  		},
  		want: "here/this:that",
  	},
  	// Non-relative path with first element containing ":" should not be prepended with "./"
  	{
  		url: URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "www.google.com",
  			Path:   "this:that",
  		},
  		want: "http://www.google.com/this:that",
  	},
  }
  
  func TestURLString(t *testing.T) {
  	for _, tt := range urltests {
  		u, err := Parse(tt.in)
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("Parse(%q) returned error %s", tt.in, err)
  			continue
  		}
  		expected := tt.in
  		if tt.roundtrip != "" {
  			expected = tt.roundtrip
  		}
  		s := u.String()
  		if s != expected {
  			t.Errorf("Parse(%q).String() == %q (expected %q)", tt.in, s, expected)
  		}
  	}
  
  	for _, tt := range stringURLTests {
  		if got := tt.url.String(); got != tt.want {
  			t.Errorf("%+v.String() = %q; want %q", tt.url, got, tt.want)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  type EscapeTest struct {
  	in  string
  	out string
  	err error
  }
  
  var unescapeTests = []EscapeTest{
  	{
  		"",
  		"",
  		nil,
  	},
  	{
  		"abc",
  		"abc",
  		nil,
  	},
  	{
  		"1%41",
  		"1A",
  		nil,
  	},
  	{
  		"1%41%42%43",
  		"1ABC",
  		nil,
  	},
  	{
  		"%4a",
  		"J",
  		nil,
  	},
  	{
  		"%6F",
  		"o",
  		nil,
  	},
  	{
  		"%", // not enough characters after %
  		"",
  		EscapeError("%"),
  	},
  	{
  		"%a", // not enough characters after %
  		"",
  		EscapeError("%a"),
  	},
  	{
  		"%1", // not enough characters after %
  		"",
  		EscapeError("%1"),
  	},
  	{
  		"123%45%6", // not enough characters after %
  		"",
  		EscapeError("%6"),
  	},
  	{
  		"%zzzzz", // invalid hex digits
  		"",
  		EscapeError("%zz"),
  	},
  	{
  		"a+b",
  		"a b",
  		nil,
  	},
  	{
  		"a%20b",
  		"a b",
  		nil,
  	},
  }
  
  func TestUnescape(t *testing.T) {
  	for _, tt := range unescapeTests {
  		actual, err := QueryUnescape(tt.in)
  		if actual != tt.out || (err != nil) != (tt.err != nil) {
  			t.Errorf("QueryUnescape(%q) = %q, %s; want %q, %s", tt.in, actual, err, tt.out, tt.err)
  		}
  
  		in := tt.in
  		out := tt.out
  		if strings.Contains(tt.in, "+") {
  			in = strings.Replace(tt.in, "+", "%20", -1)
  			actual, err := PathUnescape(in)
  			if actual != tt.out || (err != nil) != (tt.err != nil) {
  				t.Errorf("PathUnescape(%q) = %q, %s; want %q, %s", in, actual, err, tt.out, tt.err)
  			}
  			if tt.err == nil {
  				s, err := QueryUnescape(strings.Replace(tt.in, "+", "XXX", -1))
  				if err != nil {
  					continue
  				}
  				in = tt.in
  				out = strings.Replace(s, "XXX", "+", -1)
  			}
  		}
  
  		actual, err = PathUnescape(in)
  		if actual != out || (err != nil) != (tt.err != nil) {
  			t.Errorf("PathUnescape(%q) = %q, %s; want %q, %s", in, actual, err, out, tt.err)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  var queryEscapeTests = []EscapeTest{
  	{
  		"",
  		"",
  		nil,
  	},
  	{
  		"abc",
  		"abc",
  		nil,
  	},
  	{
  		"one two",
  		"one+two",
  		nil,
  	},
  	{
  		"10%",
  		"10%25",
  		nil,
  	},
  	{
  		" ?&=#+%!<>#\"{}|\\^[]`☺\t:/@$'()*,;",
  		"+%3F%26%3D%23%2B%25%21%3C%3E%23%22%7B%7D%7C%5C%5E%5B%5D%60%E2%98%BA%09%3A%2F%40%24%27%28%29%2A%2C%3B",
  		nil,
  	},
  }
  
  func TestQueryEscape(t *testing.T) {
  	for _, tt := range queryEscapeTests {
  		actual := QueryEscape(tt.in)
  		if tt.out != actual {
  			t.Errorf("QueryEscape(%q) = %q, want %q", tt.in, actual, tt.out)
  		}
  
  		// for bonus points, verify that escape:unescape is an identity.
  		roundtrip, err := QueryUnescape(actual)
  		if roundtrip != tt.in || err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("QueryUnescape(%q) = %q, %s; want %q, %s", actual, roundtrip, err, tt.in, "[no error]")
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  var pathEscapeTests = []EscapeTest{
  	{
  		"",
  		"",
  		nil,
  	},
  	{
  		"abc",
  		"abc",
  		nil,
  	},
  	{
  		"abc+def",
  		"abc+def",
  		nil,
  	},
  	{
  		"one two",
  		"one%20two",
  		nil,
  	},
  	{
  		"10%",
  		"10%25",
  		nil,
  	},
  	{
  		" ?&=#+%!<>#\"{}|\\^[]`☺\t:/@$'()*,;",
  		"%20%3F&=%23+%25%21%3C%3E%23%22%7B%7D%7C%5C%5E%5B%5D%60%E2%98%BA%09:%2F@$%27%28%29%2A%2C%3B",
  		nil,
  	},
  }
  
  func TestPathEscape(t *testing.T) {
  	for _, tt := range pathEscapeTests {
  		actual := PathEscape(tt.in)
  		if tt.out != actual {
  			t.Errorf("PathEscape(%q) = %q, want %q", tt.in, actual, tt.out)
  		}
  
  		// for bonus points, verify that escape:unescape is an identity.
  		roundtrip, err := PathUnescape(actual)
  		if roundtrip != tt.in || err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("PathUnescape(%q) = %q, %s; want %q, %s", actual, roundtrip, err, tt.in, "[no error]")
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  //var userinfoTests = []UserinfoTest{
  //	{"user", "password", "user:password"},
  //	{"foo:bar", "~!@#$%^&*()_+{}|[]\\-=`:;'\"<>?,./",
  //		"foo%3Abar:~!%40%23$%25%5E&*()_+%7B%7D%7C%5B%5D%5C-=%60%3A;'%22%3C%3E?,.%2F"},
  //}
  
  type EncodeQueryTest struct {
  	m        Values
  	expected string
  }
  
  var encodeQueryTests = []EncodeQueryTest{
  	{nil, ""},
  	{Values{"q": {"puppies"}, "oe": {"utf8"}}, "oe=utf8&q=puppies"},
  	{Values{"q": {"dogs", "&", "7"}}, "q=dogs&q=%26&q=7"},
  	{Values{
  		"a": {"a1", "a2", "a3"},
  		"b": {"b1", "b2", "b3"},
  		"c": {"c1", "c2", "c3"},
  	}, "a=a1&a=a2&a=a3&b=b1&b=b2&b=b3&c=c1&c=c2&c=c3"},
  }
  
  func TestEncodeQuery(t *testing.T) {
  	for _, tt := range encodeQueryTests {
  		if q := tt.m.Encode(); q != tt.expected {
  			t.Errorf(`EncodeQuery(%+v) = %q, want %q`, tt.m, q, tt.expected)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  var resolvePathTests = []struct {
  	base, ref, expected string
  }{
  	{"a/b", ".", "/a/"},
  	{"a/b", "c", "/a/c"},
  	{"a/b", "..", "/"},
  	{"a/", "..", "/"},
  	{"a/", "../..", "/"},
  	{"a/b/c", "..", "/a/"},
  	{"a/b/c", "../d", "/a/d"},
  	{"a/b/c", ".././d", "/a/d"},
  	{"a/b", "./..", "/"},
  	{"a/./b", ".", "/a/"},
  	{"a/../", ".", "/"},
  	{"a/.././b", "c", "/c"},
  }
  
  func TestResolvePath(t *testing.T) {
  	for _, test := range resolvePathTests {
  		got := resolvePath(test.base, test.ref)
  		if got != test.expected {
  			t.Errorf("For %q + %q got %q; expected %q", test.base, test.ref, got, test.expected)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  var resolveReferenceTests = []struct {
  	base, rel, expected string
  }{
  	// Absolute URL references
  	{"http://foo.com?a=b", "https://bar.com/", "https://bar.com/"},
  	{"http://foo.com/", "https://bar.com/?a=b", "https://bar.com/?a=b"},
  	{"http://foo.com/", "https://bar.com/?", "https://bar.com/?"},
  	{"http://foo.com/bar", "mailto:foo@example.com", "mailto:foo@example.com"},
  
  	// Path-absolute references
  	{"http://foo.com/bar", "/baz", "http://foo.com/baz"},
  	{"http://foo.com/bar?a=b#f", "/baz", "http://foo.com/baz"},
  	{"http://foo.com/bar?a=b", "/baz?", "http://foo.com/baz?"},
  	{"http://foo.com/bar?a=b", "/baz?c=d", "http://foo.com/baz?c=d"},
  
  	// Scheme-relative
  	{"https://foo.com/bar?a=b", "//bar.com/quux", "https://bar.com/quux"},
  
  	// Path-relative references:
  
  	// ... current directory
  	{"http://foo.com", ".", "http://foo.com/"},
  	{"http://foo.com/bar", ".", "http://foo.com/"},
  	{"http://foo.com/bar/", ".", "http://foo.com/bar/"},
  
  	// ... going down
  	{"http://foo.com", "bar", "http://foo.com/bar"},
  	{"http://foo.com/", "bar", "http://foo.com/bar"},
  	{"http://foo.com/bar/baz", "quux", "http://foo.com/bar/quux"},
  
  	// ... going up
  	{"http://foo.com/bar/baz", "../quux", "http://foo.com/quux"},
  	{"http://foo.com/bar/baz", "../../../../../quux", "http://foo.com/quux"},
  	{"http://foo.com/bar", "..", "http://foo.com/"},
  	{"http://foo.com/bar/baz", "./..", "http://foo.com/"},
  	// ".." in the middle (issue 3560)
  	{"http://foo.com/bar/baz", "quux/dotdot/../tail", "http://foo.com/bar/quux/tail"},
  	{"http://foo.com/bar/baz", "quux/./dotdot/../tail", "http://foo.com/bar/quux/tail"},
  	{"http://foo.com/bar/baz", "quux/./dotdot/.././tail", "http://foo.com/bar/quux/tail"},
  	{"http://foo.com/bar/baz", "quux/./dotdot/./../tail", "http://foo.com/bar/quux/tail"},
  	{"http://foo.com/bar/baz", "quux/./dotdot/dotdot/././../../tail", "http://foo.com/bar/quux/tail"},
  	{"http://foo.com/bar/baz", "quux/./dotdot/dotdot/./.././../tail", "http://foo.com/bar/quux/tail"},
  	{"http://foo.com/bar/baz", "quux/./dotdot/dotdot/dotdot/./../../.././././tail", "http://foo.com/bar/quux/tail"},
  	{"http://foo.com/bar/baz", "quux/./dotdot/../dotdot/../dot/./tail/..", "http://foo.com/bar/quux/dot/"},
  
  	// Remove any dot-segments prior to forming the target URI.
  	// http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-5.2.4
  	{"http://foo.com/dot/./dotdot/../foo/bar", "../baz", "http://foo.com/dot/baz"},
  
  	// Triple dot isn't special
  	{"http://foo.com/bar", "...", "http://foo.com/..."},
  
  	// Fragment
  	{"http://foo.com/bar", ".#frag", "http://foo.com/#frag"},
  
  	// Paths with escaping (issue 16947).
  	{"http://foo.com/foo%2fbar/", "../baz", "http://foo.com/baz"},
  	{"http://foo.com/1/2%2f/3%2f4/5", "../../a/b/c", "http://foo.com/1/a/b/c"},
  	{"http://foo.com/1/2/3", "./a%2f../../b/..%2fc", "http://foo.com/1/2/b/..%2fc"},
  	{"http://foo.com/1/2%2f/3%2f4/5", "./a%2f../b/../c", "http://foo.com/1/2%2f/3%2f4/a%2f../c"},
  	{"http://foo.com/foo%20bar/", "../baz", "http://foo.com/baz"},
  	{"http://foo.com/foo", "../bar%2fbaz", "http://foo.com/bar%2fbaz"},
  	{"http://foo.com/foo%2dbar/", "./baz-quux", "http://foo.com/foo%2dbar/baz-quux"},
  
  	// RFC 3986: Normal Examples
  	// http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-5.4.1
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "g:h", "g:h"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "g", "http://a/b/c/g"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "./g", "http://a/b/c/g"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "g/", "http://a/b/c/g/"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "/g", "http://a/g"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "//g", "http://g"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "?y", "http://a/b/c/d;p?y"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "g?y", "http://a/b/c/g?y"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "#s", "http://a/b/c/d;p?q#s"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "g#s", "http://a/b/c/g#s"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "g?y#s", "http://a/b/c/g?y#s"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", ";x", "http://a/b/c/;x"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "g;x", "http://a/b/c/g;x"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "g;x?y#s", "http://a/b/c/g;x?y#s"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "", "http://a/b/c/d;p?q"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", ".", "http://a/b/c/"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "./", "http://a/b/c/"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "..", "http://a/b/"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "../", "http://a/b/"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "../g", "http://a/b/g"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "../..", "http://a/"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "../../", "http://a/"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "../../g", "http://a/g"},
  
  	// RFC 3986: Abnormal Examples
  	// http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-5.4.2
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "../../../g", "http://a/g"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "../../../../g", "http://a/g"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "/./g", "http://a/g"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "/../g", "http://a/g"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "g.", "http://a/b/c/g."},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", ".g", "http://a/b/c/.g"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "g..", "http://a/b/c/g.."},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "..g", "http://a/b/c/..g"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "./../g", "http://a/b/g"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "./g/.", "http://a/b/c/g/"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "g/./h", "http://a/b/c/g/h"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "g/../h", "http://a/b/c/h"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "g;x=1/./y", "http://a/b/c/g;x=1/y"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "g;x=1/../y", "http://a/b/c/y"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "g?y/./x", "http://a/b/c/g?y/./x"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "g?y/../x", "http://a/b/c/g?y/../x"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "g#s/./x", "http://a/b/c/g#s/./x"},
  	{"http://a/b/c/d;p?q", "g#s/../x", "http://a/b/c/g#s/../x"},
  
  	// Extras.
  	{"https://a/b/c/d;p?q", "//g?q", "https://g?q"},
  	{"https://a/b/c/d;p?q", "//g#s", "https://g#s"},
  	{"https://a/b/c/d;p?q", "//g/d/e/f?y#s", "https://g/d/e/f?y#s"},
  	{"https://a/b/c/d;p#s", "?y", "https://a/b/c/d;p?y"},
  	{"https://a/b/c/d;p?q#s", "?y", "https://a/b/c/d;p?y"},
  }
  
  func TestResolveReference(t *testing.T) {
  	mustParse := func(url string) *URL {
  		u, err := Parse(url)
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Fatalf("Parse(%q) got err %v", url, err)
  		}
  		return u
  	}
  	opaque := &URL{Scheme: "scheme", Opaque: "opaque"}
  	for _, test := range resolveReferenceTests {
  		base := mustParse(test.base)
  		rel := mustParse(test.rel)
  		url := base.ResolveReference(rel)
  		if got := url.String(); got != test.expected {
  			t.Errorf("URL(%q).ResolveReference(%q)\ngot  %q\nwant %q", test.base, test.rel, got, test.expected)
  		}
  		// Ensure that new instances are returned.
  		if base == url {
  			t.Errorf("Expected URL.ResolveReference to return new URL instance.")
  		}
  		// Test the convenience wrapper too.
  		url, err := base.Parse(test.rel)
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("URL(%q).Parse(%q) failed: %v", test.base, test.rel, err)
  		} else if got := url.String(); got != test.expected {
  			t.Errorf("URL(%q).Parse(%q)\ngot  %q\nwant %q", test.base, test.rel, got, test.expected)
  		} else if base == url {
  			// Ensure that new instances are returned for the wrapper too.
  			t.Errorf("Expected URL.Parse to return new URL instance.")
  		}
  		// Ensure Opaque resets the URL.
  		url = base.ResolveReference(opaque)
  		if *url != *opaque {
  			t.Errorf("ResolveReference failed to resolve opaque URL:\ngot  %#v\nwant %#v", url, opaque)
  		}
  		// Test the convenience wrapper with an opaque URL too.
  		url, err = base.Parse("scheme:opaque")
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Errorf(`URL(%q).Parse("scheme:opaque") failed: %v`, test.base, err)
  		} else if *url != *opaque {
  			t.Errorf("Parse failed to resolve opaque URL:\ngot  %#v\nwant %#v", opaque, url)
  		} else if base == url {
  			// Ensure that new instances are returned, again.
  			t.Errorf("Expected URL.Parse to return new URL instance.")
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  func TestQueryValues(t *testing.T) {
  	u, _ := Parse("http://x.com?foo=bar&bar=1&bar=2")
  	v := u.Query()
  	if len(v) != 2 {
  		t.Errorf("got %d keys in Query values, want 2", len(v))
  	}
  	if g, e := v.Get("foo"), "bar"; g != e {
  		t.Errorf("Get(foo) = %q, want %q", g, e)
  	}
  	// Case sensitive:
  	if g, e := v.Get("Foo"), ""; g != e {
  		t.Errorf("Get(Foo) = %q, want %q", g, e)
  	}
  	if g, e := v.Get("bar"), "1"; g != e {
  		t.Errorf("Get(bar) = %q, want %q", g, e)
  	}
  	if g, e := v.Get("baz"), ""; g != e {
  		t.Errorf("Get(baz) = %q, want %q", g, e)
  	}
  	v.Del("bar")
  	if g, e := v.Get("bar"), ""; g != e {
  		t.Errorf("second Get(bar) = %q, want %q", g, e)
  	}
  }
  
  type parseTest struct {
  	query string
  	out   Values
  }
  
  var parseTests = []parseTest{
  	{
  		query: "a=1&b=2",
  		out:   Values{"a": []string{"1"}, "b": []string{"2"}},
  	},
  	{
  		query: "a=1&a=2&a=banana",
  		out:   Values{"a": []string{"1", "2", "banana"}},
  	},
  	{
  		query: "ascii=%3Ckey%3A+0x90%3E",
  		out:   Values{"ascii": []string{"<key: 0x90>"}},
  	},
  	{
  		query: "a=1;b=2",
  		out:   Values{"a": []string{"1"}, "b": []string{"2"}},
  	},
  	{
  		query: "a=1&a=2;a=banana",
  		out:   Values{"a": []string{"1", "2", "banana"}},
  	},
  }
  
  func TestParseQuery(t *testing.T) {
  	for i, test := range parseTests {
  		form, err := ParseQuery(test.query)
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("test %d: Unexpected error: %v", i, err)
  			continue
  		}
  		if len(form) != len(test.out) {
  			t.Errorf("test %d: len(form) = %d, want %d", i, len(form), len(test.out))
  		}
  		for k, evs := range test.out {
  			vs, ok := form[k]
  			if !ok {
  				t.Errorf("test %d: Missing key %q", i, k)
  				continue
  			}
  			if len(vs) != len(evs) {
  				t.Errorf("test %d: len(form[%q]) = %d, want %d", i, k, len(vs), len(evs))
  				continue
  			}
  			for j, ev := range evs {
  				if v := vs[j]; v != ev {
  					t.Errorf("test %d: form[%q][%d] = %q, want %q", i, k, j, v, ev)
  				}
  			}
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  type RequestURITest struct {
  	url *URL
  	out string
  }
  
  var requritests = []RequestURITest{
  	{
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "example.com",
  			Path:   "",
  		},
  		"/",
  	},
  	{
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "example.com",
  			Path:   "/a b",
  		},
  		"/a%20b",
  	},
  	// golang.org/issue/4860 variant 1
  	{
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "example.com",
  			Opaque: "/%2F/%2F/",
  		},
  		"/%2F/%2F/",
  	},
  	// golang.org/issue/4860 variant 2
  	{
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "example.com",
  			Opaque: "//other.example.com/%2F/%2F/",
  		},
  		"http://other.example.com/%2F/%2F/",
  	},
  	// better fix for issue 4860
  	{
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:  "http",
  			Host:    "example.com",
  			Path:    "/////",
  			RawPath: "/%2F/%2F/",
  		},
  		"/%2F/%2F/",
  	},
  	{
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:  "http",
  			Host:    "example.com",
  			Path:    "/////",
  			RawPath: "/WRONG/", // ignored because doesn't match Path
  		},
  		"/////",
  	},
  	{
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:   "http",
  			Host:     "example.com",
  			Path:     "/a b",
  			RawQuery: "q=go+language",
  		},
  		"/a%20b?q=go+language",
  	},
  	{
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:   "http",
  			Host:     "example.com",
  			Path:     "/a b",
  			RawPath:  "/a b", // ignored because invalid
  			RawQuery: "q=go+language",
  		},
  		"/a%20b?q=go+language",
  	},
  	{
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:   "http",
  			Host:     "example.com",
  			Path:     "/a?b",
  			RawPath:  "/a?b", // ignored because invalid
  			RawQuery: "q=go+language",
  		},
  		"/a%3Fb?q=go+language",
  	},
  	{
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "myschema",
  			Opaque: "opaque",
  		},
  		"opaque",
  	},
  	{
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:   "myschema",
  			Opaque:   "opaque",
  			RawQuery: "q=go+language",
  		},
  		"opaque?q=go+language",
  	},
  	{
  		&URL{
  			Scheme: "http",
  			Host:   "example.com",
  			Path:   "//foo",
  		},
  		"//foo",
  	},
  	{
  		&URL{
  			Scheme:     "http",
  			Host:       "example.com",
  			Path:       "/foo",
  			ForceQuery: true,
  		},
  		"/foo?",
  	},
  }
  
  func TestRequestURI(t *testing.T) {
  	for _, tt := range requritests {
  		s := tt.url.RequestURI()
  		if s != tt.out {
  			t.Errorf("%#v.RequestURI() == %q (expected %q)", tt.url, s, tt.out)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  func TestParseFailure(t *testing.T) {
  	// Test that the first parse error is returned.
  	const url = "%gh&%ij"
  	_, err := ParseQuery(url)
  	errStr := fmt.Sprint(err)
  	if !strings.Contains(errStr, "%gh") {
  		t.Errorf(`ParseQuery(%q) returned error %q, want something containing %q"`, url, errStr, "%gh")
  	}
  }
  
  func TestParseErrors(t *testing.T) {
  	tests := []struct {
  		in      string
  		wantErr bool
  	}{
  		{"http://[::1]", false},
  		{"http://[::1]:80", false},
  		{"http://[::1]:namedport", true}, // rfc3986 3.2.3
  		{"http://[::1]/", false},
  		{"http://[::1]a", true},
  		{"http://[::1]%23", true},
  		{"http://[::1%25en0]", false},     // valid zone id
  		{"http://[::1]:", false},          // colon, but no port OK
  		{"http://[::1]:%38%30", true},     // not allowed: % encoding only for non-ASCII
  		{"http://[::1%25%41]", false},     // RFC 6874 allows over-escaping in zone
  		{"http://[%10::1]", true},         // no %xx escapes in IP address
  		{"http://[::1]/%48", false},       // %xx in path is fine
  		{"http://%41:8080/", true},        // not allowed: % encoding only for non-ASCII
  		{"mysql://x@y(z:123)/foo", false}, // golang.org/issue/12023
  		{"mysql://x@y(1.2.3.4:123)/foo", false},
  
  		{"http://[]%20%48%54%54%50%2f%31%2e%31%0a%4d%79%48%65%61%64%65%72%3a%20%31%32%33%0a%0a/", true}, // golang.org/issue/11208
  		{"http://a b.com/", true},                                                                       // no space in host name please
  		{"cache_object://foo", true},                                                                    // scheme cannot have _, relative path cannot have : in first segment
  		{"cache_object:foo", true},
  		{"cache_object:foo/bar", true},
  		{"cache_object/:foo/bar", false},
  	}
  	for _, tt := range tests {
  		u, err := Parse(tt.in)
  		if tt.wantErr {
  			if err == nil {
  				t.Errorf("Parse(%q) = %#v; want an error", tt.in, u)
  			}
  			continue
  		}
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Logf("Parse(%q) = %v; want no error", tt.in, err)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  // Issue 11202
  func TestStarRequest(t *testing.T) {
  	u, err := Parse("*")
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatal(err)
  	}
  	if got, want := u.RequestURI(), "*"; got != want {
  		t.Errorf("RequestURI = %q; want %q", got, want)
  	}
  }
  
  type shouldEscapeTest struct {
  	in     byte
  	mode   encoding
  	escape bool
  }
  
  var shouldEscapeTests = []shouldEscapeTest{
  	// Unreserved characters (§2.3)
  	{'a', encodePath, false},
  	{'a', encodeUserPassword, false},
  	{'a', encodeQueryComponent, false},
  	{'a', encodeFragment, false},
  	{'a', encodeHost, false},
  	{'z', encodePath, false},
  	{'A', encodePath, false},
  	{'Z', encodePath, false},
  	{'0', encodePath, false},
  	{'9', encodePath, false},
  	{'-', encodePath, false},
  	{'-', encodeUserPassword, false},
  	{'-', encodeQueryComponent, false},
  	{'-', encodeFragment, false},
  	{'.', encodePath, false},
  	{'_', encodePath, false},
  	{'~', encodePath, false},
  
  	// User information (§3.2.1)
  	{':', encodeUserPassword, true},
  	{'/', encodeUserPassword, true},
  	{'?', encodeUserPassword, true},
  	{'@', encodeUserPassword, true},
  	{'$', encodeUserPassword, false},
  	{'&', encodeUserPassword, false},
  	{'+', encodeUserPassword, false},
  	{',', encodeUserPassword, false},
  	{';', encodeUserPassword, false},
  	{'=', encodeUserPassword, false},
  
  	// Host (IP address, IPv6 address, registered name, port suffix; §3.2.2)
  	{'!', encodeHost, false},
  	{'$', encodeHost, false},
  	{'&', encodeHost, false},
  	{'\'', encodeHost, false},
  	{'(', encodeHost, false},
  	{')', encodeHost, false},
  	{'*', encodeHost, false},
  	{'+', encodeHost, false},
  	{',', encodeHost, false},
  	{';', encodeHost, false},
  	{'=', encodeHost, false},
  	{':', encodeHost, false},
  	{'[', encodeHost, false},
  	{']', encodeHost, false},
  	{'0', encodeHost, false},
  	{'9', encodeHost, false},
  	{'A', encodeHost, false},
  	{'z', encodeHost, false},
  	{'_', encodeHost, false},
  	{'-', encodeHost, false},
  	{'.', encodeHost, false},
  }
  
  func TestShouldEscape(t *testing.T) {
  	for _, tt := range shouldEscapeTests {
  		if shouldEscape(tt.in, tt.mode) != tt.escape {
  			t.Errorf("shouldEscape(%q, %v) returned %v; expected %v", tt.in, tt.mode, !tt.escape, tt.escape)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  type timeoutError struct {
  	timeout bool
  }
  
  func (e *timeoutError) Error() string { return "timeout error" }
  func (e *timeoutError) Timeout() bool { return e.timeout }
  
  type temporaryError struct {
  	temporary bool
  }
  
  func (e *temporaryError) Error() string   { return "temporary error" }
  func (e *temporaryError) Temporary() bool { return e.temporary }
  
  type timeoutTemporaryError struct {
  	timeoutError
  	temporaryError
  }
  
  func (e *timeoutTemporaryError) Error() string { return "timeout/temporary error" }
  
  var netErrorTests = []struct {
  	err       error
  	timeout   bool
  	temporary bool
  }{{
  	err:       &Error{"Get", "http://google.com/", &timeoutError{timeout: true}},
  	timeout:   true,
  	temporary: false,
  }, {
  	err:       &Error{"Get", "http://google.com/", &timeoutError{timeout: false}},
  	timeout:   false,
  	temporary: false,
  }, {
  	err:       &Error{"Get", "http://google.com/", &temporaryError{temporary: true}},
  	timeout:   false,
  	temporary: true,
  }, {
  	err:       &Error{"Get", "http://google.com/", &temporaryError{temporary: false}},
  	timeout:   false,
  	temporary: false,
  }, {
  	err:       &Error{"Get", "http://google.com/", &timeoutTemporaryError{timeoutError{timeout: true}, temporaryError{temporary: true}}},
  	timeout:   true,
  	temporary: true,
  }, {
  	err:       &Error{"Get", "http://google.com/", &timeoutTemporaryError{timeoutError{timeout: false}, temporaryError{temporary: true}}},
  	timeout:   false,
  	temporary: true,
  }, {
  	err:       &Error{"Get", "http://google.com/", &timeoutTemporaryError{timeoutError{timeout: true}, temporaryError{temporary: false}}},
  	timeout:   true,
  	temporary: false,
  }, {
  	err:       &Error{"Get", "http://google.com/", &timeoutTemporaryError{timeoutError{timeout: false}, temporaryError{temporary: false}}},
  	timeout:   false,
  	temporary: false,
  }, {
  	err:       &Error{"Get", "http://google.com/", io.EOF},
  	timeout:   false,
  	temporary: false,
  }}
  
  // Test that url.Error implements net.Error and that it forwards
  func TestURLErrorImplementsNetError(t *testing.T) {
  	for i, tt := range netErrorTests {
  		err, ok := tt.err.(net.Error)
  		if !ok {
  			t.Errorf("%d: %T does not implement net.Error", i+1, tt.err)
  			continue
  		}
  		if err.Timeout() != tt.timeout {
  			t.Errorf("%d: err.Timeout(): got %v, want %v", i+1, err.Timeout(), tt.timeout)
  			continue
  		}
  		if err.Temporary() != tt.temporary {
  			t.Errorf("%d: err.Temporary(): got %v, want %v", i+1, err.Temporary(), tt.temporary)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  func TestURLHostname(t *testing.T) {
  	tests := []struct {
  		host string // URL.Host field
  		want string
  	}{
  		{"foo.com:80", "foo.com"},
  		{"foo.com", "foo.com"},
  		{"FOO.COM", "FOO.COM"}, // no canonicalization (yet?)
  		{"1.2.3.4", "1.2.3.4"},
  		{"1.2.3.4:80", "1.2.3.4"},
  		{"[1:2:3:4]", "1:2:3:4"},
  		{"[1:2:3:4]:80", "1:2:3:4"},
  		{"[::1]:80", "::1"},
  	}
  	for _, tt := range tests {
  		u := &URL{Host: tt.host}
  		got := u.Hostname()
  		if got != tt.want {
  			t.Errorf("Hostname for Host %q = %q; want %q", tt.host, got, tt.want)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  func TestURLPort(t *testing.T) {
  	tests := []struct {
  		host string // URL.Host field
  		want string
  	}{
  		{"foo.com", ""},
  		{"foo.com:80", "80"},
  		{"1.2.3.4", ""},
  		{"1.2.3.4:80", "80"},
  		{"[1:2:3:4]", ""},
  		{"[1:2:3:4]:80", "80"},
  	}
  	for _, tt := range tests {
  		u := &URL{Host: tt.host}
  		got := u.Port()
  		if got != tt.want {
  			t.Errorf("Port for Host %q = %q; want %q", tt.host, got, tt.want)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  var _ encodingPkg.BinaryMarshaler = (*URL)(nil)
  var _ encodingPkg.BinaryUnmarshaler = (*URL)(nil)
  
  func TestJSON(t *testing.T) {
  	u, err := Parse("https://www.google.com/x?y=z")
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatal(err)
  	}
  	js, err := json.Marshal(u)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatal(err)
  	}
  
  	// If only we could implement TextMarshaler/TextUnmarshaler,
  	// this would work:
  	//
  	// if string(js) != strconv.Quote(u.String()) {
  	// 	t.Errorf("json encoding: %s\nwant: %s\n", js, strconv.Quote(u.String()))
  	// }
  
  	u1 := new(URL)
  	err = json.Unmarshal(js, u1)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatal(err)
  	}
  	if u1.String() != u.String() {
  		t.Errorf("json decoded to: %s\nwant: %s\n", u1, u)
  	}
  }
  
  func TestGob(t *testing.T) {
  	u, err := Parse("https://www.google.com/x?y=z")
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatal(err)
  	}
  	var w bytes.Buffer
  	err = gob.NewEncoder(&w).Encode(u)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatal(err)
  	}
  
  	u1 := new(URL)
  	err = gob.NewDecoder(&w).Decode(u1)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatal(err)
  	}
  	if u1.String() != u.String() {
  		t.Errorf("json decoded to: %s\nwant: %s\n", u1, u)
  	}
  }
  

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