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Run Format

Source file src/fmt/doc.go

  // Copyright 2009 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
  // Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
  // license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
  
  /*
  	Package fmt implements formatted I/O with functions analogous
  	to C's printf and scanf.  The format 'verbs' are derived from C's but
  	are simpler.
  
  
  	Printing
  
  	The verbs:
  
  	General:
  		%v	the value in a default format
  			when printing structs, the plus flag (%+v) adds field names
  		%#v	a Go-syntax representation of the value
  		%T	a Go-syntax representation of the type of the value
  		%%	a literal percent sign; consumes no value
  
  	Boolean:
  		%t	the word true or false
  	Integer:
  		%b	base 2
  		%c	the character represented by the corresponding Unicode code point
  		%d	base 10
  		%o	base 8
  		%q	a single-quoted character literal safely escaped with Go syntax.
  		%x	base 16, with lower-case letters for a-f
  		%X	base 16, with upper-case letters for A-F
  		%U	Unicode format: U+1234; same as "U+%04X"
  	Floating-point and complex constituents:
  		%b	decimalless scientific notation with exponent a power of two,
  			in the manner of strconv.FormatFloat with the 'b' format,
  			e.g. -123456p-78
  		%e	scientific notation, e.g. -1.234456e+78
  		%E	scientific notation, e.g. -1.234456E+78
  		%f	decimal point but no exponent, e.g. 123.456
  		%F	synonym for %f
  		%g	%e for large exponents, %f otherwise
  		%G	%E for large exponents, %F otherwise
  	String and slice of bytes (treated equivalently with these verbs):
  		%s	the uninterpreted bytes of the string or slice
  		%q	a double-quoted string safely escaped with Go syntax
  		%x	base 16, lower-case, two characters per byte
  		%X	base 16, upper-case, two characters per byte
  	Pointer:
  		%p	base 16 notation, with leading 0x
  
  	The default format for %v is:
  		bool:                    %t
  		int, int8 etc.:          %d
  		uint, uint8 etc.:        %d, %#x if printed with %#v
  		float32, complex64, etc: %g
  		string:                  %s
  		chan:                    %p
  		pointer:                 %p
  	For compound objects, the elements are printed using these rules, recursively,
  	laid out like this:
  		struct:             {field0 field1 ...}
  		array, slice:       [elem0 elem1 ...]
  		maps:               map[key1:value1 key2:value2]
  		pointer to above:   &{}, &[], &map[]
  
  	Width is specified by an optional decimal number immediately preceding the verb.
  	If absent, the width is whatever is necessary to represent the value.
  	Precision is specified after the (optional) width by a period followed by a
  	decimal number. If no period is present, a default precision is used.
  	A period with no following number specifies a precision of zero.
  	Examples:
  		%f     default width, default precision
  		%9f    width 9, default precision
  		%.2f   default width, precision 2
  		%9.2f  width 9, precision 2
  		%9.f   width 9, precision 0
  
  	Width and precision are measured in units of Unicode code points,
  	that is, runes. (This differs from C's printf where the
  	units are always measured in bytes.) Either or both of the flags
  	may be replaced with the character '*', causing their values to be
  	obtained from the next operand, which must be of type int.
  
  	For most values, width is the minimum number of runes to output,
  	padding the formatted form with spaces if necessary.
  
  	For strings, byte slices and byte arrays, however, precision
  	limits the length of the input to be formatted (not the size of
  	the output), truncating if necessary. Normally it is measured in
  	runes, but for these types when formatted with the %x or %X format
  	it is measured in bytes.
  
  	For floating-point values, width sets the minimum width of the field and
  	precision sets the number of places after the decimal, if appropriate,
  	except that for %g/%G precision sets the total number of significant
  	digits. For example, given 12.345 the format %6.3f prints 12.345 while
  	%.3g prints 12.3. The default precision for %e and %f is 6; for %g it
  	is the smallest number of digits necessary to identify the value uniquely.
  
  	For complex numbers, the width and precision apply to the two
  	components independently and the result is parenthesized, so %f applied
  	to 1.2+3.4i produces (1.200000+3.400000i).
  
  	Other flags:
  		+	always print a sign for numeric values;
  			guarantee ASCII-only output for %q (%+q)
  		-	pad with spaces on the right rather than the left (left-justify the field)
  		#	alternate format: add leading 0 for octal (%#o), 0x for hex (%#x);
  			0X for hex (%#X); suppress 0x for %p (%#p);
  			for %q, print a raw (backquoted) string if strconv.CanBackquote
  			returns true;
  			write e.g. U+0078 'x' if the character is printable for %U (%#U).
  		' '	(space) leave a space for elided sign in numbers (% d);
  			put spaces between bytes printing strings or slices in hex (% x, % X)
  		0	pad with leading zeros rather than spaces;
  			for numbers, this moves the padding after the sign
  
  	Flags are ignored by verbs that do not expect them.
  	For example there is no alternate decimal format, so %#d and %d
  	behave identically.
  
  	For each Printf-like function, there is also a Print function
  	that takes no format and is equivalent to saying %v for every
  	operand.  Another variant Println inserts blanks between
  	operands and appends a newline.
  
  	Regardless of the verb, if an operand is an interface value,
  	the internal concrete value is used, not the interface itself.
  	Thus:
  		var i interface{} = 23
  		fmt.Printf("%v\n", i)
  	will print 23.
  
  	Except when printed using the verbs %T and %p, special
  	formatting considerations apply for operands that implement
  	certain interfaces. In order of application:
  
  	1. If the operand is a reflect.Value, the operand is replaced by the
  	concrete value that it holds, and printing continues with the next rule.
  
  	2. If an operand implements the Formatter interface, it will
  	be invoked. Formatter provides fine control of formatting.
  
  	3. If the %v verb is used with the # flag (%#v) and the operand
  	implements the GoStringer interface, that will be invoked.
  
  	If the format (which is implicitly %v for Println etc.) is valid
  	for a string (%s %q %v %x %X), the following two rules apply:
  
  	4. If an operand implements the error interface, the Error method
  	will be invoked to convert the object to a string, which will then
  	be formatted as required by the verb (if any).
  
  	5. If an operand implements method String() string, that method
  	will be invoked to convert the object to a string, which will then
  	be formatted as required by the verb (if any).
  
  	For compound operands such as slices and structs, the format
  	applies to the elements of each operand, recursively, not to the
  	operand as a whole. Thus %q will quote each element of a slice
  	of strings, and %6.2f will control formatting for each element
  	of a floating-point array.
  
  	However, when printing a byte slice with a string-like verb
  	(%s %q %x %X), it is treated identically to a string, as a single item.
  
  	To avoid recursion in cases such as
  		type X string
  		func (x X) String() string { return Sprintf("<%s>", x) }
  	convert the value before recurring:
  		func (x X) String() string { return Sprintf("<%s>", string(x)) }
  	Infinite recursion can also be triggered by self-referential data
  	structures, such as a slice that contains itself as an element, if
  	that type has a String method. Such pathologies are rare, however,
  	and the package does not protect against them.
  
  	When printing a struct, fmt cannot and therefore does not invoke
  	formatting methods such as Error or String on unexported fields.
  
  	Explicit argument indexes:
  
  	In Printf, Sprintf, and Fprintf, the default behavior is for each
  	formatting verb to format successive arguments passed in the call.
  	However, the notation [n] immediately before the verb indicates that the
  	nth one-indexed argument is to be formatted instead. The same notation
  	before a '*' for a width or precision selects the argument index holding
  	the value. After processing a bracketed expression [n], subsequent verbs
  	will use arguments n+1, n+2, etc. unless otherwise directed.
  
  	For example,
  		fmt.Sprintf("%[2]d %[1]d\n", 11, 22)
  	will yield "22 11", while
  		fmt.Sprintf("%[3]*.[2]*[1]f", 12.0, 2, 6),
  	equivalent to
  		fmt.Sprintf("%6.2f", 12.0),
  	will yield " 12.00". Because an explicit index affects subsequent verbs,
  	this notation can be used to print the same values multiple times
  	by resetting the index for the first argument to be repeated:
  		fmt.Sprintf("%d %d %#[1]x %#x", 16, 17)
  	will yield "16 17 0x10 0x11".
  
  	Format errors:
  
  	If an invalid argument is given for a verb, such as providing
  	a string to %d, the generated string will contain a
  	description of the problem, as in these examples:
  
  		Wrong type or unknown verb: %!verb(type=value)
  			Printf("%d", hi):          %!d(string=hi)
  		Too many arguments: %!(EXTRA type=value)
  			Printf("hi", "guys"):      hi%!(EXTRA string=guys)
  		Too few arguments: %!verb(MISSING)
  			Printf("hi%d"):            hi%!d(MISSING)
  		Non-int for width or precision: %!(BADWIDTH) or %!(BADPREC)
  			Printf("%*s", 4.5, "hi"):  %!(BADWIDTH)hi
  			Printf("%.*s", 4.5, "hi"): %!(BADPREC)hi
  		Invalid or invalid use of argument index: %!(BADINDEX)
  			Printf("%*[2]d", 7):       %!d(BADINDEX)
  			Printf("%.[2]d", 7):       %!d(BADINDEX)
  
  	All errors begin with the string "%!" followed sometimes
  	by a single character (the verb) and end with a parenthesized
  	description.
  
  	If an Error or String method triggers a panic when called by a
  	print routine, the fmt package reformats the error message
  	from the panic, decorating it with an indication that it came
  	through the fmt package.  For example, if a String method
  	calls panic("bad"), the resulting formatted message will look
  	like
  		%!s(PANIC=bad)
  
  	The %!s just shows the print verb in use when the failure
  	occurred. If the panic is caused by a nil receiver to an Error
  	or String method, however, the output is the undecorated
  	string, "<nil>".
  
  	Scanning
  
  	An analogous set of functions scans formatted text to yield
  	values.  Scan, Scanf and Scanln read from os.Stdin; Fscan,
  	Fscanf and Fscanln read from a specified io.Reader; Sscan,
  	Sscanf and Sscanln read from an argument string.
  
  	Scan, Fscan, Sscan treat newlines in the input as spaces.
  
  	Scanln, Fscanln and Sscanln stop scanning at a newline and
  	require that the items be followed by a newline or EOF.
  
  	Scanf, Fscanf, and Sscanf parse the arguments according to a
  	format string, analogous to that of Printf. In the text that
  	follows, 'space' means any Unicode whitespace character
  	except newline.
  
  	In the format string, a verb introduced by the % character
  	consumes and parses input; these verbs are described in more
  	detail below. A character other than %, space, or newline in
  	the format consumes exactly that input character, which must
  	be present. A newline with zero or more spaces before it in
  	the format string consumes zero or more spaces in the input
  	followed by a single newline or the end of the input. A space
  	following a newline in the format string consumes zero or more
  	spaces in the input. Otherwise, any run of one or more spaces
  	in the format string consumes as many spaces as possible in
  	the input. Unless the run of spaces in the format string
  	appears adjacent to a newline, the run must consume at least
  	one space from the input or find the end of the input.
  
  	The handling of spaces and newlines differs from that of C's
  	scanf family: in C, newlines are treated as any other space,
  	and it is never an error when a run of spaces in the format
  	string finds no spaces to consume in the input.
  
  	The verbs behave analogously to those of Printf.
  	For example, %x will scan an integer as a hexadecimal number,
  	and %v will scan the default representation format for the value.
  	The Printf verbs %p and %T and the flags # and + are not implemented,
  	and the verbs %e %E %f %F %g and %G are all equivalent and scan any
  	floating-point or complex value.
  
  	Input processed by verbs is implicitly space-delimited: the
  	implementation of every verb except %c starts by discarding
  	leading spaces from the remaining input, and the %s verb
  	(and %v reading into a string) stops consuming input at the first
  	space or newline character.
  
  	The familiar base-setting prefixes 0 (octal) and 0x
  	(hexadecimal) are accepted when scanning integers without
  	a format or with the %v verb.
  
  	Width is interpreted in the input text but there is no
  	syntax for scanning with a precision (no %5.2f, just %5f).
  	If width is provided, it applies after leading spaces are
  	trimmed and specifies the maximum number of runes to read
  	to satisfy the verb. For example,
  	   Sscanf(" 1234567 ", "%5s%d", &s, &i)
  	will set s to "12345" and i to 67 while
  	   Sscanf(" 12 34 567 ", "%5s%d", &s, &i)
  	will set s to "12" and i to 34.
  
  	In all the scanning functions, a carriage return followed
  	immediately by a newline is treated as a plain newline
  	(\r\n means the same as \n).
  
  	In all the scanning functions, if an operand implements method
  	Scan (that is, it implements the Scanner interface) that
  	method will be used to scan the text for that operand.  Also,
  	if the number of arguments scanned is less than the number of
  	arguments provided, an error is returned.
  
  	All arguments to be scanned must be either pointers to basic
  	types or implementations of the Scanner interface.
  
  	Like Scanf and Fscanf, Sscanf need not consume its entire input.
  	There is no way to recover how much of the input string Sscanf used.
  
  	Note: Fscan etc. can read one character (rune) past the input
  	they return, which means that a loop calling a scan routine
  	may skip some of the input.  This is usually a problem only
  	when there is no space between input values.  If the reader
  	provided to Fscan implements ReadRune, that method will be used
  	to read characters.  If the reader also implements UnreadRune,
  	that method will be used to save the character and successive
  	calls will not lose data.  To attach ReadRune and UnreadRune
  	methods to a reader without that capability, use
  	bufio.NewReader.
  */
  package fmt
  

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