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Run Format

Source file src/fmt/format.go

     1	// Copyright 2009 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
     2	// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
     3	// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
     4	
     5	package fmt
     6	
     7	import (
     8		"strconv"
     9		"unicode/utf8"
    10	)
    11	
    12	const (
    13		ldigits = "0123456789abcdefx"
    14		udigits = "0123456789ABCDEFX"
    15	)
    16	
    17	const (
    18		signed   = true
    19		unsigned = false
    20	)
    21	
    22	// flags placed in a separate struct for easy clearing.
    23	type fmtFlags struct {
    24		widPresent  bool
    25		precPresent bool
    26		minus       bool
    27		plus        bool
    28		sharp       bool
    29		space       bool
    30		zero        bool
    31	
    32		// For the formats %+v %#v, we set the plusV/sharpV flags
    33		// and clear the plus/sharp flags since %+v and %#v are in effect
    34		// different, flagless formats set at the top level.
    35		plusV  bool
    36		sharpV bool
    37	}
    38	
    39	// A fmt is the raw formatter used by Printf etc.
    40	// It prints into a buffer that must be set up separately.
    41	type fmt struct {
    42		buf *buffer
    43	
    44		fmtFlags
    45	
    46		wid  int // width
    47		prec int // precision
    48	
    49		// intbuf is large enough to store %b of an int64 with a sign and
    50		// avoids padding at the end of the struct on 32 bit architectures.
    51		intbuf [68]byte
    52	}
    53	
    54	func (f *fmt) clearflags() {
    55		f.fmtFlags = fmtFlags{}
    56	}
    57	
    58	func (f *fmt) init(buf *buffer) {
    59		f.buf = buf
    60		f.clearflags()
    61	}
    62	
    63	// writePadding generates n bytes of padding.
    64	func (f *fmt) writePadding(n int) {
    65		if n <= 0 { // No padding bytes needed.
    66			return
    67		}
    68		buf := *f.buf
    69		oldLen := len(buf)
    70		newLen := oldLen + n
    71		// Make enough room for padding.
    72		if newLen > cap(buf) {
    73			buf = make(buffer, cap(buf)*2+n)
    74			copy(buf, *f.buf)
    75		}
    76		// Decide which byte the padding should be filled with.
    77		padByte := byte(' ')
    78		if f.zero {
    79			padByte = byte('0')
    80		}
    81		// Fill padding with padByte.
    82		padding := buf[oldLen:newLen]
    83		for i := range padding {
    84			padding[i] = padByte
    85		}
    86		*f.buf = buf[:newLen]
    87	}
    88	
    89	// pad appends b to f.buf, padded on left (!f.minus) or right (f.minus).
    90	func (f *fmt) pad(b []byte) {
    91		if !f.widPresent || f.wid == 0 {
    92			f.buf.Write(b)
    93			return
    94		}
    95		width := f.wid - utf8.RuneCount(b)
    96		if !f.minus {
    97			// left padding
    98			f.writePadding(width)
    99			f.buf.Write(b)
   100		} else {
   101			// right padding
   102			f.buf.Write(b)
   103			f.writePadding(width)
   104		}
   105	}
   106	
   107	// padString appends s to f.buf, padded on left (!f.minus) or right (f.minus).
   108	func (f *fmt) padString(s string) {
   109		if !f.widPresent || f.wid == 0 {
   110			f.buf.WriteString(s)
   111			return
   112		}
   113		width := f.wid - utf8.RuneCountInString(s)
   114		if !f.minus {
   115			// left padding
   116			f.writePadding(width)
   117			f.buf.WriteString(s)
   118		} else {
   119			// right padding
   120			f.buf.WriteString(s)
   121			f.writePadding(width)
   122		}
   123	}
   124	
   125	// fmt_boolean formats a boolean.
   126	func (f *fmt) fmt_boolean(v bool) {
   127		if v {
   128			f.padString("true")
   129		} else {
   130			f.padString("false")
   131		}
   132	}
   133	
   134	// fmt_unicode formats a uint64 as "U+0078" or with f.sharp set as "U+0078 'x'".
   135	func (f *fmt) fmt_unicode(u uint64) {
   136		buf := f.intbuf[0:]
   137	
   138		// With default precision set the maximum needed buf length is 18
   139		// for formatting -1 with %#U ("U+FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF") which fits
   140		// into the already allocated intbuf with a capacity of 68 bytes.
   141		prec := 4
   142		if f.precPresent && f.prec > 4 {
   143			prec = f.prec
   144			// Compute space needed for "U+" , number, " '", character, "'".
   145			width := 2 + prec + 2 + utf8.UTFMax + 1
   146			if width > len(buf) {
   147				buf = make([]byte, width)
   148			}
   149		}
   150	
   151		// Format into buf, ending at buf[i]. Formatting numbers is easier right-to-left.
   152		i := len(buf)
   153	
   154		// For %#U we want to add a space and a quoted character at the end of the buffer.
   155		if f.sharp && u <= utf8.MaxRune && strconv.IsPrint(rune(u)) {
   156			i--
   157			buf[i] = '\''
   158			i -= utf8.RuneLen(rune(u))
   159			utf8.EncodeRune(buf[i:], rune(u))
   160			i--
   161			buf[i] = '\''
   162			i--
   163			buf[i] = ' '
   164		}
   165		// Format the Unicode code point u as a hexadecimal number.
   166		for u >= 16 {
   167			i--
   168			buf[i] = udigits[u&0xF]
   169			prec--
   170			u >>= 4
   171		}
   172		i--
   173		buf[i] = udigits[u]
   174		prec--
   175		// Add zeros in front of the number until requested precision is reached.
   176		for prec > 0 {
   177			i--
   178			buf[i] = '0'
   179			prec--
   180		}
   181		// Add a leading "U+".
   182		i--
   183		buf[i] = '+'
   184		i--
   185		buf[i] = 'U'
   186	
   187		oldZero := f.zero
   188		f.zero = false
   189		f.pad(buf[i:])
   190		f.zero = oldZero
   191	}
   192	
   193	// fmt_integer formats signed and unsigned integers.
   194	func (f *fmt) fmt_integer(u uint64, base int, isSigned bool, digits string) {
   195		negative := isSigned && int64(u) < 0
   196		if negative {
   197			u = -u
   198		}
   199	
   200		buf := f.intbuf[0:]
   201		// The already allocated f.intbuf with a capacity of 68 bytes
   202		// is large enough for integer formatting when no precision or width is set.
   203		if f.widPresent || f.precPresent {
   204			// Account 3 extra bytes for possible addition of a sign and "0x".
   205			width := 3 + f.wid + f.prec // wid and prec are always positive.
   206			if width > len(buf) {
   207				// We're going to need a bigger boat.
   208				buf = make([]byte, width)
   209			}
   210		}
   211	
   212		// Two ways to ask for extra leading zero digits: %.3d or %03d.
   213		// If both are specified the f.zero flag is ignored and
   214		// padding with spaces is used instead.
   215		prec := 0
   216		if f.precPresent {
   217			prec = f.prec
   218			// Precision of 0 and value of 0 means "print nothing" but padding.
   219			if prec == 0 && u == 0 {
   220				oldZero := f.zero
   221				f.zero = false
   222				f.writePadding(f.wid)
   223				f.zero = oldZero
   224				return
   225			}
   226		} else if f.zero && f.widPresent {
   227			prec = f.wid
   228			if negative || f.plus || f.space {
   229				prec-- // leave room for sign
   230			}
   231		}
   232	
   233		// Because printing is easier right-to-left: format u into buf, ending at buf[i].
   234		// We could make things marginally faster by splitting the 32-bit case out
   235		// into a separate block but it's not worth the duplication, so u has 64 bits.
   236		i := len(buf)
   237		// Use constants for the division and modulo for more efficient code.
   238		// Switch cases ordered by popularity.
   239		switch base {
   240		case 10:
   241			for u >= 10 {
   242				i--
   243				next := u / 10
   244				buf[i] = byte('0' + u - next*10)
   245				u = next
   246			}
   247		case 16:
   248			for u >= 16 {
   249				i--
   250				buf[i] = digits[u&0xF]
   251				u >>= 4
   252			}
   253		case 8:
   254			for u >= 8 {
   255				i--
   256				buf[i] = byte('0' + u&7)
   257				u >>= 3
   258			}
   259		case 2:
   260			for u >= 2 {
   261				i--
   262				buf[i] = byte('0' + u&1)
   263				u >>= 1
   264			}
   265		default:
   266			panic("fmt: unknown base; can't happen")
   267		}
   268		i--
   269		buf[i] = digits[u]
   270		for i > 0 && prec > len(buf)-i {
   271			i--
   272			buf[i] = '0'
   273		}
   274	
   275		// Various prefixes: 0x, -, etc.
   276		if f.sharp {
   277			switch base {
   278			case 8:
   279				if buf[i] != '0' {
   280					i--
   281					buf[i] = '0'
   282				}
   283			case 16:
   284				// Add a leading 0x or 0X.
   285				i--
   286				buf[i] = digits[16]
   287				i--
   288				buf[i] = '0'
   289			}
   290		}
   291	
   292		if negative {
   293			i--
   294			buf[i] = '-'
   295		} else if f.plus {
   296			i--
   297			buf[i] = '+'
   298		} else if f.space {
   299			i--
   300			buf[i] = ' '
   301		}
   302	
   303		// Left padding with zeros has already been handled like precision earlier
   304		// or the f.zero flag is ignored due to an explicitly set precision.
   305		oldZero := f.zero
   306		f.zero = false
   307		f.pad(buf[i:])
   308		f.zero = oldZero
   309	}
   310	
   311	// truncate truncates the string to the specified precision, if present.
   312	func (f *fmt) truncate(s string) string {
   313		if f.precPresent {
   314			n := f.prec
   315			for i := range s {
   316				n--
   317				if n < 0 {
   318					return s[:i]
   319				}
   320			}
   321		}
   322		return s
   323	}
   324	
   325	// fmt_s formats a string.
   326	func (f *fmt) fmt_s(s string) {
   327		s = f.truncate(s)
   328		f.padString(s)
   329	}
   330	
   331	// fmt_sbx formats a string or byte slice as a hexadecimal encoding of its bytes.
   332	func (f *fmt) fmt_sbx(s string, b []byte, digits string) {
   333		length := len(b)
   334		if b == nil {
   335			// No byte slice present. Assume string s should be encoded.
   336			length = len(s)
   337		}
   338		// Set length to not process more bytes than the precision demands.
   339		if f.precPresent && f.prec < length {
   340			length = f.prec
   341		}
   342		// Compute width of the encoding taking into account the f.sharp and f.space flag.
   343		width := 2 * length
   344		if width > 0 {
   345			if f.space {
   346				// Each element encoded by two hexadecimals will get a leading 0x or 0X.
   347				if f.sharp {
   348					width *= 2
   349				}
   350				// Elements will be separated by a space.
   351				width += length - 1
   352			} else if f.sharp {
   353				// Only a leading 0x or 0X will be added for the whole string.
   354				width += 2
   355			}
   356		} else { // The byte slice or string that should be encoded is empty.
   357			if f.widPresent {
   358				f.writePadding(f.wid)
   359			}
   360			return
   361		}
   362		// Handle padding to the left.
   363		if f.widPresent && f.wid > width && !f.minus {
   364			f.writePadding(f.wid - width)
   365		}
   366		// Write the encoding directly into the output buffer.
   367		buf := *f.buf
   368		if f.sharp {
   369			// Add leading 0x or 0X.
   370			buf = append(buf, '0', digits[16])
   371		}
   372		var c byte
   373		for i := 0; i < length; i++ {
   374			if f.space && i > 0 {
   375				// Separate elements with a space.
   376				buf = append(buf, ' ')
   377				if f.sharp {
   378					// Add leading 0x or 0X for each element.
   379					buf = append(buf, '0', digits[16])
   380				}
   381			}
   382			if b != nil {
   383				c = b[i] // Take a byte from the input byte slice.
   384			} else {
   385				c = s[i] // Take a byte from the input string.
   386			}
   387			// Encode each byte as two hexadecimal digits.
   388			buf = append(buf, digits[c>>4], digits[c&0xF])
   389		}
   390		*f.buf = buf
   391		// Handle padding to the right.
   392		if f.widPresent && f.wid > width && f.minus {
   393			f.writePadding(f.wid - width)
   394		}
   395	}
   396	
   397	// fmt_sx formats a string as a hexadecimal encoding of its bytes.
   398	func (f *fmt) fmt_sx(s, digits string) {
   399		f.fmt_sbx(s, nil, digits)
   400	}
   401	
   402	// fmt_bx formats a byte slice as a hexadecimal encoding of its bytes.
   403	func (f *fmt) fmt_bx(b []byte, digits string) {
   404		f.fmt_sbx("", b, digits)
   405	}
   406	
   407	// fmt_q formats a string as a double-quoted, escaped Go string constant.
   408	// If f.sharp is set a raw (backquoted) string may be returned instead
   409	// if the string does not contain any control characters other than tab.
   410	func (f *fmt) fmt_q(s string) {
   411		s = f.truncate(s)
   412		if f.sharp && strconv.CanBackquote(s) {
   413			f.padString("`" + s + "`")
   414			return
   415		}
   416		buf := f.intbuf[:0]
   417		if f.plus {
   418			f.pad(strconv.AppendQuoteToASCII(buf, s))
   419		} else {
   420			f.pad(strconv.AppendQuote(buf, s))
   421		}
   422	}
   423	
   424	// fmt_c formats an integer as a Unicode character.
   425	// If the character is not valid Unicode, it will print '\ufffd'.
   426	func (f *fmt) fmt_c(c uint64) {
   427		r := rune(c)
   428		if c > utf8.MaxRune {
   429			r = utf8.RuneError
   430		}
   431		buf := f.intbuf[:0]
   432		w := utf8.EncodeRune(buf[:utf8.UTFMax], r)
   433		f.pad(buf[:w])
   434	}
   435	
   436	// fmt_qc formats an integer as a single-quoted, escaped Go character constant.
   437	// If the character is not valid Unicode, it will print '\ufffd'.
   438	func (f *fmt) fmt_qc(c uint64) {
   439		r := rune(c)
   440		if c > utf8.MaxRune {
   441			r = utf8.RuneError
   442		}
   443		buf := f.intbuf[:0]
   444		if f.plus {
   445			f.pad(strconv.AppendQuoteRuneToASCII(buf, r))
   446		} else {
   447			f.pad(strconv.AppendQuoteRune(buf, r))
   448		}
   449	}
   450	
   451	// fmt_float formats a float64. It assumes that verb is a valid format specifier
   452	// for strconv.AppendFloat and therefore fits into a byte.
   453	func (f *fmt) fmt_float(v float64, size int, verb rune, prec int) {
   454		// Explicit precision in format specifier overrules default precision.
   455		if f.precPresent {
   456			prec = f.prec
   457		}
   458		// Format number, reserving space for leading + sign if needed.
   459		num := strconv.AppendFloat(f.intbuf[:1], v, byte(verb), prec, size)
   460		if num[1] == '-' || num[1] == '+' {
   461			num = num[1:]
   462		} else {
   463			num[0] = '+'
   464		}
   465		// f.space means to add a leading space instead of a "+" sign unless
   466		// the sign is explicitly asked for by f.plus.
   467		if f.space && num[0] == '+' && !f.plus {
   468			num[0] = ' '
   469		}
   470		// Special handling for infinities and NaN,
   471		// which don't look like a number so shouldn't be padded with zeros.
   472		if num[1] == 'I' || num[1] == 'N' {
   473			oldZero := f.zero
   474			f.zero = false
   475			// Remove sign before NaN if not asked for.
   476			if num[1] == 'N' && !f.space && !f.plus {
   477				num = num[1:]
   478			}
   479			f.pad(num)
   480			f.zero = oldZero
   481			return
   482		}
   483		// We want a sign if asked for and if the sign is not positive.
   484		if f.plus || num[0] != '+' {
   485			// If we're zero padding to the left we want the sign before the leading zeros.
   486			// Achieve this by writing the sign out and then padding the unsigned number.
   487			if f.zero && f.widPresent && f.wid > len(num) {
   488				f.buf.WriteByte(num[0])
   489				f.writePadding(f.wid - len(num))
   490				f.buf.Write(num[1:])
   491				return
   492			}
   493			f.pad(num)
   494			return
   495		}
   496		// No sign to show and the number is positive; just print the unsigned number.
   497		f.pad(num[1:])
   498	}
   499	

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