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Source file src/crypto/x509/x509_test.go

Documentation: crypto/x509

  // Copyright 2009 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
  // Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
  // license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
  
  package x509
  
  import (
  	"bytes"
  	"crypto/dsa"
  	"crypto/ecdsa"
  	"crypto/elliptic"
  	"crypto/rand"
  	"crypto/rsa"
  	_ "crypto/sha256"
  	_ "crypto/sha512"
  	"crypto/x509/pkix"
  	"encoding/asn1"
  	"encoding/base64"
  	"encoding/hex"
  	"encoding/pem"
  	"fmt"
  	"internal/testenv"
  	"math/big"
  	"net"
  	"os/exec"
  	"reflect"
  	"runtime"
  	"strings"
  	"testing"
  	"time"
  )
  
  func TestParsePKCS1PrivateKey(t *testing.T) {
  	block, _ := pem.Decode([]byte(pemPrivateKey))
  	priv, err := ParsePKCS1PrivateKey(block.Bytes)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Errorf("Failed to parse private key: %s", err)
  		return
  	}
  	if priv.PublicKey.N.Cmp(rsaPrivateKey.PublicKey.N) != 0 ||
  		priv.PublicKey.E != rsaPrivateKey.PublicKey.E ||
  		priv.D.Cmp(rsaPrivateKey.D) != 0 ||
  		priv.Primes[0].Cmp(rsaPrivateKey.Primes[0]) != 0 ||
  		priv.Primes[1].Cmp(rsaPrivateKey.Primes[1]) != 0 {
  		t.Errorf("got:%+v want:%+v", priv, rsaPrivateKey)
  	}
  
  	// This private key includes an invalid prime that
  	// rsa.PrivateKey.Validate should reject.
  	data := []byte("0\x16\x02\x00\x02\x02\u007f\x00\x02\x0200\x02\x0200\x02\x02\x00\x01\x02\x02\u007f\x00")
  	if _, err := ParsePKCS1PrivateKey(data); err == nil {
  		t.Errorf("parsing invalid private key did not result in an error")
  	}
  }
  
  func TestParsePKIXPublicKey(t *testing.T) {
  	block, _ := pem.Decode([]byte(pemPublicKey))
  	pub, err := ParsePKIXPublicKey(block.Bytes)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Errorf("Failed to parse RSA public key: %s", err)
  		return
  	}
  	rsaPub, ok := pub.(*rsa.PublicKey)
  	if !ok {
  		t.Errorf("Value returned from ParsePKIXPublicKey was not an RSA public key")
  		return
  	}
  
  	pubBytes2, err := MarshalPKIXPublicKey(rsaPub)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Errorf("Failed to marshal RSA public key for the second time: %s", err)
  		return
  	}
  	if !bytes.Equal(pubBytes2, block.Bytes) {
  		t.Errorf("Reserialization of public key didn't match. got %x, want %x", pubBytes2, block.Bytes)
  	}
  }
  
  var pemPublicKey = `-----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY-----
  MIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEA3VoPN9PKUjKFLMwOge6+
  wnDi8sbETGIx2FKXGgqtAKpzmem53kRGEQg8WeqRmp12wgp74TGpkEXsGae7RS1k
  enJCnma4fii+noGH7R0qKgHvPrI2Bwa9hzsH8tHxpyM3qrXslOmD45EH9SxIDUBJ
  FehNdaPbLP1gFyahKMsdfxFJLUvbUycuZSJ2ZnIgeVxwm4qbSvZInL9Iu4FzuPtg
  fINKcbbovy1qq4KvPIrXzhbY3PWDc6btxCf3SE0JdE1MCPThntB62/bLMSQ7xdDR
  FF53oIpvxe/SCOymfWq/LW849Ytv3Xwod0+wzAP8STXG4HSELS4UedPYeHJJJYcZ
  +QIDAQAB
  -----END PUBLIC KEY-----
  `
  
  var pemPrivateKey = `
  -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
  MIICXAIBAAKBgQCxoeCUW5KJxNPxMp+KmCxKLc1Zv9Ny+4CFqcUXVUYH69L3mQ7v
  IWrJ9GBfcaA7BPQqUlWxWM+OCEQZH1EZNIuqRMNQVuIGCbz5UQ8w6tS0gcgdeGX7
  J7jgCQ4RK3F/PuCM38QBLaHx988qG8NMc6VKErBjctCXFHQt14lerd5KpQIDAQAB
  AoGAYrf6Hbk+mT5AI33k2Jt1kcweodBP7UkExkPxeuQzRVe0KVJw0EkcFhywKpr1
  V5eLMrILWcJnpyHE5slWwtFHBG6a5fLaNtsBBtcAIfqTQ0Vfj5c6SzVaJv0Z5rOd
  7gQF6isy3t3w9IF3We9wXQKzT6q5ypPGdm6fciKQ8RnzREkCQQDZwppKATqQ41/R
  vhSj90fFifrGE6aVKC1hgSpxGQa4oIdsYYHwMzyhBmWW9Xv/R+fPyr8ZwPxp2c12
  33QwOLPLAkEA0NNUb+z4ebVVHyvSwF5jhfJxigim+s49KuzJ1+A2RaSApGyBZiwS
  rWvWkB471POAKUYt5ykIWVZ83zcceQiNTwJBAMJUFQZX5GDqWFc/zwGoKkeR49Yi
  MTXIvf7Wmv6E++eFcnT461FlGAUHRV+bQQXGsItR/opIG7mGogIkVXa3E1MCQARX
  AAA7eoZ9AEHflUeuLn9QJI/r0hyQQLEtrpwv6rDT1GCWaLII5HJ6NUFVf4TTcqxo
  6vdM4QGKTJoO+SaCyP0CQFdpcxSAuzpFcKv0IlJ8XzS/cy+mweCMwyJ1PFEc4FX6
  wg/HcAJWY60xZTJDFN+Qfx8ZQvBEin6c2/h+zZi5IVY=
  -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
  `
  
  var testPrivateKey *rsa.PrivateKey
  
  func init() {
  	block, _ := pem.Decode([]byte(pemPrivateKey))
  
  	var err error
  	if testPrivateKey, err = ParsePKCS1PrivateKey(block.Bytes); err != nil {
  		panic("Failed to parse private key: " + err.Error())
  	}
  }
  
  func bigFromString(s string) *big.Int {
  	ret := new(big.Int)
  	ret.SetString(s, 10)
  	return ret
  }
  
  func fromBase10(base10 string) *big.Int {
  	i := new(big.Int)
  	i.SetString(base10, 10)
  	return i
  }
  
  func bigFromHexString(s string) *big.Int {
  	ret := new(big.Int)
  	ret.SetString(s, 16)
  	return ret
  }
  
  var rsaPrivateKey = &rsa.PrivateKey{
  	PublicKey: rsa.PublicKey{
  		N: bigFromString("124737666279038955318614287965056875799409043964547386061640914307192830334599556034328900586693254156136128122194531292927142396093148164407300419162827624945636708870992355233833321488652786796134504707628792159725681555822420087112284637501705261187690946267527866880072856272532711620639179596808018872997"),
  		E: 65537,
  	},
  	D: bigFromString("69322600686866301945688231018559005300304807960033948687567105312977055197015197977971637657636780793670599180105424702854759606794705928621125408040473426339714144598640466128488132656829419518221592374964225347786430566310906679585739468938549035854760501049443920822523780156843263434219450229353270690889"),
  	Primes: []*big.Int{
  		bigFromString("11405025354575369741595561190164746858706645478381139288033759331174478411254205003127028642766986913445391069745480057674348716675323735886284176682955723"),
  		bigFromString("10937079261204603443118731009201819560867324167189758120988909645641782263430128449826989846631183550578761324239709121189827307416350485191350050332642639"),
  	},
  }
  
  func TestMarshalRSAPrivateKey(t *testing.T) {
  	priv := &rsa.PrivateKey{
  		PublicKey: rsa.PublicKey{
  			N: fromBase10("16346378922382193400538269749936049106320265317511766357599732575277382844051791096569333808598921852351577762718529818072849191122419410612033592401403764925096136759934497687765453905884149505175426053037420486697072448609022753683683718057795566811401938833367954642951433473337066311978821180526439641496973296037000052546108507805269279414789035461158073156772151892452251106173507240488993608650881929629163465099476849643165682709047462010581308719577053905787496296934240246311806555924593059995202856826239801816771116902778517096212527979497399966526283516447337775509777558018145573127308919204297111496233"),
  			E: 3,
  		},
  		D: fromBase10("10897585948254795600358846499957366070880176878341177571733155050184921896034527397712889205732614568234385175145686545381899460748279607074689061600935843283397424506622998458510302603922766336783617368686090042765718290914099334449154829375179958369993407724946186243249568928237086215759259909861748642124071874879861299389874230489928271621259294894142840428407196932444474088857746123104978617098858619445675532587787023228852383149557470077802718705420275739737958953794088728369933811184572620857678792001136676902250566845618813972833750098806496641114644760255910789397593428910198080271317419213080834885003"),
  		Primes: []*big.Int{
  			fromBase10("1025363189502892836833747188838978207017355117492483312747347695538428729137306368764177201532277413433182799108299960196606011786562992097313508180436744488171474690412562218914213688661311117337381958560443"),
  			fromBase10("3467903426626310123395340254094941045497208049900750380025518552334536945536837294961497712862519984786362199788654739924501424784631315081391467293694361474867825728031147665777546570788493758372218019373"),
  			fromBase10("4597024781409332673052708605078359346966325141767460991205742124888960305710298765592730135879076084498363772408626791576005136245060321874472727132746643162385746062759369754202494417496879741537284589047"),
  		},
  	}
  
  	derBytes := MarshalPKCS1PrivateKey(priv)
  
  	priv2, err := ParsePKCS1PrivateKey(derBytes)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Errorf("error parsing serialized key: %s", err)
  		return
  	}
  	if priv.PublicKey.N.Cmp(priv2.PublicKey.N) != 0 ||
  		priv.PublicKey.E != priv2.PublicKey.E ||
  		priv.D.Cmp(priv2.D) != 0 ||
  		len(priv2.Primes) != 3 ||
  		priv.Primes[0].Cmp(priv2.Primes[0]) != 0 ||
  		priv.Primes[1].Cmp(priv2.Primes[1]) != 0 ||
  		priv.Primes[2].Cmp(priv2.Primes[2]) != 0 {
  		t.Errorf("got:%+v want:%+v", priv, priv2)
  	}
  }
  
  type matchHostnamesTest struct {
  	pattern, host string
  	ok            bool
  }
  
  var matchHostnamesTests = []matchHostnamesTest{
  	{"a.b.c", "a.b.c", true},
  	{"a.b.c", "b.b.c", false},
  	{"", "b.b.c", false},
  	{"a.b.c", "", false},
  	{"example.com", "example.com", true},
  	{"example.com", "www.example.com", false},
  	{"*.example.com", "example.com", false},
  	{"*.example.com", "www.example.com", true},
  	{"*.example.com", "www.example.com.", true},
  	{"*.example.com", "xyz.www.example.com", false},
  	{"*.*.example.com", "xyz.www.example.com", false},
  	{"*.www.*.com", "xyz.www.example.com", false},
  	{"*bar.example.com", "foobar.example.com", false},
  	{"f*.example.com", "foobar.example.com", false},
  	{"", ".", false},
  	{".", "", false},
  	{".", ".", false},
  	{"example.com", "example.com.", true},
  	{"example.com.", "example.com", true},
  	{"example.com.", "example.com.", true},
  	{"*.com.", "example.com.", true},
  	{"*.com.", "example.com", true},
  	{"*.com", "example.com", true},
  	{"*.com", "example.com.", true},
  }
  
  func TestMatchHostnames(t *testing.T) {
  	for i, test := range matchHostnamesTests {
  		r := matchHostnames(test.pattern, test.host)
  		if r != test.ok {
  			t.Errorf("#%d mismatch got: %t want: %t when matching '%s' against '%s'", i, r, test.ok, test.host, test.pattern)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  func TestMatchIP(t *testing.T) {
  	// Check that pattern matching is working.
  	c := &Certificate{
  		DNSNames: []string{"*.foo.bar.baz"},
  		Subject: pkix.Name{
  			CommonName: "*.foo.bar.baz",
  		},
  	}
  	err := c.VerifyHostname("quux.foo.bar.baz")
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("VerifyHostname(quux.foo.bar.baz): %v", err)
  	}
  
  	// But check that if we change it to be matching against an IP address,
  	// it is rejected.
  	c = &Certificate{
  		DNSNames: []string{"*.2.3.4"},
  		Subject: pkix.Name{
  			CommonName: "*.2.3.4",
  		},
  	}
  	err = c.VerifyHostname("1.2.3.4")
  	if err == nil {
  		t.Fatalf("VerifyHostname(1.2.3.4) should have failed, did not")
  	}
  
  	c = &Certificate{
  		IPAddresses: []net.IP{net.ParseIP("127.0.0.1"), net.ParseIP("::1")},
  	}
  	err = c.VerifyHostname("127.0.0.1")
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("VerifyHostname(127.0.0.1): %v", err)
  	}
  	err = c.VerifyHostname("::1")
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("VerifyHostname(::1): %v", err)
  	}
  	err = c.VerifyHostname("[::1]")
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("VerifyHostname([::1]): %v", err)
  	}
  }
  
  func TestCertificateParse(t *testing.T) {
  	s, _ := hex.DecodeString(certBytes)
  	certs, err := ParseCertificates(s)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Error(err)
  	}
  	if len(certs) != 2 {
  		t.Errorf("Wrong number of certs: got %d want 2", len(certs))
  		return
  	}
  
  	err = certs[0].CheckSignatureFrom(certs[1])
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Error(err)
  	}
  
  	if err := certs[0].VerifyHostname("mail.google.com"); err != nil {
  		t.Error(err)
  	}
  
  	const expectedExtensions = 4
  	if n := len(certs[0].Extensions); n != expectedExtensions {
  		t.Errorf("want %d extensions, got %d", expectedExtensions, n)
  	}
  }
  
  var certBytes = "308203223082028ba00302010202106edf0d9499fd4533dd1297fc42a93be1300d06092a864886" +
  	"f70d0101050500304c310b3009060355040613025a4131253023060355040a131c546861777465" +
  	"20436f6e73756c74696e67202850747929204c74642e311630140603550403130d546861777465" +
  	"20534743204341301e170d3039303332353136343932395a170d3130303332353136343932395a" +
  	"3069310b3009060355040613025553311330110603550408130a43616c69666f726e6961311630" +
  	"140603550407130d4d6f756e7461696e205669657731133011060355040a130a476f6f676c6520" +
  	"496e63311830160603550403130f6d61696c2e676f6f676c652e636f6d30819f300d06092a8648" +
  	"86f70d010101050003818d0030818902818100c5d6f892fccaf5614b064149e80a2c9581a218ef" +
  	"41ec35bd7a58125ae76f9ea54ddc893abbeb029f6b73616bf0ffd868791fba7af9c4aebf3706ba" +
  	"3eeaeed27435b4ddcfb157c05f351d66aa87fee0de072d66d773affbd36ab78bef090e0cc861a9" +
  	"03ac90dd98b51c9c41566c017f0beec3bff391051ffba0f5cc6850ad2a590203010001a381e730" +
  	"81e430280603551d250421301f06082b0601050507030106082b06010505070302060960864801" +
  	"86f842040130360603551d1f042f302d302ba029a0278625687474703a2f2f63726c2e74686177" +
  	"74652e636f6d2f54686177746553474343412e63726c307206082b060105050701010466306430" +
  	"2206082b060105050730018616687474703a2f2f6f6373702e7468617774652e636f6d303e0608" +
  	"2b060105050730028632687474703a2f2f7777772e7468617774652e636f6d2f7265706f736974" +
  	"6f72792f5468617774655f5347435f43412e637274300c0603551d130101ff04023000300d0609" +
  	"2a864886f70d01010505000381810062f1f3050ebc105e497c7aedf87e24d2f4a986bb3b837bd1" +
  	"9b91ebcad98b065992f6bd2b49b7d6d3cb2e427a99d606c7b1d46352527fac39e6a8b6726de5bf" +
  	"70212a52cba07634a5e332011bd1868e78eb5e3c93cf03072276786f207494feaa0ed9d53b2110" +
  	"a76571f90209cdae884385c882587030ee15f33d761e2e45a6bc308203233082028ca003020102" +
  	"020430000002300d06092a864886f70d0101050500305f310b3009060355040613025553311730" +
  	"15060355040a130e566572695369676e2c20496e632e31373035060355040b132e436c61737320" +
  	"33205075626c6963205072696d6172792043657274696669636174696f6e20417574686f726974" +
  	"79301e170d3034303531333030303030305a170d3134303531323233353935395a304c310b3009" +
  	"060355040613025a4131253023060355040a131c54686177746520436f6e73756c74696e672028" +
  	"50747929204c74642e311630140603550403130d5468617774652053474320434130819f300d06" +
  	"092a864886f70d010101050003818d0030818902818100d4d367d08d157faecd31fe7d1d91a13f" +
  	"0b713cacccc864fb63fc324b0794bd6f80ba2fe10493c033fc093323e90b742b71c403c6d2cde2" +
  	"2ff50963cdff48a500bfe0e7f388b72d32de9836e60aad007bc4644a3b847503f270927d0e62f5" +
  	"21ab693684317590f8bfc76c881b06957cc9e5a8de75a12c7a68dfd5ca1c875860190203010001" +
  	"a381fe3081fb30120603551d130101ff040830060101ff020100300b0603551d0f040403020106" +
  	"301106096086480186f842010104040302010630280603551d110421301fa41d301b3119301706" +
  	"035504031310507269766174654c6162656c332d313530310603551d1f042a30283026a024a022" +
  	"8620687474703a2f2f63726c2e766572697369676e2e636f6d2f706361332e63726c303206082b" +
  	"0601050507010104263024302206082b060105050730018616687474703a2f2f6f6373702e7468" +
  	"617774652e636f6d30340603551d25042d302b06082b0601050507030106082b06010505070302" +
  	"06096086480186f8420401060a6086480186f845010801300d06092a864886f70d010105050003" +
  	"81810055ac63eadea1ddd2905f9f0bce76be13518f93d9052bc81b774bad6950a1eededcfddb07" +
  	"e9e83994dcab72792f06bfab8170c4a8edea5334edef1e53d906c7562bd15cf4d18a8eb42bb137" +
  	"9048084225c53e8acb7feb6f04d16dc574a2f7a27c7b603c77cd0ece48027f012fb69b37e02a2a" +
  	"36dcd585d6ace53f546f961e05af"
  
  func TestCreateSelfSignedCertificate(t *testing.T) {
  	random := rand.Reader
  
  	ecdsaPriv, err := ecdsa.GenerateKey(elliptic.P256(), rand.Reader)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("Failed to generate ECDSA key: %s", err)
  	}
  
  	tests := []struct {
  		name      string
  		pub, priv interface{}
  		checkSig  bool
  		sigAlgo   SignatureAlgorithm
  	}{
  		{"RSA/RSA", &testPrivateKey.PublicKey, testPrivateKey, true, SHA1WithRSA},
  		{"RSA/ECDSA", &testPrivateKey.PublicKey, ecdsaPriv, false, ECDSAWithSHA384},
  		{"ECDSA/RSA", &ecdsaPriv.PublicKey, testPrivateKey, false, SHA256WithRSA},
  		{"ECDSA/ECDSA", &ecdsaPriv.PublicKey, ecdsaPriv, true, ECDSAWithSHA1},
  		{"RSAPSS/RSAPSS", &testPrivateKey.PublicKey, testPrivateKey, true, SHA256WithRSAPSS},
  		{"ECDSA/RSAPSS", &ecdsaPriv.PublicKey, testPrivateKey, false, SHA256WithRSAPSS},
  		{"RSAPSS/ECDSA", &testPrivateKey.PublicKey, ecdsaPriv, false, ECDSAWithSHA384},
  	}
  
  	testExtKeyUsage := []ExtKeyUsage{ExtKeyUsageClientAuth, ExtKeyUsageServerAuth}
  	testUnknownExtKeyUsage := []asn1.ObjectIdentifier{[]int{1, 2, 3}, []int{2, 59, 1}}
  	extraExtensionData := []byte("extra extension")
  
  	for _, test := range tests {
  		commonName := "test.example.com"
  		template := Certificate{
  			// SerialNumber is negative to ensure that negative
  			// values are parsed. This is due to the prevalence of
  			// buggy code that produces certificates with negative
  			// serial numbers.
  			SerialNumber: big.NewInt(-1),
  			Subject: pkix.Name{
  				CommonName:   commonName,
  				Organization: []string{"Σ Acme Co"},
  				Country:      []string{"US"},
  				ExtraNames: []pkix.AttributeTypeAndValue{
  					{
  						Type:  []int{2, 5, 4, 42},
  						Value: "Gopher",
  					},
  					// This should override the Country, above.
  					{
  						Type:  []int{2, 5, 4, 6},
  						Value: "NL",
  					},
  				},
  			},
  			NotBefore: time.Unix(1000, 0),
  			NotAfter:  time.Unix(100000, 0),
  
  			SignatureAlgorithm: test.sigAlgo,
  
  			SubjectKeyId: []byte{1, 2, 3, 4},
  			KeyUsage:     KeyUsageCertSign,
  
  			ExtKeyUsage:        testExtKeyUsage,
  			UnknownExtKeyUsage: testUnknownExtKeyUsage,
  
  			BasicConstraintsValid: true,
  			IsCA: true,
  
  			OCSPServer:            []string{"http://ocsp.example.com"},
  			IssuingCertificateURL: []string{"http://crt.example.com/ca1.crt"},
  
  			DNSNames:       []string{"test.example.com"},
  			EmailAddresses: []string{"gopher@golang.org"},
  			IPAddresses:    []net.IP{net.IPv4(127, 0, 0, 1).To4(), net.ParseIP("2001:4860:0:2001::68")},
  
  			PolicyIdentifiers:   []asn1.ObjectIdentifier{[]int{1, 2, 3}},
  			PermittedDNSDomains: []string{".example.com", "example.com"},
  			ExcludedDNSDomains:  []string{"bar.example.com"},
  
  			CRLDistributionPoints: []string{"http://crl1.example.com/ca1.crl", "http://crl2.example.com/ca1.crl"},
  
  			ExtraExtensions: []pkix.Extension{
  				{
  					Id:    []int{1, 2, 3, 4},
  					Value: extraExtensionData,
  				},
  				// This extension should override the SubjectKeyId, above.
  				{
  					Id:       oidExtensionSubjectKeyId,
  					Critical: false,
  					Value:    []byte{0x04, 0x04, 4, 3, 2, 1},
  				},
  			},
  		}
  
  		derBytes, err := CreateCertificate(random, &template, &template, test.pub, test.priv)
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("%s: failed to create certificate: %s", test.name, err)
  			continue
  		}
  
  		cert, err := ParseCertificate(derBytes)
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("%s: failed to parse certificate: %s", test.name, err)
  			continue
  		}
  
  		if len(cert.PolicyIdentifiers) != 1 || !cert.PolicyIdentifiers[0].Equal(template.PolicyIdentifiers[0]) {
  			t.Errorf("%s: failed to parse policy identifiers: got:%#v want:%#v", test.name, cert.PolicyIdentifiers, template.PolicyIdentifiers)
  		}
  
  		if len(cert.PermittedDNSDomains) != 2 || cert.PermittedDNSDomains[0] != ".example.com" || cert.PermittedDNSDomains[1] != "example.com" {
  			t.Errorf("%s: failed to parse name constraints: %#v", test.name, cert.PermittedDNSDomains)
  		}
  
  		if len(cert.ExcludedDNSDomains) != 1 || cert.ExcludedDNSDomains[0] != "bar.example.com" {
  			t.Errorf("%s: failed to parse name constraint exclusions: %#v", test.name, cert.ExcludedDNSDomains)
  		}
  
  		if cert.Subject.CommonName != commonName {
  			t.Errorf("%s: subject wasn't correctly copied from the template. Got %s, want %s", test.name, cert.Subject.CommonName, commonName)
  		}
  
  		if len(cert.Subject.Country) != 1 || cert.Subject.Country[0] != "NL" {
  			t.Errorf("%s: ExtraNames didn't override Country", test.name)
  		}
  
  		found := false
  		for _, atv := range cert.Subject.Names {
  			if atv.Type.Equal([]int{2, 5, 4, 42}) {
  				found = true
  				break
  			}
  		}
  		if !found {
  			t.Errorf("%s: Names didn't contain oid 2.5.4.42 from ExtraNames", test.name)
  		}
  
  		if cert.Issuer.CommonName != commonName {
  			t.Errorf("%s: issuer wasn't correctly copied from the template. Got %s, want %s", test.name, cert.Issuer.CommonName, commonName)
  		}
  
  		if cert.SignatureAlgorithm != test.sigAlgo {
  			t.Errorf("%s: SignatureAlgorithm wasn't copied from template. Got %v, want %v", test.name, cert.SignatureAlgorithm, test.sigAlgo)
  		}
  
  		if !reflect.DeepEqual(cert.ExtKeyUsage, testExtKeyUsage) {
  			t.Errorf("%s: extkeyusage wasn't correctly copied from the template. Got %v, want %v", test.name, cert.ExtKeyUsage, testExtKeyUsage)
  		}
  
  		if !reflect.DeepEqual(cert.UnknownExtKeyUsage, testUnknownExtKeyUsage) {
  			t.Errorf("%s: unknown extkeyusage wasn't correctly copied from the template. Got %v, want %v", test.name, cert.UnknownExtKeyUsage, testUnknownExtKeyUsage)
  		}
  
  		if !reflect.DeepEqual(cert.OCSPServer, template.OCSPServer) {
  			t.Errorf("%s: OCSP servers differ from template. Got %v, want %v", test.name, cert.OCSPServer, template.OCSPServer)
  		}
  
  		if !reflect.DeepEqual(cert.IssuingCertificateURL, template.IssuingCertificateURL) {
  			t.Errorf("%s: Issuing certificate URLs differ from template. Got %v, want %v", test.name, cert.IssuingCertificateURL, template.IssuingCertificateURL)
  		}
  
  		if !reflect.DeepEqual(cert.DNSNames, template.DNSNames) {
  			t.Errorf("%s: SAN DNS names differ from template. Got %v, want %v", test.name, cert.DNSNames, template.DNSNames)
  		}
  
  		if !reflect.DeepEqual(cert.EmailAddresses, template.EmailAddresses) {
  			t.Errorf("%s: SAN emails differ from template. Got %v, want %v", test.name, cert.EmailAddresses, template.EmailAddresses)
  		}
  
  		if !reflect.DeepEqual(cert.IPAddresses, template.IPAddresses) {
  			t.Errorf("%s: SAN IPs differ from template. Got %v, want %v", test.name, cert.IPAddresses, template.IPAddresses)
  		}
  
  		if !reflect.DeepEqual(cert.CRLDistributionPoints, template.CRLDistributionPoints) {
  			t.Errorf("%s: CRL distribution points differ from template. Got %v, want %v", test.name, cert.CRLDistributionPoints, template.CRLDistributionPoints)
  		}
  
  		if !bytes.Equal(cert.SubjectKeyId, []byte{4, 3, 2, 1}) {
  			t.Errorf("%s: ExtraExtensions didn't override SubjectKeyId", test.name)
  		}
  
  		if !bytes.Contains(derBytes, extraExtensionData) {
  			t.Errorf("%s: didn't find extra extension in DER output", test.name)
  		}
  
  		if test.checkSig {
  			err = cert.CheckSignatureFrom(cert)
  			if err != nil {
  				t.Errorf("%s: signature verification failed: %s", test.name, err)
  			}
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  // Self-signed certificate using ECDSA with SHA1 & secp256r1
  var ecdsaSHA1CertPem = `
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIICDjCCAbUCCQDF6SfN0nsnrjAJBgcqhkjOPQQBMIGPMQswCQYDVQQGEwJVUzET
  MBEGA1UECAwKQ2FsaWZvcm5pYTEWMBQGA1UEBwwNTW91bnRhaW4gVmlldzEVMBMG
  A1UECgwMR29vZ2xlLCBJbmMuMRcwFQYDVQQDDA53d3cuZ29vZ2xlLmNvbTEjMCEG
  CSqGSIb3DQEJARYUZ29sYW5nLWRldkBnbWFpbC5jb20wHhcNMTIwNTIwMjAyMDUw
  WhcNMjIwNTE4MjAyMDUwWjCBjzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxEzARBgNVBAgMCkNhbGlm
  b3JuaWExFjAUBgNVBAcMDU1vdW50YWluIFZpZXcxFTATBgNVBAoMDEdvb2dsZSwg
  SW5jLjEXMBUGA1UEAwwOd3d3Lmdvb2dsZS5jb20xIzAhBgkqhkiG9w0BCQEWFGdv
  bGFuZy1kZXZAZ21haWwuY29tMFkwEwYHKoZIzj0CAQYIKoZIzj0DAQcDQgAE/Wgn
  WQDo5+bz71T0327ERgd5SDDXFbXLpzIZDXTkjpe8QTEbsF+ezsQfrekrpDPC4Cd3
  P9LY0tG+aI8IyVKdUjAJBgcqhkjOPQQBA0gAMEUCIGlsqMcRqWVIWTD6wXwe6Jk2
  DKxL46r/FLgJYnzBEH99AiEA3fBouObsvV1R3oVkb4BQYnD4/4LeId6lAT43YvyV
  a/A=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----
  `
  
  // Self-signed certificate using ECDSA with SHA256 & secp256r1
  var ecdsaSHA256p256CertPem = `
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIICDzCCAbYCCQDlsuMWvgQzhTAKBggqhkjOPQQDAjCBjzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMx
  EzARBgNVBAgMCkNhbGlmb3JuaWExFjAUBgNVBAcMDU1vdW50YWluIFZpZXcxFTAT
  BgNVBAoMDEdvb2dsZSwgSW5jLjEXMBUGA1UEAwwOd3d3Lmdvb2dsZS5jb20xIzAh
  BgkqhkiG9w0BCQEWFGdvbGFuZy1kZXZAZ21haWwuY29tMB4XDTEyMDUyMTAwMTkx
  NloXDTIyMDUxOTAwMTkxNlowgY8xCzAJBgNVBAYTAlVTMRMwEQYDVQQIDApDYWxp
  Zm9ybmlhMRYwFAYDVQQHDA1Nb3VudGFpbiBWaWV3MRUwEwYDVQQKDAxHb29nbGUs
  IEluYy4xFzAVBgNVBAMMDnd3dy5nb29nbGUuY29tMSMwIQYJKoZIhvcNAQkBFhRn
  b2xhbmctZGV2QGdtYWlsLmNvbTBZMBMGByqGSM49AgEGCCqGSM49AwEHA0IABPMt
  2ErhxAty5EJRu9yM+MTy+hUXm3pdW1ensAv382KoGExSXAFWP7pjJnNtHO+XSwVm
  YNtqjcAGFKpweoN//kQwCgYIKoZIzj0EAwIDRwAwRAIgIYSaUA/IB81gjbIw/hUV
  70twxJr5EcgOo0hLp3Jm+EYCIFDO3NNcgmURbJ1kfoS3N/0O+irUtoPw38YoNkqJ
  h5wi
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----
  `
  
  // Self-signed certificate using ECDSA with SHA256 & secp384r1
  var ecdsaSHA256p384CertPem = `
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIICSjCCAdECCQDje/no7mXkVzAKBggqhkjOPQQDAjCBjjELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMx
  EzARBgNVBAgMCkNhbGlmb3JuaWExFjAUBgNVBAcMDU1vdW50YWluIFZpZXcxFDAS
  BgNVBAoMC0dvb2dsZSwgSW5jMRcwFQYDVQQDDA53d3cuZ29vZ2xlLmNvbTEjMCEG
  CSqGSIb3DQEJARYUZ29sYW5nLWRldkBnbWFpbC5jb20wHhcNMTIwNTIxMDYxMDM0
  WhcNMjIwNTE5MDYxMDM0WjCBjjELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxEzARBgNVBAgMCkNhbGlm
  b3JuaWExFjAUBgNVBAcMDU1vdW50YWluIFZpZXcxFDASBgNVBAoMC0dvb2dsZSwg
  SW5jMRcwFQYDVQQDDA53d3cuZ29vZ2xlLmNvbTEjMCEGCSqGSIb3DQEJARYUZ29s
  YW5nLWRldkBnbWFpbC5jb20wdjAQBgcqhkjOPQIBBgUrgQQAIgNiAARRuzRNIKRK
  jIktEmXanNmrTR/q/FaHXLhWRZ6nHWe26Fw7Rsrbk+VjGy4vfWtNn7xSFKrOu5ze
  qxKnmE0h5E480MNgrUiRkaGO2GMJJVmxx20aqkXOk59U8yGA4CghE6MwCgYIKoZI
  zj0EAwIDZwAwZAIwBZEN8gvmRmfeP/9C1PRLzODIY4JqWub2PLRT4mv9GU+yw3Gr
  PU9A3CHMdEcdw/MEAjBBO1lId8KOCh9UZunsSMfqXiVurpzmhWd6VYZ/32G+M+Mh
  3yILeYQzllt/g0rKVRk=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----
  `
  
  // Self-signed certificate using ECDSA with SHA384 & secp521r1
  var ecdsaSHA384p521CertPem = `
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIICljCCAfcCCQDhp1AFD/ahKjAKBggqhkjOPQQDAzCBjjELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMx
  EzARBgNVBAgMCkNhbGlmb3JuaWExFjAUBgNVBAcMDU1vdW50YWluIFZpZXcxFDAS
  BgNVBAoMC0dvb2dsZSwgSW5jMRcwFQYDVQQDDA53d3cuZ29vZ2xlLmNvbTEjMCEG
  CSqGSIb3DQEJARYUZ29sYW5nLWRldkBnbWFpbC5jb20wHhcNMTIwNTIxMTUwNDI5
  WhcNMjIwNTE5MTUwNDI5WjCBjjELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxEzARBgNVBAgMCkNhbGlm
  b3JuaWExFjAUBgNVBAcMDU1vdW50YWluIFZpZXcxFDASBgNVBAoMC0dvb2dsZSwg
  SW5jMRcwFQYDVQQDDA53d3cuZ29vZ2xlLmNvbTEjMCEGCSqGSIb3DQEJARYUZ29s
  YW5nLWRldkBnbWFpbC5jb20wgZswEAYHKoZIzj0CAQYFK4EEACMDgYYABACqx9Rv
  IssRs1LWYcNN+WffwlHw4Tv3y8/LIAA9MF1ZScIonU9nRMxt4a2uGJVCPDw6JHpz
  PaYc0E9puLoE9AfKpwFr59Jkot7dBg55SKPEFkddoip/rvmN7NPAWjMBirOwjOkm
  8FPthvPhGPqsu9AvgVuHu3PosWiHGNrhh379pva8MzAKBggqhkjOPQQDAwOBjAAw
  gYgCQgEHNmswkUdPpHqrVxp9PvLVl+xxPuHBkT+75z9JizyxtqykHQo9Uh6SWCYH
  BF9KLolo01wMt8DjoYP5Fb3j5MH7xwJCAbWZzTOp4l4DPkIvAh4LeC4VWbwPPyqh
  kBg71w/iEcSY3wUKgHGcJJrObZw7wys91I5kENljqw/Samdr3ka+jBJa
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----
  `
  
  var ecdsaTests = []struct {
  	sigAlgo SignatureAlgorithm
  	pemCert string
  }{
  	{ECDSAWithSHA1, ecdsaSHA1CertPem},
  	{ECDSAWithSHA256, ecdsaSHA256p256CertPem},
  	{ECDSAWithSHA256, ecdsaSHA256p384CertPem},
  	{ECDSAWithSHA384, ecdsaSHA384p521CertPem},
  }
  
  func TestECDSA(t *testing.T) {
  	for i, test := range ecdsaTests {
  		pemBlock, _ := pem.Decode([]byte(test.pemCert))
  		cert, err := ParseCertificate(pemBlock.Bytes)
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("%d: failed to parse certificate: %s", i, err)
  			continue
  		}
  		if sa := cert.SignatureAlgorithm; sa != test.sigAlgo {
  			t.Errorf("%d: signature algorithm is %v, want %v", i, sa, test.sigAlgo)
  		}
  		if parsedKey, ok := cert.PublicKey.(*ecdsa.PublicKey); !ok {
  			t.Errorf("%d: wanted an ECDSA public key but found: %#v", i, parsedKey)
  		}
  		if pka := cert.PublicKeyAlgorithm; pka != ECDSA {
  			t.Errorf("%d: public key algorithm is %v, want ECDSA", i, pka)
  		}
  		if err = cert.CheckSignatureFrom(cert); err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("%d: certificate verification failed: %s", i, err)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  // Self-signed certificate using DSA with SHA1
  var dsaCertPem = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIEDTCCA82gAwIBAgIJALHPghaoxeDhMAkGByqGSM44BAMweTELMAkGA1UEBhMC
  VVMxCzAJBgNVBAgTAk5DMQ8wDQYDVQQHEwZOZXd0b24xFDASBgNVBAoTC0dvb2ds
  ZSwgSW5jMRIwEAYDVQQDEwlKb24gQWxsaWUxIjAgBgkqhkiG9w0BCQEWE2pvbmFs
  bGllQGdvb2dsZS5jb20wHhcNMTEwNTE0MDMwMTQ1WhcNMTEwNjEzMDMwMTQ1WjB5
  MQswCQYDVQQGEwJVUzELMAkGA1UECBMCTkMxDzANBgNVBAcTBk5ld3RvbjEUMBIG
  A1UEChMLR29vZ2xlLCBJbmMxEjAQBgNVBAMTCUpvbiBBbGxpZTEiMCAGCSqGSIb3
  DQEJARYTam9uYWxsaWVAZ29vZ2xlLmNvbTCCAbcwggEsBgcqhkjOOAQBMIIBHwKB
  gQC8hLUnQ7FpFYu4WXTj6DKvXvz8QrJkNJCVMTpKAT7uBpobk32S5RrPKXocd4gN
  8lyGB9ggS03EVlEwXvSmO0DH2MQtke2jl9j1HLydClMf4sbx5V6TV9IFw505U1iW
  jL7awRMgxge+FsudtJK254FjMFo03ZnOQ8ZJJ9E6AEDrlwIVAJpnBn9moyP11Ox5
  Asc/5dnjb6dPAoGBAJFHd4KVv1iTVCvEG6gGiYop5DJh28hUQcN9kul+2A0yPUSC
  X93oN00P8Vh3eYgSaCWZsha7zDG53MrVJ0Zf6v/X/CoZNhLldeNOepivTRAzn+Rz
  kKUYy5l1sxYLHQKF0UGNCXfFKZT0PCmgU+PWhYNBBMn6/cIh44vp85ideo5CA4GE
  AAKBgFmifCafzeRaohYKXJgMGSEaggCVCRq5xdyDCat+wbOkjC4mfG01/um3G8u5
  LxasjlWRKTR/tcAL7t0QuokVyQaYdVypZXNaMtx1db7YBuHjj3aP+8JOQRI9xz8c
  bp5NDJ5pISiFOv4p3GZfqZPcqckDt78AtkQrmnal2txhhjF6o4HeMIHbMB0GA1Ud
  DgQWBBQVyyr7hO11ZFFpWX50298Sa3V+rzCBqwYDVR0jBIGjMIGggBQVyyr7hO11
  ZFFpWX50298Sa3V+r6F9pHsweTELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxCzAJBgNVBAgTAk5DMQ8w
  DQYDVQQHEwZOZXd0b24xFDASBgNVBAoTC0dvb2dsZSwgSW5jMRIwEAYDVQQDEwlK
  b24gQWxsaWUxIjAgBgkqhkiG9w0BCQEWE2pvbmFsbGllQGdvb2dsZS5jb22CCQCx
  z4IWqMXg4TAMBgNVHRMEBTADAQH/MAkGByqGSM44BAMDLwAwLAIUPtn/5j8Q1jJI
  7ggOIsgrhgUdjGQCFCsmDq1H11q9+9Wp9IMeGrTSKHIM
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----
  `
  
  func TestParseCertificateWithDsaPublicKey(t *testing.T) {
  	expectedKey := &dsa.PublicKey{
  		Parameters: dsa.Parameters{
  			P: bigFromHexString("00BC84B52743B169158BB85974E3E832AF5EFCFC42B264349095313A4A013EEE069A1B937D92E51ACF297A1C77880DF25C8607D8204B4DC45651305EF4A63B40C7D8C42D91EDA397D8F51CBC9D0A531FE2C6F1E55E9357D205C39D395358968CBEDAC11320C607BE16CB9DB492B6E78163305A34DD99CE43C64927D13A0040EB97"),
  			Q: bigFromHexString("009A67067F66A323F5D4EC7902C73FE5D9E36FA74F"),
  			G: bigFromHexString("009147778295BF5893542BC41BA806898A29E43261DBC85441C37D92E97ED80D323D44825FDDE8374D0FF15877798812682599B216BBCC31B9DCCAD527465FEAFFD7FC2A193612E575E34E7A98AF4D10339FE47390A518CB9975B3160B1D0285D1418D0977C52994F43C29A053E3D685834104C9FAFDC221E38BE9F3989D7A8E42"),
  		},
  		Y: bigFromHexString("59A27C269FCDE45AA2160A5C980C19211A820095091AB9C5DC8309AB7EC1B3A48C2E267C6D35FEE9B71BCBB92F16AC8E559129347FB5C00BEEDD10BA8915C90698755CA965735A32DC7575BED806E1E38F768FFBC24E41123DC73F1C6E9E4D0C9E692128853AFE29DC665FA993DCA9C903B7BF00B6442B9A76A5DADC6186317A"),
  	}
  	pemBlock, _ := pem.Decode([]byte(dsaCertPem))
  	cert, err := ParseCertificate(pemBlock.Bytes)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("Failed to parse certificate: %s", err)
  	}
  	if cert.PublicKeyAlgorithm != DSA {
  		t.Errorf("Parsed key algorithm was not DSA")
  	}
  	parsedKey, ok := cert.PublicKey.(*dsa.PublicKey)
  	if !ok {
  		t.Fatalf("Parsed key was not a DSA key: %s", err)
  	}
  	if expectedKey.Y.Cmp(parsedKey.Y) != 0 ||
  		expectedKey.P.Cmp(parsedKey.P) != 0 ||
  		expectedKey.Q.Cmp(parsedKey.Q) != 0 ||
  		expectedKey.G.Cmp(parsedKey.G) != 0 {
  		t.Fatal("Parsed key differs from expected key")
  	}
  }
  
  func TestParseCertificateWithDSASignatureAlgorithm(t *testing.T) {
  	pemBlock, _ := pem.Decode([]byte(dsaCertPem))
  	cert, err := ParseCertificate(pemBlock.Bytes)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("Failed to parse certificate: %s", err)
  	}
  	if cert.SignatureAlgorithm != DSAWithSHA1 {
  		t.Errorf("Parsed signature algorithm was not DSAWithSHA1")
  	}
  }
  
  func TestVerifyCertificateWithDSASignature(t *testing.T) {
  	pemBlock, _ := pem.Decode([]byte(dsaCertPem))
  	cert, err := ParseCertificate(pemBlock.Bytes)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("Failed to parse certificate: %s", err)
  	}
  	// test cert is self-signed
  	if err = cert.CheckSignatureFrom(cert); err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("DSA Certificate verification failed: %s", err)
  	}
  }
  
  var rsaPSSSelfSignedPEM = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIGHjCCA9KgAwIBAgIBdjBBBgkqhkiG9w0BAQowNKAPMA0GCWCGSAFlAwQCAQUA
  oRwwGgYJKoZIhvcNAQEIMA0GCWCGSAFlAwQCAQUAogMCASAwbjELMAkGA1UEBhMC
  SlAxHDAaBgNVBAoME0phcGFuZXNlIEdvdmVybm1lbnQxKDAmBgNVBAsMH1RoZSBN
  aW5pc3RyeSBvZiBGb3JlaWduIEFmZmFpcnMxFzAVBgNVBAMMDmUtcGFzc3BvcnRD
  U0NBMB4XDTEzMDUxNDA1MDczMFoXDTI5MDUxNDA1MDczMFowbjELMAkGA1UEBhMC
  SlAxHDAaBgNVBAoME0phcGFuZXNlIEdvdmVybm1lbnQxKDAmBgNVBAsMH1RoZSBN
  aW5pc3RyeSBvZiBGb3JlaWduIEFmZmFpcnMxFzAVBgNVBAMMDmUtcGFzc3BvcnRD
  U0NBMIICIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAg8AMIICCgKCAgEAx/E3WRVxcCDXhoST
  8nVSLjW6hwM4Ni99AegWzcGtfGFo0zjFA1Cl5URqxauvYu3gQgQHBGA1CovWeGrl
  yVSRzOL1imcYsSgLOcnhVYB3Xcrof4ebv9+W+TwNdc9YzAwcj8rNd5nP6PKXIQ+W
  PCkEOXdyb80YEnxuT+NPjkVfFSPBS7QYZpvT2fwy4fZ0eh48253+7VleSmTO0mqj
  7TlzaG56q150SLZbhpOd8jD8bM/wACnLCPR88wj4hCcDLEwoLyY85HJCTIQQMnoT
  UpqyzEeupPREIm6yi4d8C9YqIWFn2YTnRcWcmMaJLzq+kYwKoudfnoC6RW2vzZXn
  defQs68IZuK+uALu9G3JWGPgu0CQGj0JNDT8zkiDV++4eNrZczWKjr1YnAL+VbLK
  bApwL2u19l2WDpfUklimhWfraqHNIUKU6CjZOG31RzXcplIj0mtqs0E1r7r357Es
  yFoB28iNo4cz1lCulh0E4WJzWzLZcT4ZspHHRCFyvYnXoibXEV1nULq8ByKKG0FS
  7nn4SseoV+8PvjHLPhmHGMvi4mxkbcXdV3wthHT1/HXdqY84A4xHWt1+sB/TpTek
  tDhFlEfcUygvTu58UtOnysomOVVeERmi7WSujfzKsGJAJYeetiA5R+zX7BxeyFVE
  qW0zh1Tkwh0S8LRe5diJh4+6FG0CAwEAAaNfMF0wHQYDVR0OBBYEFD+oahaikBTV
  Urk81Uz7kRS2sx0aMA4GA1UdDwEB/wQEAwIBBjAYBgNVHSAEETAPMA0GCyqDCIaP
  fgYFAQEBMBIGA1UdEwEB/wQIMAYBAf8CAQAwQQYJKoZIhvcNAQEKMDSgDzANBglg
  hkgBZQMEAgEFAKEcMBoGCSqGSIb3DQEBCDANBglghkgBZQMEAgEFAKIDAgEgA4IC
  AQAaxWBQn5CZuNBfyzL57mn31ukHUFd61OMROSX3PT7oCv1Dy+C2AdRlxOcbN3/n
  li0yfXUUqiY3COlLAHKRlkr97mLtxEFoJ0R8nVN2IQdChNQM/XSCzSGyY8NVa1OR
  TTpEWLnexJ9kvIdbFXwUqdTnAkOI0m7Rg8j+E+lRRHg1xDAA1qKttrtUj3HRQWf3
  kNTu628SiMvap6aIdncburaK56MP7gkR1Wr/ichOfjIA3Jgw2PapI31i0GqeMd66
  U1+lC9FeyMAJpuSVp/SoiYzYo+79SFcVoM2yw3yAnIKg7q9GLYYqzncdykT6C06c
  15gWFI6igmReAsD9ITSvYh0jLrLHfEYcPTOD3ZXJ4EwwHtWSoO3gq1EAtOYKu/Lv
  C8zfBsZcFdsHvsSiYeBU8Oioe42mguky3Ax9O7D805Ek6R68ra07MW/G4YxvV7IN
  2BfSaYy8MX9IG0ZMIOcoc0FeF5xkFmJ7kdrlTaJzC0IE9PNxNaH5QnOAFB8vxHcO
  FioUxb6UKdHcPLR1VZtAdTdTMjSJxUqD/35Cdfqs7oDJXz8f6TXO2Tdy6G++YUs9
  qsGZWxzFvvkXUkQSl0dQQ5jO/FtUJcAVXVVp20LxPemfatAHpW31WdJYeWSQWky2
  +f9b5TXKXVyjlUL7uHxowWrT2AtTchDH22wTEtqLEF9Z3Q==
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  func TestRSAPSSSelfSigned(t *testing.T) {
  	der, _ := pem.Decode([]byte(rsaPSSSelfSignedPEM))
  	if der == nil {
  		t.Fatal("Failed to find PEM block")
  	}
  
  	cert, err := ParseCertificate(der.Bytes)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatal(err)
  	}
  
  	if err = cert.CheckSignatureFrom(cert); err != nil {
  		t.Fatal(err)
  	}
  }
  
  const pemCertificate = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIDATCCAemgAwIBAgIRAKQkkrFx1T/dgB/Go/xBM5swDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQAw
  EjEQMA4GA1UEChMHQWNtZSBDbzAeFw0xNjA4MTcyMDM2MDdaFw0xNzA4MTcyMDM2
  MDdaMBIxEDAOBgNVBAoTB0FjbWUgQ28wggEiMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4IBDwAw
  ggEKAoIBAQDAoJtjG7M6InsWwIo+l3qq9u+g2rKFXNu9/mZ24XQ8XhV6PUR+5HQ4
  jUFWC58ExYhottqK5zQtKGkw5NuhjowFUgWB/VlNGAUBHtJcWR/062wYrHBYRxJH
  qVXOpYKbIWwFKoXu3hcpg/CkdOlDWGKoZKBCwQwUBhWE7MDhpVdQ+ZljUJWL+FlK
  yQK5iRsJd5TGJ6VUzLzdT4fmN2DzeK6GLeyMpVpU3sWV90JJbxWQ4YrzkKzYhMmB
  EcpXTG2wm+ujiHU/k2p8zlf8Sm7VBM/scmnMFt0ynNXop4FWvJzEm1G0xD2t+e2I
  5Utr04dOZPCgkm++QJgYhtZvgW7ZZiGTAgMBAAGjUjBQMA4GA1UdDwEB/wQEAwIF
  oDATBgNVHSUEDDAKBggrBgEFBQcDATAMBgNVHRMBAf8EAjAAMBsGA1UdEQQUMBKC
  EHRlc3QuZXhhbXBsZS5jb20wDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADggEBADpqKQxrthH5InC7
  X96UP0OJCu/lLEMkrjoEWYIQaFl7uLPxKH5AmQPH4lYwF7u7gksR7owVG9QU9fs6
  1fK7II9CVgCd/4tZ0zm98FmU4D0lHGtPARrrzoZaqVZcAvRnFTlPX5pFkPhVjjai
  /mkxX9LpD8oK1445DFHxK5UjLMmPIIWd8EOi+v5a+hgGwnJpoW7hntSl8kHMtTmy
  fnnktsblSUV4lRCit0ymC7Ojhe+gzCCwkgs5kDzVVag+tnl/0e2DloIjASwOhpbH
  KVcg7fBd484ht/sS+l0dsB4KDOSpd8JzVDMF8OZqlaydizoJO0yWr9GbCN1+OKq5
  EhLrEqU=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  func TestCRLCreation(t *testing.T) {
  	block, _ := pem.Decode([]byte(pemPrivateKey))
  	priv, _ := ParsePKCS1PrivateKey(block.Bytes)
  	block, _ = pem.Decode([]byte(pemCertificate))
  	cert, _ := ParseCertificate(block.Bytes)
  
  	loc := time.FixedZone("Oz/Atlantis", int((2 * time.Hour).Seconds()))
  
  	now := time.Unix(1000, 0).In(loc)
  	nowUTC := now.UTC()
  	expiry := time.Unix(10000, 0)
  
  	revokedCerts := []pkix.RevokedCertificate{
  		{
  			SerialNumber:   big.NewInt(1),
  			RevocationTime: nowUTC,
  		},
  		{
  			SerialNumber: big.NewInt(42),
  			// RevocationTime should be converted to UTC before marshaling.
  			RevocationTime: now,
  		},
  	}
  	expectedCerts := []pkix.RevokedCertificate{
  		{
  			SerialNumber:   big.NewInt(1),
  			RevocationTime: nowUTC,
  		},
  		{
  			SerialNumber:   big.NewInt(42),
  			RevocationTime: nowUTC,
  		},
  	}
  
  	crlBytes, err := cert.CreateCRL(rand.Reader, priv, revokedCerts, now, expiry)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Errorf("error creating CRL: %s", err)
  	}
  
  	parsedCRL, err := ParseDERCRL(crlBytes)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Errorf("error reparsing CRL: %s", err)
  	}
  	if !reflect.DeepEqual(parsedCRL.TBSCertList.RevokedCertificates, expectedCerts) {
  		t.Errorf("RevokedCertificates mismatch: got %v; want %v.",
  			parsedCRL.TBSCertList.RevokedCertificates, expectedCerts)
  	}
  }
  
  func fromBase64(in string) []byte {
  	out := make([]byte, base64.StdEncoding.DecodedLen(len(in)))
  	n, err := base64.StdEncoding.Decode(out, []byte(in))
  	if err != nil {
  		panic("failed to base64 decode")
  	}
  	return out[:n]
  }
  
  func TestParseDERCRL(t *testing.T) {
  	derBytes := fromBase64(derCRLBase64)
  	certList, err := ParseDERCRL(derBytes)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Errorf("error parsing: %s", err)
  		return
  	}
  	numCerts := len(certList.TBSCertList.RevokedCertificates)
  	expected := 88
  	if numCerts != expected {
  		t.Errorf("bad number of revoked certificates. got: %d want: %d", numCerts, expected)
  	}
  
  	if certList.HasExpired(time.Unix(1302517272, 0)) {
  		t.Errorf("CRL has expired (but shouldn't have)")
  	}
  
  	// Can't check the signature here without a package cycle.
  }
  
  func TestCRLWithoutExpiry(t *testing.T) {
  	derBytes := fromBase64("MIHYMIGZMAkGByqGSM44BAMwEjEQMA4GA1UEAxMHQ2FybERTUxcNOTkwODI3MDcwMDAwWjBpMBMCAgDIFw05OTA4MjIwNzAwMDBaMBMCAgDJFw05OTA4MjIwNzAwMDBaMBMCAgDTFw05OTA4MjIwNzAwMDBaMBMCAgDSFw05OTA4MjIwNzAwMDBaMBMCAgDUFw05OTA4MjQwNzAwMDBaMAkGByqGSM44BAMDLwAwLAIUfmVSdjP+NHMX0feW+aDU2G1cfT0CFAJ6W7fVWxjBz4fvftok8yqDnDWh")
  	certList, err := ParseDERCRL(derBytes)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatal(err)
  	}
  	if !certList.TBSCertList.NextUpdate.IsZero() {
  		t.Errorf("NextUpdate is not the zero value")
  	}
  }
  
  func TestParsePEMCRL(t *testing.T) {
  	pemBytes := fromBase64(pemCRLBase64)
  	certList, err := ParseCRL(pemBytes)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Errorf("error parsing: %s", err)
  		return
  	}
  	numCerts := len(certList.TBSCertList.RevokedCertificates)
  	expected := 2
  	if numCerts != expected {
  		t.Errorf("bad number of revoked certificates. got: %d want: %d", numCerts, expected)
  	}
  
  	if certList.HasExpired(time.Unix(1302517272, 0)) {
  		t.Errorf("CRL has expired (but shouldn't have)")
  	}
  
  	// Can't check the signature here without a package cycle.
  }
  
  func TestImports(t *testing.T) {
  	testenv.MustHaveGoRun(t)
  
  	if err := exec.Command(testenv.GoToolPath(t), "run", "x509_test_import.go").Run(); err != nil {
  		t.Errorf("failed to run x509_test_import.go: %s", err)
  	}
  }
  
  const derCRLBase64 = "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"
  
  const pemCRLBase64 = "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"
  
  func TestCreateCertificateRequest(t *testing.T) {
  	random := rand.Reader
  
  	ecdsa256Priv, err := ecdsa.GenerateKey(elliptic.P256(), rand.Reader)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("Failed to generate ECDSA key: %s", err)
  	}
  
  	ecdsa384Priv, err := ecdsa.GenerateKey(elliptic.P384(), rand.Reader)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("Failed to generate ECDSA key: %s", err)
  	}
  
  	ecdsa521Priv, err := ecdsa.GenerateKey(elliptic.P521(), rand.Reader)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("Failed to generate ECDSA key: %s", err)
  	}
  
  	tests := []struct {
  		name    string
  		priv    interface{}
  		sigAlgo SignatureAlgorithm
  	}{
  		{"RSA", testPrivateKey, SHA1WithRSA},
  		{"ECDSA-256", ecdsa256Priv, ECDSAWithSHA1},
  		{"ECDSA-384", ecdsa384Priv, ECDSAWithSHA1},
  		{"ECDSA-521", ecdsa521Priv, ECDSAWithSHA1},
  	}
  
  	for _, test := range tests {
  		template := CertificateRequest{
  			Subject: pkix.Name{
  				CommonName:   "test.example.com",
  				Organization: []string{"Σ Acme Co"},
  			},
  			SignatureAlgorithm: test.sigAlgo,
  			DNSNames:           []string{"test.example.com"},
  			EmailAddresses:     []string{"gopher@golang.org"},
  			IPAddresses:        []net.IP{net.IPv4(127, 0, 0, 1).To4(), net.ParseIP("2001:4860:0:2001::68")},
  		}
  
  		derBytes, err := CreateCertificateRequest(random, &template, test.priv)
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("%s: failed to create certificate request: %s", test.name, err)
  			continue
  		}
  
  		out, err := ParseCertificateRequest(derBytes)
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("%s: failed to create certificate request: %s", test.name, err)
  			continue
  		}
  
  		err = out.CheckSignature()
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("%s: failed to check certificate request signature: %s", test.name, err)
  			continue
  		}
  
  		if out.Subject.CommonName != template.Subject.CommonName {
  			t.Errorf("%s: output subject common name and template subject common name don't match", test.name)
  		} else if len(out.Subject.Organization) != len(template.Subject.Organization) {
  			t.Errorf("%s: output subject organisation and template subject organisation don't match", test.name)
  		} else if len(out.DNSNames) != len(template.DNSNames) {
  			t.Errorf("%s: output DNS names and template DNS names don't match", test.name)
  		} else if len(out.EmailAddresses) != len(template.EmailAddresses) {
  			t.Errorf("%s: output email addresses and template email addresses don't match", test.name)
  		} else if len(out.IPAddresses) != len(template.IPAddresses) {
  			t.Errorf("%s: output IP addresses and template IP addresses names don't match", test.name)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  func marshalAndParseCSR(t *testing.T, template *CertificateRequest) *CertificateRequest {
  	derBytes, err := CreateCertificateRequest(rand.Reader, template, testPrivateKey)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatal(err)
  	}
  
  	csr, err := ParseCertificateRequest(derBytes)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatal(err)
  	}
  
  	return csr
  }
  
  func TestCertificateRequestOverrides(t *testing.T) {
  	sanContents, err := marshalSANs([]string{"foo.example.com"}, nil, nil)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatal(err)
  	}
  
  	template := CertificateRequest{
  		Subject: pkix.Name{
  			CommonName:   "test.example.com",
  			Organization: []string{"Σ Acme Co"},
  		},
  		DNSNames: []string{"test.example.com"},
  
  		// An explicit extension should override the DNSNames from the
  		// template.
  		ExtraExtensions: []pkix.Extension{
  			{
  				Id:    oidExtensionSubjectAltName,
  				Value: sanContents,
  			},
  		},
  	}
  
  	csr := marshalAndParseCSR(t, &template)
  
  	if len(csr.DNSNames) != 1 || csr.DNSNames[0] != "foo.example.com" {
  		t.Errorf("Extension did not override template. Got %v\n", csr.DNSNames)
  	}
  
  	// If there is already an attribute with X.509 extensions then the
  	// extra extensions should be added to it rather than creating a CSR
  	// with two extension attributes.
  
  	template.Attributes = []pkix.AttributeTypeAndValueSET{
  		{
  			Type: oidExtensionRequest,
  			Value: [][]pkix.AttributeTypeAndValue{
  				{
  					{
  						Type:  oidExtensionAuthorityInfoAccess,
  						Value: []byte("foo"),
  					},
  				},
  			},
  		},
  	}
  
  	csr = marshalAndParseCSR(t, &template)
  	if l := len(csr.Attributes); l != 1 {
  		t.Errorf("incorrect number of attributes: %d\n", l)
  	}
  
  	if !csr.Attributes[0].Type.Equal(oidExtensionRequest) ||
  		len(csr.Attributes[0].Value) != 1 ||
  		len(csr.Attributes[0].Value[0]) != 2 {
  		t.Errorf("bad attributes: %#v\n", csr.Attributes)
  	}
  
  	sanContents2, err := marshalSANs([]string{"foo2.example.com"}, nil, nil)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatal(err)
  	}
  
  	// Extensions in Attributes should override those in ExtraExtensions.
  	template.Attributes[0].Value[0] = append(template.Attributes[0].Value[0], pkix.AttributeTypeAndValue{
  		Type:  oidExtensionSubjectAltName,
  		Value: sanContents2,
  	})
  
  	csr = marshalAndParseCSR(t, &template)
  
  	if len(csr.DNSNames) != 1 || csr.DNSNames[0] != "foo2.example.com" {
  		t.Errorf("Attributes did not override ExtraExtensions. Got %v\n", csr.DNSNames)
  	}
  }
  
  func TestParseCertificateRequest(t *testing.T) {
  	for _, csrBase64 := range csrBase64Array {
  		csrBytes := fromBase64(csrBase64)
  		csr, err := ParseCertificateRequest(csrBytes)
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Fatalf("failed to parse CSR: %s", err)
  		}
  
  		if len(csr.EmailAddresses) != 1 || csr.EmailAddresses[0] != "gopher@golang.org" {
  			t.Errorf("incorrect email addresses found: %v", csr.EmailAddresses)
  		}
  
  		if len(csr.DNSNames) != 1 || csr.DNSNames[0] != "test.example.com" {
  			t.Errorf("incorrect DNS names found: %v", csr.DNSNames)
  		}
  
  		if len(csr.Subject.Country) != 1 || csr.Subject.Country[0] != "AU" {
  			t.Errorf("incorrect Subject name: %v", csr.Subject)
  		}
  
  		found := false
  		for _, e := range csr.Extensions {
  			if e.Id.Equal(oidExtensionBasicConstraints) {
  				found = true
  				break
  			}
  		}
  		if !found {
  			t.Errorf("basic constraints extension not found in CSR")
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  func TestCriticalFlagInCSRRequestedExtensions(t *testing.T) {
  	// This CSR contains an extension request where the extensions have a
  	// critical flag in them. In the past we failed to handle this.
  	const csrBase64 = "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"
  
  	csrBytes := fromBase64(csrBase64)
  	csr, err := ParseCertificateRequest(csrBytes)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("failed to parse CSR: %s", err)
  	}
  
  	expected := []struct {
  		Id    asn1.ObjectIdentifier
  		Value []byte
  	}{
  		{oidExtensionBasicConstraints, fromBase64("MAYBAf8CAQA=")},
  		{oidExtensionKeyUsage, fromBase64("AwIChA==")},
  	}
  
  	if n := len(csr.Extensions); n != len(expected) {
  		t.Fatalf("expected to find %d extensions but found %d", len(expected), n)
  	}
  
  	for i, extension := range csr.Extensions {
  		if !extension.Id.Equal(expected[i].Id) {
  			t.Fatalf("extension #%d has unexpected type %v (expected %v)", i, extension.Id, expected[i].Id)
  		}
  
  		if !bytes.Equal(extension.Value, expected[i].Value) {
  			t.Fatalf("extension #%d has unexpected contents %x (expected %x)", i, extension.Value, expected[i].Value)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  // serialiseAndParse generates a self-signed certificate from template and
  // returns a parsed version of it.
  func serialiseAndParse(t *testing.T, template *Certificate) *Certificate {
  	derBytes, err := CreateCertificate(rand.Reader, template, template, &testPrivateKey.PublicKey, testPrivateKey)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("failed to create certificate: %s", err)
  		return nil
  	}
  
  	cert, err := ParseCertificate(derBytes)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("failed to parse certificate: %s", err)
  		return nil
  	}
  
  	return cert
  }
  
  func TestMaxPathLen(t *testing.T) {
  	template := &Certificate{
  		SerialNumber: big.NewInt(1),
  		Subject: pkix.Name{
  			CommonName: "Σ Acme Co",
  		},
  		NotBefore: time.Unix(1000, 0),
  		NotAfter:  time.Unix(100000, 0),
  
  		BasicConstraintsValid: true,
  		IsCA: true,
  	}
  
  	cert1 := serialiseAndParse(t, template)
  	if m := cert1.MaxPathLen; m != -1 {
  		t.Errorf("Omitting MaxPathLen didn't turn into -1, got %d", m)
  	}
  	if cert1.MaxPathLenZero {
  		t.Errorf("Omitting MaxPathLen resulted in MaxPathLenZero")
  	}
  
  	template.MaxPathLen = 1
  	cert2 := serialiseAndParse(t, template)
  	if m := cert2.MaxPathLen; m != 1 {
  		t.Errorf("Setting MaxPathLen didn't work. Got %d but set 1", m)
  	}
  	if cert2.MaxPathLenZero {
  		t.Errorf("Setting MaxPathLen resulted in MaxPathLenZero")
  	}
  
  	template.MaxPathLen = 0
  	template.MaxPathLenZero = true
  	cert3 := serialiseAndParse(t, template)
  	if m := cert3.MaxPathLen; m != 0 {
  		t.Errorf("Setting MaxPathLenZero didn't work, got %d", m)
  	}
  	if !cert3.MaxPathLenZero {
  		t.Errorf("Setting MaxPathLen to zero didn't result in MaxPathLenZero")
  	}
  }
  
  func TestNoAuthorityKeyIdInSelfSignedCert(t *testing.T) {
  	template := &Certificate{
  		SerialNumber: big.NewInt(1),
  		Subject: pkix.Name{
  			CommonName: "Σ Acme Co",
  		},
  		NotBefore: time.Unix(1000, 0),
  		NotAfter:  time.Unix(100000, 0),
  
  		BasicConstraintsValid: true,
  		IsCA:         true,
  		SubjectKeyId: []byte{1, 2, 3, 4},
  	}
  
  	if cert := serialiseAndParse(t, template); len(cert.AuthorityKeyId) != 0 {
  		t.Fatalf("self-signed certificate contained default authority key id")
  	}
  
  	template.AuthorityKeyId = []byte{1, 2, 3, 4}
  	if cert := serialiseAndParse(t, template); len(cert.AuthorityKeyId) == 0 {
  		t.Fatalf("self-signed certificate erased explicit authority key id")
  	}
  }
  
  func TestASN1BitLength(t *testing.T) {
  	tests := []struct {
  		bytes  []byte
  		bitLen int
  	}{
  		{nil, 0},
  		{[]byte{0x00}, 0},
  		{[]byte{0x00, 0x00}, 0},
  		{[]byte{0xf0}, 4},
  		{[]byte{0x88}, 5},
  		{[]byte{0xff}, 8},
  		{[]byte{0xff, 0x80}, 9},
  		{[]byte{0xff, 0x81}, 16},
  	}
  
  	for i, test := range tests {
  		if got := asn1BitLength(test.bytes); got != test.bitLen {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: calculated bit-length of %d for %x, wanted %d", i, got, test.bytes, test.bitLen)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  func TestVerifyEmptyCertificate(t *testing.T) {
  	if _, err := new(Certificate).Verify(VerifyOptions{}); err != errNotParsed {
  		t.Errorf("Verifying empty certificate resulted in unexpected error: %q (wanted %q)", err, errNotParsed)
  	}
  }
  
  func TestInsecureAlgorithmErrorString(t *testing.T) {
  	tests := []struct {
  		sa   SignatureAlgorithm
  		want string
  	}{
  		{MD2WithRSA, "x509: cannot verify signature: insecure algorithm MD2-RSA"},
  		{-1, "x509: cannot verify signature: insecure algorithm -1"},
  		{0, "x509: cannot verify signature: insecure algorithm 0"},
  		{9999, "x509: cannot verify signature: insecure algorithm 9999"},
  	}
  	for i, tt := range tests {
  		if got := fmt.Sprint(InsecureAlgorithmError(tt.sa)); got != tt.want {
  			t.Errorf("%d. mismatch.\n got: %s\nwant: %s\n", i, got, tt.want)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  // These CSR was generated with OpenSSL:
  //  openssl req -out CSR.csr -new -sha256 -nodes -keyout privateKey.key -config openssl.cnf
  //
  // With openssl.cnf containing the following sections:
  //   [ v3_req ]
  //   basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
  //   keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
  //   subjectAltName = email:gopher@golang.org,DNS:test.example.com
  //   [ req_attributes ]
  //   challengePassword = ignored challenge
  //   unstructuredName  = ignored unstructured name
  var csrBase64Array = [...]string{
  	// Just [ v3_req ]
  	"MIIDHDCCAgQCAQAwfjELMAkGA1UEBhMCQVUxEzARBgNVBAgMClNvbWUtU3RhdGUxITAfBgNVBAoMGEludGVybmV0IFdpZGdpdHMgUHR5IEx0ZDEUMBIGA1UEAwwLQ29tbW9uIE5hbWUxITAfBgkqhkiG9w0BCQEWEnRlc3RAZW1haWwuYWRkcmVzczCCASIwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADggEPADCCAQoCggEBAK1GY4YFx2ujlZEOJxQVYmsjUnLsd5nFVnNpLE4cV+77sgv9NPNlB8uhn3MXt5leD34rm/2BisCHOifPucYlSrszo2beuKhvwn4+2FxDmWtBEMu/QA16L5IvoOfYZm/gJTsPwKDqvaR0tTU67a9OtxwNTBMI56YKtmwd/o8d3hYv9cg+9ZGAZ/gKONcg/OWYx/XRh6bd0g8DMbCikpWgXKDsvvK1Nk+VtkDO1JxuBaj4Lz/p/MifTfnHoqHxWOWl4EaTs4Ychxsv34/rSj1KD1tJqorIv5Xv2aqv4sjxfbrYzX4kvS5SC1goIovLnhj5UjmQ3Qy8u65eow/LLWw+YFcCAwEAAaBZMFcGCSqGSIb3DQEJDjFKMEgwCQYDVR0TBAIwADALBgNVHQ8EBAMCBeAwLgYDVR0RBCcwJYERZ29waGVyQGdvbGFuZy5vcmeCEHRlc3QuZXhhbXBsZS5jb20wDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADggEBAB6VPMRrchvNW61Tokyq3ZvO6/NoGIbuwUn54q6l5VZW0Ep5Nq8juhegSSnaJ0jrovmUgKDN9vEo2KxuAtwG6udS6Ami3zP+hRd4k9Q8djJPb78nrjzWiindLK5Fps9U5mMoi1ER8ViveyAOTfnZt/jsKUaRsscY2FzE9t9/o5moE6LTcHUS4Ap1eheR+J72WOnQYn3cifYaemsA9MJuLko+kQ6xseqttbh9zjqd9fiCSh/LNkzos9c+mg2yMADitaZinAh+HZi50ooEbjaT3erNq9O6RqwJlgD00g6MQdoz9bTAryCUhCQfkIaepmQ7BxS0pqWNW3MMwfDwx/Snz6g=",
  	// Both [ v3_req ] and [ req_attributes ]
  	"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",
  }
  
  var md5cert = `
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIB4TCCAUoCCQCfmw3vMgPS5TANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQQFADA1MQswCQYDVQQGEwJB
  VTETMBEGA1UECBMKU29tZS1TdGF0ZTERMA8GA1UEChMITUQ1IEluYy4wHhcNMTUx
  MjAzMTkyOTMyWhcNMjkwODEyMTkyOTMyWjA1MQswCQYDVQQGEwJBVTETMBEGA1UE
  CBMKU29tZS1TdGF0ZTERMA8GA1UEChMITUQ1IEluYy4wgZ8wDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEB
  BQADgY0AMIGJAoGBANrq2nhLQj5mlXbpVX3QUPhfEm/vdEqPkoWtR/jRZIWm4WGf
  Wpq/LKHJx2Pqwn+t117syN8l4U5unyAi1BJSXjBwPZNd7dXjcuJ+bRLV7FZ/iuvs
  cfYyQQFTxan4TaJMd0x1HoNDbNbjHa02IyjjYE/r3mb/PIg+J2t5AZEh80lPAgMB
  AAEwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEEBQADgYEAjGzp3K3ey/YfKHohf33yHHWd695HQxDAP+wY
  cs9/TAyLR+gJzJP7d18EcDDLJWVi7bhfa4EAD86di05azOh9kWSn4b3o9QYRGCSw
  GNnI3Zk0cwNKA49hZntKKiy22DhRk7JAHF01d6Bu3KkHkmENrtJ+zj/+159WAnUa
  qViorq4=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----
  `
  
  func TestMD5(t *testing.T) {
  	pemBlock, _ := pem.Decode([]byte(md5cert))
  	cert, err := ParseCertificate(pemBlock.Bytes)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("failed to parse certificate: %s", err)
  	}
  	if sa := cert.SignatureAlgorithm; sa != MD5WithRSA {
  		t.Errorf("signature algorithm is %v, want %v", sa, MD5WithRSA)
  	}
  	if err = cert.CheckSignatureFrom(cert); err == nil {
  		t.Fatalf("certificate verification succeeded incorrectly")
  	}
  	if _, ok := err.(InsecureAlgorithmError); !ok {
  		t.Fatalf("certificate verification returned %v (%T), wanted InsecureAlgorithmError", err, err)
  	}
  }
  
  // certMissingRSANULL contains an RSA public key where the AlgorithmIdentifer
  // parameters are omitted rather than being an ASN.1 NULL.
  const certMissingRSANULL = `
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIB7TCCAVigAwIBAgIBADALBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUwJjEQMA4GA1UEChMHQWNtZSBD
  bzESMBAGA1UEAxMJMTI3LjAuMC4xMB4XDTExMTIwODA3NTUxMloXDTEyMTIwNzA4
  MDAxMlowJjEQMA4GA1UEChMHQWNtZSBDbzESMBAGA1UEAxMJMTI3LjAuMC4xMIGc
  MAsGCSqGSIb3DQEBAQOBjAAwgYgCgYBO0Hsx44Jk2VnAwoekXh6LczPHY1PfZpIG
  hPZk1Y/kNqcdK+izIDZFI7Xjla7t4PUgnI2V339aEu+H5Fto5OkOdOwEin/ekyfE
  ARl6vfLcPRSr0FTKIQzQTW6HLlzF0rtNS0/Otiz3fojsfNcCkXSmHgwa2uNKWi7e
  E5xMQIhZkwIDAQABozIwMDAOBgNVHQ8BAf8EBAMCAKAwDQYDVR0OBAYEBAECAwQw
  DwYDVR0jBAgwBoAEAQIDBDALBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUDgYEANh+zegx1yW43RmEr1b3A
  p0vMRpqBWHyFeSnIyMZn3TJWRSt1tukkqVCavh9a+hoV2cxVlXIWg7nCto/9iIw4
  hB2rXZIxE0/9gzvGnfERYraL7KtnvshksBFQRlgXa5kc0x38BvEO5ZaoDPl4ILdE
  GFGNEH5PlGffo05wc46QkYU=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  func TestRSAMissingNULLParameters(t *testing.T) {
  	block, _ := pem.Decode([]byte(certMissingRSANULL))
  	if _, err := ParseCertificate(block.Bytes); err == nil {
  		t.Error("unexpected success when parsing certificate with missing RSA NULL parameter")
  	} else if !strings.Contains(err.Error(), "missing NULL") {
  		t.Errorf("unrecognised error when parsing certificate with missing RSA NULL parameter: %s", err)
  	}
  }
  
  const certISOOID = `
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIB5TCCAVKgAwIBAgIQtwyL3RPWV7dJQp34HwZG9DAJBgUrDgMCHQUAMBExDzAN
  BgNVBAMTBm15dGVzdDAeFw0xNjA4MDkyMjExMDVaFw0zOTEyMzEyMzU5NTlaMBEx
  DzANBgNVBAMTBm15dGVzdDCBnzANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOBjQAwgYkCgYEArzIH
  GsyDB3ohIGkkvijF2PTRUX1bvOtY1eUUpjwHyu0twpAKSuaQv2Ha+/63+aHe8O86
  BT+98wjXFX6RFSagtAujo80rIF2dSm33BGt18pDN8v6zp93dnAm0jRaSQrHJ75xw
  5O+S1oEYR1LtUoFJy6qB104j6aINBAgOiLIKiMkCAwEAAaNGMEQwQgYDVR0BBDsw
  OYAQVuYVQ/WDjdGSkZRlTtJDNKETMBExDzANBgNVBAMTBm15dGVzdIIQtwyL3RPW
  V7dJQp34HwZG9DAJBgUrDgMCHQUAA4GBABngrSkH7vG5lY4sa4AZF59lAAXqBVJE
  J4TBiKC62hCdZv18rBleP6ETfhbPg7pTs8p4ebQbpmtNxRS9Lw3MzQ8Ya5Ybwzj2
  NwBSyCtCQl7mrEg4nJqJl4A2EUhnET/oVxU0oTV/SZ3ziGXcY1oG1s6vidV7TZTu
  MCRtdSdaM7g3
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  func TestISOOIDInCertificate(t *testing.T) {
  	block, _ := pem.Decode([]byte(certISOOID))
  	if cert, err := ParseCertificate(block.Bytes); err != nil {
  		t.Errorf("certificate with ISO OID failed to parse: %s", err)
  	} else if cert.SignatureAlgorithm == UnknownSignatureAlgorithm {
  		t.Errorf("ISO OID not recognised in certificate")
  	}
  }
  
  // certMultipleRDN contains a RelativeDistinguishedName with two elements (the
  // common name and serial number). This particular certificate was the first
  // such certificate in the “Pilot” Certificate Transparency log.
  const certMultipleRDN = `
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIFRzCCBC+gAwIBAgIEOl59NTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFADA9MQswCQYDVQQGEwJz
  aTEbMBkGA1UEChMSc3RhdGUtaW5zdGl0dXRpb25zMREwDwYDVQQLEwhzaWdvdi1j
  YTAeFw0xMjExMTYxMDUyNTdaFw0xNzExMTYxMjQ5MDVaMIGLMQswCQYDVQQGEwJz
  aTEbMBkGA1UEChMSc3RhdGUtaW5zdGl0dXRpb25zMRkwFwYDVQQLExB3ZWItY2Vy
  dGlmaWNhdGVzMRAwDgYDVQQLEwdTZXJ2ZXJzMTIwFAYDVQQFEw0xMjM2NDg0MDEw
  MDEwMBoGA1UEAxMTZXBvcnRhbC5tc3MuZWR1cy5zaTCCASIwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEB
  BQADggEPADCCAQoCggEBAMrNkZH9MPuBTjMGNk3sJX8V+CkFx/4ru7RTlLS6dlYM
  098dtSfJ3s2w0p/1NB9UmR8j0yS0Kg6yoZ3ShsSO4DWBtcQD8820a6BYwqxxQTNf
  HSRZOc+N/4TQrvmK6t4k9Aw+YEYTMrWOU4UTeyhDeCcUsBdh7HjfWsVaqNky+2sv
  oic3zP5gF+2QfPkvOoHT3FLR8olNhViIE6Kk3eFIEs4dkq/ZzlYdLb8pHQoj/sGI
  zFmA5AFvm1HURqOmJriFjBwaCtn8AVEYOtQrnUCzJYu1ex8azyS2ZgYMX0u8A5Z/
  y2aMS/B2W+H79WcgLpK28vPwe7vam0oFrVytAd+u65ECAwEAAaOCAf4wggH6MA4G
  A1UdDwEB/wQEAwIFoDBABgNVHSAEOTA3MDUGCisGAQQBr1kBAwMwJzAlBggrBgEF
  BQcCARYZaHR0cDovL3d3dy5jYS5nb3Yuc2kvY3BzLzAfBgNVHREEGDAWgRRwb2Rw
  b3JhLm1pemtzQGdvdi5zaTCB8QYDVR0fBIHpMIHmMFWgU6BRpE8wTTELMAkGA1UE
  BhMCc2kxGzAZBgNVBAoTEnN0YXRlLWluc3RpdHV0aW9uczERMA8GA1UECxMIc2ln
  b3YtY2ExDjAMBgNVBAMTBUNSTDM5MIGMoIGJoIGGhldsZGFwOi8veDUwMC5nb3Yu
  c2kvb3U9c2lnb3YtY2Esbz1zdGF0ZS1pbnN0aXR1dGlvbnMsYz1zaT9jZXJ0aWZp
  Y2F0ZVJldm9jYXRpb25MaXN0P2Jhc2WGK2h0dHA6Ly93d3cuc2lnb3YtY2EuZ292
  LnNpL2NybC9zaWdvdi1jYS5jcmwwKwYDVR0QBCQwIoAPMjAxMjExMTYxMDUyNTda
  gQ8yMDE3MTExNjEyNDkwNVowHwYDVR0jBBgwFoAUHvjUU2uzgwbpBAZXAvmlv8ZY
  PHIwHQYDVR0OBBYEFGI1Duuu+wTGDZka/xHNbwcbM69ZMAkGA1UdEwQCMAAwGQYJ
  KoZIhvZ9B0EABAwwChsEVjcuMQMCA6gwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEFBQADggEBAHny0K1y
  BQznrzDu3DDpBcGYguKU0dvU9rqsV1ua4nxkriSMWjgsX6XJFDdDW60I3P4VWab5
  ag5fZzbGqi8kva/CzGgZh+CES0aWCPy+4Gb8lwOTt+854/laaJvd6kgKTER7z7U9
  9C86Ch2y4sXNwwwPJ1A9dmrZJZOcJjS/WYZgwaafY2Hdxub5jqPE5nehwYUPVu9R
  uH6/skk4OEKcfOtN0hCnISOVuKYyS4ANARWRG5VGHIH06z3lGUVARFRJ61gtAprd
  La+fgSS+LVZ+kU2TkeoWAKvGq8MAgDq4D4Xqwekg7WKFeuyusi/NI5rm40XgjBMF
  DF72IUofoVt7wo0=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  func TestMultipleRDN(t *testing.T) {
  	block, _ := pem.Decode([]byte(certMultipleRDN))
  	cert, err := ParseCertificate(block.Bytes)
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatalf("certificate with two elements in an RDN failed to parse: %v", err)
  	}
  
  	if want := "eportal.mss.edus.si"; cert.Subject.CommonName != want {
  		t.Errorf("got common name of %q, but want %q", cert.Subject.CommonName, want)
  	}
  
  	if want := "1236484010010"; cert.Subject.SerialNumber != want {
  		t.Errorf("got serial number of %q, but want %q", cert.Subject.SerialNumber, want)
  	}
  }
  
  func TestSystemCertPool(t *testing.T) {
  	if runtime.GOOS == "windows" {
  		t.Skip("not implemented on Windows; Issue 16736, 18609")
  	}
  	_, err := SystemCertPool()
  	if err != nil {
  		t.Fatal(err)
  	}
  }
  

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