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Source file src/encoding/asn1/asn1_test.go

Documentation: encoding/asn1

  // Copyright 2009 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
  // Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
  // license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
  
  package asn1
  
  import (
  	"bytes"
  	"fmt"
  	"math"
  	"math/big"
  	"reflect"
  	"strings"
  	"testing"
  	"time"
  )
  
  type boolTest struct {
  	in  []byte
  	ok  bool
  	out bool
  }
  
  var boolTestData = []boolTest{
  	{[]byte{0x00}, true, false},
  	{[]byte{0xff}, true, true},
  	{[]byte{0x00, 0x00}, false, false},
  	{[]byte{0xff, 0xff}, false, false},
  	{[]byte{0x01}, false, false},
  }
  
  func TestParseBool(t *testing.T) {
  	for i, test := range boolTestData {
  		ret, err := parseBool(test.in)
  		if (err == nil) != test.ok {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: Incorrect error result (did fail? %v, expected: %v)", i, err == nil, test.ok)
  		}
  		if test.ok && ret != test.out {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: Bad result: %v (expected %v)", i, ret, test.out)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  type int64Test struct {
  	in  []byte
  	ok  bool
  	out int64
  }
  
  var int64TestData = []int64Test{
  	{[]byte{0x00}, true, 0},
  	{[]byte{0x7f}, true, 127},
  	{[]byte{0x00, 0x80}, true, 128},
  	{[]byte{0x01, 0x00}, true, 256},
  	{[]byte{0x80}, true, -128},
  	{[]byte{0xff, 0x7f}, true, -129},
  	{[]byte{0xff}, true, -1},
  	{[]byte{0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00}, true, -9223372036854775808},
  	{[]byte{0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00}, false, 0},
  	{[]byte{}, false, 0},
  	{[]byte{0x00, 0x7f}, false, 0},
  	{[]byte{0xff, 0xf0}, false, 0},
  }
  
  func TestParseInt64(t *testing.T) {
  	for i, test := range int64TestData {
  		ret, err := parseInt64(test.in)
  		if (err == nil) != test.ok {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: Incorrect error result (did fail? %v, expected: %v)", i, err == nil, test.ok)
  		}
  		if test.ok && ret != test.out {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: Bad result: %v (expected %v)", i, ret, test.out)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  type int32Test struct {
  	in  []byte
  	ok  bool
  	out int32
  }
  
  var int32TestData = []int32Test{
  	{[]byte{0x00}, true, 0},
  	{[]byte{0x7f}, true, 127},
  	{[]byte{0x00, 0x80}, true, 128},
  	{[]byte{0x01, 0x00}, true, 256},
  	{[]byte{0x80}, true, -128},
  	{[]byte{0xff, 0x7f}, true, -129},
  	{[]byte{0xff}, true, -1},
  	{[]byte{0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00}, true, -2147483648},
  	{[]byte{0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00}, false, 0},
  	{[]byte{}, false, 0},
  	{[]byte{0x00, 0x7f}, false, 0},
  	{[]byte{0xff, 0xf0}, false, 0},
  }
  
  func TestParseInt32(t *testing.T) {
  	for i, test := range int32TestData {
  		ret, err := parseInt32(test.in)
  		if (err == nil) != test.ok {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: Incorrect error result (did fail? %v, expected: %v)", i, err == nil, test.ok)
  		}
  		if test.ok && int32(ret) != test.out {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: Bad result: %v (expected %v)", i, ret, test.out)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  var bigIntTests = []struct {
  	in     []byte
  	ok     bool
  	base10 string
  }{
  	{[]byte{0xff}, true, "-1"},
  	{[]byte{0x00}, true, "0"},
  	{[]byte{0x01}, true, "1"},
  	{[]byte{0x00, 0xff}, true, "255"},
  	{[]byte{0xff, 0x00}, true, "-256"},
  	{[]byte{0x01, 0x00}, true, "256"},
  	{[]byte{}, false, ""},
  	{[]byte{0x00, 0x7f}, false, ""},
  	{[]byte{0xff, 0xf0}, false, ""},
  }
  
  func TestParseBigInt(t *testing.T) {
  	for i, test := range bigIntTests {
  		ret, err := parseBigInt(test.in)
  		if (err == nil) != test.ok {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: Incorrect error result (did fail? %v, expected: %v)", i, err == nil, test.ok)
  		}
  		if test.ok {
  			if ret.String() != test.base10 {
  				t.Errorf("#%d: bad result from %x, got %s want %s", i, test.in, ret.String(), test.base10)
  			}
  			e, err := makeBigInt(ret)
  			if err != nil {
  				t.Errorf("%d: err=%q", i, err)
  				continue
  			}
  			result := make([]byte, e.Len())
  			e.Encode(result)
  			if !bytes.Equal(result, test.in) {
  				t.Errorf("#%d: got %x from marshaling %s, want %x", i, result, ret, test.in)
  			}
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  type bitStringTest struct {
  	in        []byte
  	ok        bool
  	out       []byte
  	bitLength int
  }
  
  var bitStringTestData = []bitStringTest{
  	{[]byte{}, false, []byte{}, 0},
  	{[]byte{0x00}, true, []byte{}, 0},
  	{[]byte{0x07, 0x00}, true, []byte{0x00}, 1},
  	{[]byte{0x07, 0x01}, false, []byte{}, 0},
  	{[]byte{0x07, 0x40}, false, []byte{}, 0},
  	{[]byte{0x08, 0x00}, false, []byte{}, 0},
  }
  
  func TestBitString(t *testing.T) {
  	for i, test := range bitStringTestData {
  		ret, err := parseBitString(test.in)
  		if (err == nil) != test.ok {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: Incorrect error result (did fail? %v, expected: %v)", i, err == nil, test.ok)
  		}
  		if err == nil {
  			if test.bitLength != ret.BitLength || !bytes.Equal(ret.Bytes, test.out) {
  				t.Errorf("#%d: Bad result: %v (expected %v %v)", i, ret, test.out, test.bitLength)
  			}
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  func TestBitStringAt(t *testing.T) {
  	bs := BitString{[]byte{0x82, 0x40}, 16}
  	if bs.At(0) != 1 {
  		t.Error("#1: Failed")
  	}
  	if bs.At(1) != 0 {
  		t.Error("#2: Failed")
  	}
  	if bs.At(6) != 1 {
  		t.Error("#3: Failed")
  	}
  	if bs.At(9) != 1 {
  		t.Error("#4: Failed")
  	}
  	if bs.At(-1) != 0 {
  		t.Error("#5: Failed")
  	}
  	if bs.At(17) != 0 {
  		t.Error("#6: Failed")
  	}
  }
  
  type bitStringRightAlignTest struct {
  	in    []byte
  	inlen int
  	out   []byte
  }
  
  var bitStringRightAlignTests = []bitStringRightAlignTest{
  	{[]byte{0x80}, 1, []byte{0x01}},
  	{[]byte{0x80, 0x80}, 9, []byte{0x01, 0x01}},
  	{[]byte{}, 0, []byte{}},
  	{[]byte{0xce}, 8, []byte{0xce}},
  	{[]byte{0xce, 0x47}, 16, []byte{0xce, 0x47}},
  	{[]byte{0x34, 0x50}, 12, []byte{0x03, 0x45}},
  }
  
  func TestBitStringRightAlign(t *testing.T) {
  	for i, test := range bitStringRightAlignTests {
  		bs := BitString{test.in, test.inlen}
  		out := bs.RightAlign()
  		if !bytes.Equal(out, test.out) {
  			t.Errorf("#%d got: %x want: %x", i, out, test.out)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  type objectIdentifierTest struct {
  	in  []byte
  	ok  bool
  	out []int
  }
  
  var objectIdentifierTestData = []objectIdentifierTest{
  	{[]byte{}, false, []int{}},
  	{[]byte{85}, true, []int{2, 5}},
  	{[]byte{85, 0x02}, true, []int{2, 5, 2}},
  	{[]byte{85, 0x02, 0xc0, 0x00}, true, []int{2, 5, 2, 0x2000}},
  	{[]byte{0x81, 0x34, 0x03}, true, []int{2, 100, 3}},
  	{[]byte{85, 0x02, 0xc0, 0x80, 0x80, 0x80, 0x80}, false, []int{}},
  }
  
  func TestObjectIdentifier(t *testing.T) {
  	for i, test := range objectIdentifierTestData {
  		ret, err := parseObjectIdentifier(test.in)
  		if (err == nil) != test.ok {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: Incorrect error result (did fail? %v, expected: %v)", i, err == nil, test.ok)
  		}
  		if err == nil {
  			if !reflect.DeepEqual(test.out, ret) {
  				t.Errorf("#%d: Bad result: %v (expected %v)", i, ret, test.out)
  			}
  		}
  	}
  
  	if s := ObjectIdentifier([]int{1, 2, 3, 4}).String(); s != "1.2.3.4" {
  		t.Errorf("bad ObjectIdentifier.String(). Got %s, want 1.2.3.4", s)
  	}
  }
  
  type timeTest struct {
  	in  string
  	ok  bool
  	out time.Time
  }
  
  var utcTestData = []timeTest{
  	{"910506164540-0700", true, time.Date(1991, 05, 06, 16, 45, 40, 0, time.FixedZone("", -7*60*60))},
  	{"910506164540+0730", true, time.Date(1991, 05, 06, 16, 45, 40, 0, time.FixedZone("", 7*60*60+30*60))},
  	{"910506234540Z", true, time.Date(1991, 05, 06, 23, 45, 40, 0, time.UTC)},
  	{"9105062345Z", true, time.Date(1991, 05, 06, 23, 45, 0, 0, time.UTC)},
  	{"5105062345Z", true, time.Date(1951, 05, 06, 23, 45, 0, 0, time.UTC)},
  	{"a10506234540Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"91a506234540Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"9105a6234540Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"910506a34540Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"910506334a40Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"91050633444aZ", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"910506334461Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"910506334400Za", false, time.Time{}},
  	/* These are invalid times. However, the time package normalises times
  	 * and they were accepted in some versions. See #11134. */
  	{"000100000000Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"101302030405Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"100002030405Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"100100030405Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"100132030405Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"100231030405Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"100102240405Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"100102036005Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"100102030460Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"-100102030410Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"10-0102030410Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"10-0002030410Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"1001-02030410Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"100102-030410Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"10010203-0410Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"1001020304-10Z", false, time.Time{}},
  }
  
  func TestUTCTime(t *testing.T) {
  	for i, test := range utcTestData {
  		ret, err := parseUTCTime([]byte(test.in))
  		if err != nil {
  			if test.ok {
  				t.Errorf("#%d: parseUTCTime(%q) = error %v", i, test.in, err)
  			}
  			continue
  		}
  		if !test.ok {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: parseUTCTime(%q) succeeded, should have failed", i, test.in)
  			continue
  		}
  		const format = "Jan _2 15:04:05 -0700 2006" // ignore zone name, just offset
  		have := ret.Format(format)
  		want := test.out.Format(format)
  		if have != want {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: parseUTCTime(%q) = %s, want %s", i, test.in, have, want)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  var generalizedTimeTestData = []timeTest{
  	{"20100102030405Z", true, time.Date(2010, 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 0, time.UTC)},
  	{"20100102030405", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"20100102030405+0607", true, time.Date(2010, 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 0, time.FixedZone("", 6*60*60+7*60))},
  	{"20100102030405-0607", true, time.Date(2010, 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 0, time.FixedZone("", -6*60*60-7*60))},
  	/* These are invalid times. However, the time package normalises times
  	 * and they were accepted in some versions. See #11134. */
  	{"00000100000000Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"20101302030405Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"20100002030405Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"20100100030405Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"20100132030405Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"20100231030405Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"20100102240405Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"20100102036005Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"20100102030460Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"-20100102030410Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"2010-0102030410Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"2010-0002030410Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"201001-02030410Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"20100102-030410Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"2010010203-0410Z", false, time.Time{}},
  	{"201001020304-10Z", false, time.Time{}},
  }
  
  func TestGeneralizedTime(t *testing.T) {
  	for i, test := range generalizedTimeTestData {
  		ret, err := parseGeneralizedTime([]byte(test.in))
  		if (err == nil) != test.ok {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: Incorrect error result (did fail? %v, expected: %v)", i, err == nil, test.ok)
  		}
  		if err == nil {
  			if !reflect.DeepEqual(test.out, ret) {
  				t.Errorf("#%d: Bad result: %q → %v (expected %v)", i, test.in, ret, test.out)
  			}
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  type tagAndLengthTest struct {
  	in  []byte
  	ok  bool
  	out tagAndLength
  }
  
  var tagAndLengthData = []tagAndLengthTest{
  	{[]byte{0x80, 0x01}, true, tagAndLength{2, 0, 1, false}},
  	{[]byte{0xa0, 0x01}, true, tagAndLength{2, 0, 1, true}},
  	{[]byte{0x02, 0x00}, true, tagAndLength{0, 2, 0, false}},
  	{[]byte{0xfe, 0x00}, true, tagAndLength{3, 30, 0, true}},
  	{[]byte{0x1f, 0x1f, 0x00}, true, tagAndLength{0, 31, 0, false}},
  	{[]byte{0x1f, 0x81, 0x00, 0x00}, true, tagAndLength{0, 128, 0, false}},
  	{[]byte{0x1f, 0x81, 0x80, 0x01, 0x00}, true, tagAndLength{0, 0x4001, 0, false}},
  	{[]byte{0x00, 0x81, 0x80}, true, tagAndLength{0, 0, 128, false}},
  	{[]byte{0x00, 0x82, 0x01, 0x00}, true, tagAndLength{0, 0, 256, false}},
  	{[]byte{0x00, 0x83, 0x01, 0x00}, false, tagAndLength{}},
  	{[]byte{0x1f, 0x85}, false, tagAndLength{}},
  	{[]byte{0x30, 0x80}, false, tagAndLength{}},
  	// Superfluous zeros in the length should be an error.
  	{[]byte{0xa0, 0x82, 0x00, 0xff}, false, tagAndLength{}},
  	// Lengths up to the maximum size of an int should work.
  	{[]byte{0xa0, 0x84, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff}, true, tagAndLength{2, 0, 0x7fffffff, true}},
  	// Lengths that would overflow an int should be rejected.
  	{[]byte{0xa0, 0x84, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00}, false, tagAndLength{}},
  	// Long length form may not be used for lengths that fit in short form.
  	{[]byte{0xa0, 0x81, 0x7f}, false, tagAndLength{}},
  	// Tag numbers which would overflow int32 are rejected. (The value below is 2^31.)
  	{[]byte{0x1f, 0x88, 0x80, 0x80, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00}, false, tagAndLength{}},
  	// Tag numbers that fit in an int32 are valid. (The value below is 2^31 - 1.)
  	{[]byte{0x1f, 0x87, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x7F, 0x00}, true, tagAndLength{tag: math.MaxInt32}},
  	// Long tag number form may not be used for tags that fit in short form.
  	{[]byte{0x1f, 0x1e, 0x00}, false, tagAndLength{}},
  }
  
  func TestParseTagAndLength(t *testing.T) {
  	for i, test := range tagAndLengthData {
  		tagAndLength, _, err := parseTagAndLength(test.in, 0)
  		if (err == nil) != test.ok {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: Incorrect error result (did pass? %v, expected: %v)", i, err == nil, test.ok)
  		}
  		if err == nil && !reflect.DeepEqual(test.out, tagAndLength) {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: Bad result: %v (expected %v)", i, tagAndLength, test.out)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  type parseFieldParametersTest struct {
  	in  string
  	out fieldParameters
  }
  
  func newInt(n int) *int { return &n }
  
  func newInt64(n int64) *int64 { return &n }
  
  func newString(s string) *string { return &s }
  
  func newBool(b bool) *bool { return &b }
  
  var parseFieldParametersTestData []parseFieldParametersTest = []parseFieldParametersTest{
  	{"", fieldParameters{}},
  	{"ia5", fieldParameters{stringType: TagIA5String}},
  	{"generalized", fieldParameters{timeType: TagGeneralizedTime}},
  	{"utc", fieldParameters{timeType: TagUTCTime}},
  	{"printable", fieldParameters{stringType: TagPrintableString}},
  	{"optional", fieldParameters{optional: true}},
  	{"explicit", fieldParameters{explicit: true, tag: new(int)}},
  	{"application", fieldParameters{application: true, tag: new(int)}},
  	{"optional,explicit", fieldParameters{optional: true, explicit: true, tag: new(int)}},
  	{"default:42", fieldParameters{defaultValue: newInt64(42)}},
  	{"tag:17", fieldParameters{tag: newInt(17)}},
  	{"optional,explicit,default:42,tag:17", fieldParameters{optional: true, explicit: true, defaultValue: newInt64(42), tag: newInt(17)}},
  	{"optional,explicit,default:42,tag:17,rubbish1", fieldParameters{true, true, false, newInt64(42), newInt(17), 0, 0, false, false}},
  	{"set", fieldParameters{set: true}},
  }
  
  func TestParseFieldParameters(t *testing.T) {
  	for i, test := range parseFieldParametersTestData {
  		f := parseFieldParameters(test.in)
  		if !reflect.DeepEqual(f, test.out) {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: Bad result: %v (expected %v)", i, f, test.out)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  type TestObjectIdentifierStruct struct {
  	OID ObjectIdentifier
  }
  
  type TestContextSpecificTags struct {
  	A int `asn1:"tag:1"`
  }
  
  type TestContextSpecificTags2 struct {
  	A int `asn1:"explicit,tag:1"`
  	B int
  }
  
  type TestContextSpecificTags3 struct {
  	S string `asn1:"tag:1,utf8"`
  }
  
  type TestElementsAfterString struct {
  	S    string
  	A, B int
  }
  
  type TestBigInt struct {
  	X *big.Int
  }
  
  type TestSet struct {
  	Ints []int `asn1:"set"`
  }
  
  var unmarshalTestData = []struct {
  	in  []byte
  	out interface{}
  }{
  	{[]byte{0x02, 0x01, 0x42}, newInt(0x42)},
  	{[]byte{0x05, 0x00}, &RawValue{0, 5, false, []byte{}, []byte{0x05, 0x00}}},
  	{[]byte{0x30, 0x08, 0x06, 0x06, 0x2a, 0x86, 0x48, 0x86, 0xf7, 0x0d}, &TestObjectIdentifierStruct{[]int{1, 2, 840, 113549}}},
  	{[]byte{0x03, 0x04, 0x06, 0x6e, 0x5d, 0xc0}, &BitString{[]byte{110, 93, 192}, 18}},
  	{[]byte{0x30, 0x09, 0x02, 0x01, 0x01, 0x02, 0x01, 0x02, 0x02, 0x01, 0x03}, &[]int{1, 2, 3}},
  	{[]byte{0x02, 0x01, 0x10}, newInt(16)},
  	{[]byte{0x13, 0x04, 't', 'e', 's', 't'}, newString("test")},
  	{[]byte{0x16, 0x04, 't', 'e', 's', 't'}, newString("test")},
  	{[]byte{0x16, 0x04, 't', 'e', 's', 't'}, &RawValue{0, 22, false, []byte("test"), []byte("\x16\x04test")}},
  	{[]byte{0x04, 0x04, 1, 2, 3, 4}, &RawValue{0, 4, false, []byte{1, 2, 3, 4}, []byte{4, 4, 1, 2, 3, 4}}},
  	{[]byte{0x30, 0x03, 0x81, 0x01, 0x01}, &TestContextSpecificTags{1}},
  	{[]byte{0x30, 0x08, 0xa1, 0x03, 0x02, 0x01, 0x01, 0x02, 0x01, 0x02}, &TestContextSpecificTags2{1, 2}},
  	{[]byte{0x30, 0x03, 0x81, 0x01, '@'}, &TestContextSpecificTags3{"@"}},
  	{[]byte{0x01, 0x01, 0x00}, newBool(false)},
  	{[]byte{0x01, 0x01, 0xff}, newBool(true)},
  	{[]byte{0x30, 0x0b, 0x13, 0x03, 0x66, 0x6f, 0x6f, 0x02, 0x01, 0x22, 0x02, 0x01, 0x33}, &TestElementsAfterString{"foo", 0x22, 0x33}},
  	{[]byte{0x30, 0x05, 0x02, 0x03, 0x12, 0x34, 0x56}, &TestBigInt{big.NewInt(0x123456)}},
  	{[]byte{0x30, 0x0b, 0x31, 0x09, 0x02, 0x01, 0x01, 0x02, 0x01, 0x02, 0x02, 0x01, 0x03}, &TestSet{Ints: []int{1, 2, 3}}},
  }
  
  func TestUnmarshal(t *testing.T) {
  	for i, test := range unmarshalTestData {
  		pv := reflect.New(reflect.TypeOf(test.out).Elem())
  		val := pv.Interface()
  		_, err := Unmarshal(test.in, val)
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("Unmarshal failed at index %d %v", i, err)
  		}
  		if !reflect.DeepEqual(val, test.out) {
  			t.Errorf("#%d:\nhave %#v\nwant %#v", i, val, test.out)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  type Certificate struct {
  	TBSCertificate     TBSCertificate
  	SignatureAlgorithm AlgorithmIdentifier
  	SignatureValue     BitString
  }
  
  type TBSCertificate struct {
  	Version            int `asn1:"optional,explicit,default:0,tag:0"`
  	SerialNumber       RawValue
  	SignatureAlgorithm AlgorithmIdentifier
  	Issuer             RDNSequence
  	Validity           Validity
  	Subject            RDNSequence
  	PublicKey          PublicKeyInfo
  }
  
  type AlgorithmIdentifier struct {
  	Algorithm ObjectIdentifier
  }
  
  type RDNSequence []RelativeDistinguishedNameSET
  
  type RelativeDistinguishedNameSET []AttributeTypeAndValue
  
  type AttributeTypeAndValue struct {
  	Type  ObjectIdentifier
  	Value interface{}
  }
  
  type Validity struct {
  	NotBefore, NotAfter time.Time
  }
  
  type PublicKeyInfo struct {
  	Algorithm AlgorithmIdentifier
  	PublicKey BitString
  }
  
  func TestCertificate(t *testing.T) {
  	// This is a minimal, self-signed certificate that should parse correctly.
  	var cert Certificate
  	if _, err := Unmarshal(derEncodedSelfSignedCertBytes, &cert); err != nil {
  		t.Errorf("Unmarshal failed: %v", err)
  	}
  	if !reflect.DeepEqual(cert, derEncodedSelfSignedCert) {
  		t.Errorf("Bad result:\ngot: %+v\nwant: %+v", cert, derEncodedSelfSignedCert)
  	}
  }
  
  func TestCertificateWithNUL(t *testing.T) {
  	// This is the paypal NUL-hack certificate. It should fail to parse because
  	// NUL isn't a permitted character in a PrintableString.
  
  	var cert Certificate
  	if _, err := Unmarshal(derEncodedPaypalNULCertBytes, &cert); err == nil {
  		t.Error("Unmarshal succeeded, should not have")
  	}
  }
  
  type rawStructTest struct {
  	Raw RawContent
  	A   int
  }
  
  func TestRawStructs(t *testing.T) {
  	var s rawStructTest
  	input := []byte{0x30, 0x03, 0x02, 0x01, 0x50}
  
  	rest, err := Unmarshal(input, &s)
  	if len(rest) != 0 {
  		t.Errorf("incomplete parse: %x", rest)
  		return
  	}
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Error(err)
  		return
  	}
  	if s.A != 0x50 {
  		t.Errorf("bad value for A: got %d want %d", s.A, 0x50)
  	}
  	if !bytes.Equal([]byte(s.Raw), input) {
  		t.Errorf("bad value for Raw: got %x want %x", s.Raw, input)
  	}
  }
  
  type oiEqualTest struct {
  	first  ObjectIdentifier
  	second ObjectIdentifier
  	same   bool
  }
  
  var oiEqualTests = []oiEqualTest{
  	{
  		ObjectIdentifier{1, 2, 3},
  		ObjectIdentifier{1, 2, 3},
  		true,
  	},
  	{
  		ObjectIdentifier{1},
  		ObjectIdentifier{1, 2, 3},
  		false,
  	},
  	{
  		ObjectIdentifier{1, 2, 3},
  		ObjectIdentifier{10, 11, 12},
  		false,
  	},
  }
  
  func TestObjectIdentifierEqual(t *testing.T) {
  	for _, o := range oiEqualTests {
  		if s := o.first.Equal(o.second); s != o.same {
  			t.Errorf("ObjectIdentifier.Equal: got: %t want: %t", s, o.same)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  var derEncodedSelfSignedCert = Certificate{
  	TBSCertificate: TBSCertificate{
  		Version:            0,
  		SerialNumber:       RawValue{Class: 0, Tag: 2, IsCompound: false, Bytes: []uint8{0x0, 0x8c, 0xc3, 0x37, 0x92, 0x10, 0xec, 0x2c, 0x98}, FullBytes: []byte{2, 9, 0x0, 0x8c, 0xc3, 0x37, 0x92, 0x10, 0xec, 0x2c, 0x98}},
  		SignatureAlgorithm: AlgorithmIdentifier{Algorithm: ObjectIdentifier{1, 2, 840, 113549, 1, 1, 5}},
  		Issuer: RDNSequence{
  			RelativeDistinguishedNameSET{AttributeTypeAndValue{Type: ObjectIdentifier{2, 5, 4, 6}, Value: "XX"}},
  			RelativeDistinguishedNameSET{AttributeTypeAndValue{Type: ObjectIdentifier{2, 5, 4, 8}, Value: "Some-State"}},
  			RelativeDistinguishedNameSET{AttributeTypeAndValue{Type: ObjectIdentifier{2, 5, 4, 7}, Value: "City"}},
  			RelativeDistinguishedNameSET{AttributeTypeAndValue{Type: ObjectIdentifier{2, 5, 4, 10}, Value: "Internet Widgits Pty Ltd"}},
  			RelativeDistinguishedNameSET{AttributeTypeAndValue{Type: ObjectIdentifier{2, 5, 4, 3}, Value: "false.example.com"}},
  			RelativeDistinguishedNameSET{AttributeTypeAndValue{Type: ObjectIdentifier{1, 2, 840, 113549, 1, 9, 1}, Value: "false@example.com"}},
  		},
  		Validity: Validity{
  			NotBefore: time.Date(2009, 10, 8, 00, 25, 53, 0, time.UTC),
  			NotAfter:  time.Date(2010, 10, 8, 00, 25, 53, 0, time.UTC),
  		},
  		Subject: RDNSequence{
  			RelativeDistinguishedNameSET{AttributeTypeAndValue{Type: ObjectIdentifier{2, 5, 4, 6}, Value: "XX"}},
  			RelativeDistinguishedNameSET{AttributeTypeAndValue{Type: ObjectIdentifier{2, 5, 4, 8}, Value: "Some-State"}},
  			RelativeDistinguishedNameSET{AttributeTypeAndValue{Type: ObjectIdentifier{2, 5, 4, 7}, Value: "City"}},
  			RelativeDistinguishedNameSET{AttributeTypeAndValue{Type: ObjectIdentifier{2, 5, 4, 10}, Value: "Internet Widgits Pty Ltd"}},
  			RelativeDistinguishedNameSET{AttributeTypeAndValue{Type: ObjectIdentifier{2, 5, 4, 3}, Value: "false.example.com"}},
  			RelativeDistinguishedNameSET{AttributeTypeAndValue{Type: ObjectIdentifier{1, 2, 840, 113549, 1, 9, 1}, Value: "false@example.com"}},
  		},
  		PublicKey: PublicKeyInfo{
  			Algorithm: AlgorithmIdentifier{Algorithm: ObjectIdentifier{1, 2, 840, 113549, 1, 1, 1}},
  			PublicKey: BitString{
  				Bytes: []uint8{
  					0x30, 0x48, 0x2, 0x41, 0x0, 0xcd, 0xb7,
  					0x63, 0x9c, 0x32, 0x78, 0xf0, 0x6, 0xaa, 0x27, 0x7f, 0x6e, 0xaf, 0x42,
  					0x90, 0x2b, 0x59, 0x2d, 0x8c, 0xbc, 0xbe, 0x38, 0xa1, 0xc9, 0x2b, 0xa4,
  					0x69, 0x5a, 0x33, 0x1b, 0x1d, 0xea, 0xde, 0xad, 0xd8, 0xe9, 0xa5, 0xc2,
  					0x7e, 0x8c, 0x4c, 0x2f, 0xd0, 0xa8, 0x88, 0x96, 0x57, 0x72, 0x2a, 0x4f,
  					0x2a, 0xf7, 0x58, 0x9c, 0xf2, 0xc7, 0x70, 0x45, 0xdc, 0x8f, 0xde, 0xec,
  					0x35, 0x7d, 0x2, 0x3, 0x1, 0x0, 0x1,
  				},
  				BitLength: 592,
  			},
  		},
  	},
  	SignatureAlgorithm: AlgorithmIdentifier{Algorithm: ObjectIdentifier{1, 2, 840, 113549, 1, 1, 5}},
  	SignatureValue: BitString{
  		Bytes: []uint8{
  			0xa6, 0x7b, 0x6, 0xec, 0x5e, 0xce,
  			0x92, 0x77, 0x2c, 0xa4, 0x13, 0xcb, 0xa3, 0xca, 0x12, 0x56, 0x8f, 0xdc, 0x6c,
  			0x7b, 0x45, 0x11, 0xcd, 0x40, 0xa7, 0xf6, 0x59, 0x98, 0x4, 0x2, 0xdf, 0x2b,
  			0x99, 0x8b, 0xb9, 0xa4, 0xa8, 0xcb, 0xeb, 0x34, 0xc0, 0xf0, 0xa7, 0x8c, 0xf8,
  			0xd9, 0x1e, 0xde, 0x14, 0xa5, 0xed, 0x76, 0xbf, 0x11, 0x6f, 0xe3, 0x60, 0xaa,
  			0xfa, 0x88, 0x21, 0x49, 0x4, 0x35,
  		},
  		BitLength: 512,
  	},
  }
  
  var derEncodedSelfSignedCertBytes = []byte{
  	0x30, 0x82, 0x02, 0x18, 0x30,
  	0x82, 0x01, 0xc2, 0x02, 0x09, 0x00, 0x8c, 0xc3, 0x37, 0x92, 0x10, 0xec, 0x2c,
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  	0x09, 0x2a, 0x86, 0x48, 0x86, 0xf7, 0x0d, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x05, 0x00, 0x03,
  	0x4b, 0x00, 0x30, 0x48, 0x02, 0x41, 0x00, 0xcd, 0xb7, 0x63, 0x9c, 0x32, 0x78,
  	0xf0, 0x06, 0xaa, 0x27, 0x7f, 0x6e, 0xaf, 0x42, 0x90, 0x2b, 0x59, 0x2d, 0x8c,
  	0xbc, 0xbe, 0x38, 0xa1, 0xc9, 0x2b, 0xa4, 0x69, 0x5a, 0x33, 0x1b, 0x1d, 0xea,
  	0xde, 0xad, 0xd8, 0xe9, 0xa5, 0xc2, 0x7e, 0x8c, 0x4c, 0x2f, 0xd0, 0xa8, 0x88,
  	0x96, 0x57, 0x72, 0x2a, 0x4f, 0x2a, 0xf7, 0x58, 0x9c, 0xf2, 0xc7, 0x70, 0x45,
  	0xdc, 0x8f, 0xde, 0xec, 0x35, 0x7d, 0x02, 0x03, 0x01, 0x00, 0x01, 0x30, 0x0d,
  	0x06, 0x09, 0x2a, 0x86, 0x48, 0x86, 0xf7, 0x0d, 0x01, 0x01, 0x05, 0x05, 0x00,
  	0x03, 0x41, 0x00, 0xa6, 0x7b, 0x06, 0xec, 0x5e, 0xce, 0x92, 0x77, 0x2c, 0xa4,
  	0x13, 0xcb, 0xa3, 0xca, 0x12, 0x56, 0x8f, 0xdc, 0x6c, 0x7b, 0x45, 0x11, 0xcd,
  	0x40, 0xa7, 0xf6, 0x59, 0x98, 0x04, 0x02, 0xdf, 0x2b, 0x99, 0x8b, 0xb9, 0xa4,
  	0xa8, 0xcb, 0xeb, 0x34, 0xc0, 0xf0, 0xa7, 0x8c, 0xf8, 0xd9, 0x1e, 0xde, 0x14,
  	0xa5, 0xed, 0x76, 0xbf, 0x11, 0x6f, 0xe3, 0x60, 0xaa, 0xfa, 0x88, 0x21, 0x49,
  	0x04, 0x35,
  }
  
  var derEncodedPaypalNULCertBytes = []byte{
  	0x30, 0x82, 0x06, 0x44, 0x30,
  	0x82, 0x05, 0xad, 0xa0, 0x03, 0x02, 0x01, 0x02, 0x02, 0x03, 0x00, 0xf0, 0x9b,
  	0x30, 0x0d, 0x06, 0x09, 0x2a, 0x86, 0x48, 0x86, 0xf7, 0x0d, 0x01, 0x01, 0x05,
  	0x05, 0x00, 0x30, 0x82, 0x01, 0x12, 0x31, 0x0b, 0x30, 0x09, 0x06, 0x03, 0x55,
  	0x04, 0x06, 0x13, 0x02, 0x45, 0x53, 0x31, 0x12, 0x30, 0x10, 0x06, 0x03, 0x55,
  	0x04, 0x08, 0x13, 0x09, 0x42, 0x61, 0x72, 0x63, 0x65, 0x6c, 0x6f, 0x6e, 0x61,
  	0x31, 0x12, 0x30, 0x10, 0x06, 0x03, 0x55, 0x04, 0x07, 0x13, 0x09, 0x42, 0x61,
  	0x72, 0x63, 0x65, 0x6c, 0x6f, 0x6e, 0x61, 0x31, 0x29, 0x30, 0x27, 0x06, 0x03,
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  	0xf3, 0xe8, 0x1e, 0x42, 0xa1, 0xad, 0x2d, 0x9e, 0xff, 0x5b, 0x10, 0x26, 0xce,
  	0x9d, 0x57, 0x17, 0x73, 0x16, 0x23, 0x38, 0xc8, 0xd6, 0xf1, 0xba, 0xa3, 0x96,
  	0x5b, 0x16, 0x67, 0x4a, 0x4f, 0x73, 0x97, 0x3a, 0x4d, 0x14, 0xa4, 0xf4, 0xe2,
  	0x3f, 0x8b, 0x05, 0x83, 0x42, 0xd1, 0xd0, 0xdc, 0x2f, 0x7a, 0xe5, 0xb6, 0x10,
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  }
  
  var stringSliceTestData = [][]string{
  	{"foo", "bar"},
  	{"foo", "\\bar"},
  	{"foo", "\"bar\""},
  	{"foo", "åäö"},
  }
  
  func TestStringSlice(t *testing.T) {
  	for _, test := range stringSliceTestData {
  		bs, err := Marshal(test)
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Error(err)
  		}
  
  		var res []string
  		_, err = Unmarshal(bs, &res)
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Error(err)
  		}
  
  		if fmt.Sprintf("%v", res) != fmt.Sprintf("%v", test) {
  			t.Errorf("incorrect marshal/unmarshal; %v != %v", res, test)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  type explicitTaggedTimeTest struct {
  	Time time.Time `asn1:"explicit,tag:0"`
  }
  
  var explicitTaggedTimeTestData = []struct {
  	in  []byte
  	out explicitTaggedTimeTest
  }{
  	{[]byte{0x30, 0x11, 0xa0, 0xf, 0x17, 0xd, '9', '1', '0', '5', '0', '6', '1', '6', '4', '5', '4', '0', 'Z'},
  		explicitTaggedTimeTest{time.Date(1991, 05, 06, 16, 45, 40, 0, time.UTC)}},
  	{[]byte{0x30, 0x17, 0xa0, 0xf, 0x18, 0x13, '2', '0', '1', '0', '0', '1', '0', '2', '0', '3', '0', '4', '0', '5', '+', '0', '6', '0', '7'},
  		explicitTaggedTimeTest{time.Date(2010, 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 0, time.FixedZone("", 6*60*60+7*60))}},
  }
  
  func TestExplicitTaggedTime(t *testing.T) {
  	// Test that a time.Time will match either tagUTCTime or
  	// tagGeneralizedTime.
  	for i, test := range explicitTaggedTimeTestData {
  		var got explicitTaggedTimeTest
  		_, err := Unmarshal(test.in, &got)
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("Unmarshal failed at index %d %v", i, err)
  		}
  		if !got.Time.Equal(test.out.Time) {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: got %v, want %v", i, got.Time, test.out.Time)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  type implicitTaggedTimeTest struct {
  	Time time.Time `asn1:"tag:24"`
  }
  
  func TestImplicitTaggedTime(t *testing.T) {
  	// An implicitly tagged time value, that happens to have an implicit
  	// tag equal to a GENERALIZEDTIME, should still be parsed as a UTCTime.
  	// (There's no "timeType" in fieldParameters to determine what type of
  	// time should be expected when implicitly tagged.)
  	der := []byte{0x30, 0x0f, 0x80 | 24, 0xd, '9', '1', '0', '5', '0', '6', '1', '6', '4', '5', '4', '0', 'Z'}
  	var result implicitTaggedTimeTest
  	if _, err := Unmarshal(der, &result); err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("Error while parsing: %s", err)
  	}
  	if expected := time.Date(1991, 05, 06, 16, 45, 40, 0, time.UTC); !result.Time.Equal(expected) {
  		t.Errorf("Wrong result. Got %v, want %v", result.Time, expected)
  	}
  }
  
  type truncatedExplicitTagTest struct {
  	Test int `asn1:"explicit,tag:0"`
  }
  
  func TestTruncatedExplicitTag(t *testing.T) {
  	// This crashed Unmarshal in the past. See #11154.
  	der := []byte{
  		0x30, // SEQUENCE
  		0x02, // two bytes long
  		0xa0, // context-specific, tag 0
  		0x30, // 48 bytes long
  	}
  
  	var result truncatedExplicitTagTest
  	if _, err := Unmarshal(der, &result); err == nil {
  		t.Error("Unmarshal returned without error")
  	}
  }
  
  type invalidUTF8Test struct {
  	Str string `asn1:"utf8"`
  }
  
  func TestUnmarshalInvalidUTF8(t *testing.T) {
  	data := []byte("0\x05\f\x03a\xc9c")
  	var result invalidUTF8Test
  	_, err := Unmarshal(data, &result)
  
  	const expectedSubstring = "UTF"
  	if err == nil {
  		t.Fatal("Successfully unmarshaled invalid UTF-8 data")
  	} else if !strings.Contains(err.Error(), expectedSubstring) {
  		t.Fatalf("Expected error to mention %q but error was %q", expectedSubstring, err.Error())
  	}
  }
  
  func TestMarshalNilValue(t *testing.T) {
  	nilValueTestData := []interface{}{
  		nil,
  		struct{ V interface{} }{},
  	}
  	for i, test := range nilValueTestData {
  		if _, err := Marshal(test); err == nil {
  			t.Fatalf("#%d: successfully marshaled nil value", i)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  type unexported struct {
  	X int
  	y int
  }
  
  type exported struct {
  	X int
  	Y int
  }
  
  func TestUnexportedStructField(t *testing.T) {
  	want := StructuralError{"struct contains unexported fields"}
  
  	_, err := Marshal(unexported{X: 5, y: 1})
  	if err != want {
  		t.Errorf("got %v, want %v", err, want)
  	}
  
  	bs, err := Marshal(exported{X: 5, Y: 1})
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatal(err)
  	}
  	var u unexported
  	_, err = Unmarshal(bs, &u)
  	if err != want {
  		t.Errorf("got %v, want %v", err, want)
  	}
  }
  
  func TestNull(t *testing.T) {
  	marshaled, err := Marshal(NullRawValue)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatal(err)
  	}
  	if !bytes.Equal(NullBytes, marshaled) {
  		t.Errorf("Expected Marshal of NullRawValue to yeild %x, got %x", NullBytes, marshaled)
  	}
  
  	unmarshaled := RawValue{}
  	if _, err := Unmarshal(NullBytes, &unmarshaled); err != nil {
  		t.Fatal(err)
  	}
  
  	unmarshaled.FullBytes = NullRawValue.FullBytes
  	if len(unmarshaled.Bytes) == 0 {
  		// DeepEqual considers a nil slice and an empty slice to be different.
  		unmarshaled.Bytes = NullRawValue.Bytes
  	}
  
  	if !reflect.DeepEqual(NullRawValue, unmarshaled) {
  		t.Errorf("Expected Unmarshal of NullBytes to yield %v, got %v", NullRawValue, unmarshaled)
  	}
  }
  

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