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Source file src/crypto/x509/verify_test.go

Documentation: crypto/x509

  // Copyright 2011 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
  // Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
  // license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
  
  package x509
  
  import (
  	"crypto/x509/pkix"
  	"encoding/pem"
  	"errors"
  	"fmt"
  	"runtime"
  	"strings"
  	"testing"
  	"time"
  )
  
  var supportSHA2 = true
  
  type verifyTest struct {
  	leaf                 string
  	intermediates        []string
  	roots                []string
  	currentTime          int64
  	dnsName              string
  	systemSkip           bool
  	keyUsages            []ExtKeyUsage
  	testSystemRootsError bool
  	sha2                 bool
  
  	errorCallback  func(*testing.T, int, error) bool
  	expectedChains [][]string
  }
  
  var verifyTests = []verifyTest{
  	{
  		leaf:                 googleLeaf,
  		intermediates:        []string{giag2Intermediate},
  		currentTime:          1395785200,
  		dnsName:              "www.google.com",
  		testSystemRootsError: true,
  
  		// Without any roots specified we should get a system roots
  		// error.
  		errorCallback: expectSystemRootsError,
  	},
  	{
  		leaf:          googleLeaf,
  		intermediates: []string{giag2Intermediate},
  		roots:         []string{geoTrustRoot},
  		currentTime:   1395785200,
  		dnsName:       "www.google.com",
  
  		expectedChains: [][]string{
  			{"Google", "Google Internet Authority", "GeoTrust"},
  		},
  	},
  	{
  		leaf:          googleLeaf,
  		intermediates: []string{giag2Intermediate},
  		roots:         []string{geoTrustRoot},
  		currentTime:   1395785200,
  		dnsName:       "WwW.GooGLE.coM",
  
  		expectedChains: [][]string{
  			{"Google", "Google Internet Authority", "GeoTrust"},
  		},
  	},
  	{
  		leaf:          googleLeaf,
  		intermediates: []string{giag2Intermediate},
  		roots:         []string{geoTrustRoot},
  		currentTime:   1395785200,
  		dnsName:       "www.example.com",
  
  		errorCallback: expectHostnameError,
  	},
  	{
  		leaf:          googleLeaf,
  		intermediates: []string{giag2Intermediate},
  		roots:         []string{geoTrustRoot},
  		currentTime:   1,
  		dnsName:       "www.example.com",
  
  		errorCallback: expectExpired,
  	},
  	{
  		leaf:        googleLeaf,
  		roots:       []string{geoTrustRoot},
  		currentTime: 1395785200,
  		dnsName:     "www.google.com",
  
  		// Skip when using systemVerify, since Windows
  		// *will* find the missing intermediate cert.
  		systemSkip:    true,
  		errorCallback: expectAuthorityUnknown,
  	},
  	{
  		leaf:          googleLeaf,
  		intermediates: []string{geoTrustRoot, giag2Intermediate},
  		roots:         []string{geoTrustRoot},
  		currentTime:   1395785200,
  		dnsName:       "www.google.com",
  
  		expectedChains: [][]string{
  			{"Google", "Google Internet Authority", "GeoTrust"},
  		},
  		// CAPI doesn't build the chain with the duplicated GeoTrust
  		// entry so the results don't match. Thus we skip this test
  		// until that's fixed.
  		systemSkip: true,
  	},
  	{
  		leaf:          dnssecExpLeaf,
  		intermediates: []string{startComIntermediate},
  		roots:         []string{startComRoot},
  		currentTime:   1302726541,
  
  		expectedChains: [][]string{
  			{"dnssec-exp", "StartCom Class 1", "StartCom Certification Authority"},
  		},
  	},
  	{
  		leaf:          dnssecExpLeaf,
  		intermediates: []string{startComIntermediate, startComRoot},
  		roots:         []string{startComRoot},
  		currentTime:   1302726541,
  
  		expectedChains: [][]string{
  			{"dnssec-exp", "StartCom Class 1", "StartCom Certification Authority"},
  		},
  	},
  	{
  		leaf:          googleLeafWithInvalidHash,
  		intermediates: []string{giag2Intermediate},
  		roots:         []string{geoTrustRoot},
  		currentTime:   1395785200,
  		dnsName:       "www.google.com",
  
  		// The specific error message may not occur when using system
  		// verification.
  		systemSkip:    true,
  		errorCallback: expectHashError,
  	},
  	{
  		// The default configuration should reject an S/MIME chain.
  		leaf:        smimeLeaf,
  		roots:       []string{smimeIntermediate},
  		currentTime: 1339436154,
  
  		// Key usage not implemented for Windows yet.
  		systemSkip:    true,
  		errorCallback: expectUsageError,
  	},
  	{
  		leaf:        smimeLeaf,
  		roots:       []string{smimeIntermediate},
  		currentTime: 1339436154,
  		keyUsages:   []ExtKeyUsage{ExtKeyUsageServerAuth},
  
  		// Key usage not implemented for Windows yet.
  		systemSkip:    true,
  		errorCallback: expectUsageError,
  	},
  	{
  		leaf:        smimeLeaf,
  		roots:       []string{smimeIntermediate},
  		currentTime: 1339436154,
  		keyUsages:   []ExtKeyUsage{ExtKeyUsageEmailProtection},
  
  		// Key usage not implemented for Windows yet.
  		systemSkip: true,
  		expectedChains: [][]string{
  			{"Ryan Hurst", "GlobalSign PersonalSign 2 CA - G2"},
  		},
  	},
  	{
  		leaf:          megaLeaf,
  		intermediates: []string{comodoIntermediate1},
  		roots:         []string{comodoRoot},
  		currentTime:   1360431182,
  
  		// CryptoAPI can find alternative validation paths so we don't
  		// perform this test with system validation.
  		systemSkip: true,
  		expectedChains: [][]string{
  			{"mega.co.nz", "EssentialSSL CA", "COMODO Certification Authority"},
  		},
  	},
  	{
  		// Check that a name constrained intermediate works even when
  		// it lists multiple constraints.
  		leaf:          nameConstraintsLeaf,
  		intermediates: []string{nameConstraintsIntermediate1, nameConstraintsIntermediate2},
  		roots:         []string{globalSignRoot},
  		currentTime:   1382387896,
  		dnsName:       "secure.iddl.vt.edu",
  
  		expectedChains: [][]string{
  			{
  				"Technology-enhanced Learning and Online Strategies",
  				"Virginia Tech Global Qualified Server CA",
  				"Trusted Root CA G2",
  				"GlobalSign Root CA",
  			},
  		},
  	},
  	{
  		// Check that SHA-384 intermediates (which are popping up)
  		// work.
  		leaf:          moipLeafCert,
  		intermediates: []string{comodoIntermediateSHA384, comodoRSAAuthority},
  		roots:         []string{addTrustRoot},
  		currentTime:   1397502195,
  		dnsName:       "api.moip.com.br",
  
  		// CryptoAPI can find alternative validation paths so we don't
  		// perform this test with system validation.
  		systemSkip: true,
  
  		sha2: true,
  		expectedChains: [][]string{
  			{
  				"api.moip.com.br",
  				"COMODO RSA Extended Validation Secure Server CA",
  				"COMODO RSA Certification Authority",
  				"AddTrust External CA Root",
  			},
  		},
  	},
  	{
  		// Putting a certificate as a root directly should work as a
  		// way of saying “exactly this”.
  		leaf:        selfSigned,
  		roots:       []string{selfSigned},
  		currentTime: 1471624472,
  		dnsName:     "foo.example",
  		systemSkip:  true,
  
  		expectedChains: [][]string{
  			{"Acme Co"},
  		},
  	},
  	{
  		// Putting a certificate as a root directly should not skip
  		// other checks however.
  		leaf:        selfSigned,
  		roots:       []string{selfSigned},
  		currentTime: 1471624472,
  		dnsName:     "notfoo.example",
  		systemSkip:  true,
  
  		errorCallback: expectHostnameError,
  	},
  	{
  		// The issuer name in the leaf doesn't exactly match the
  		// subject name in the root. Go does not perform
  		// canonicalization and so should reject this. See issue 14955.
  		leaf:        issuerSubjectMatchLeaf,
  		roots:       []string{issuerSubjectMatchRoot},
  		currentTime: 1475787715,
  		systemSkip:  true,
  
  		errorCallback: expectSubjectIssuerMismatcthError,
  	},
  	{
  		// An X.509 v1 certificate should not be accepted as an
  		// intermediate.
  		leaf:          x509v1TestLeaf,
  		intermediates: []string{x509v1TestIntermediate},
  		roots:         []string{x509v1TestRoot},
  		currentTime:   1481753183,
  		systemSkip:    true,
  
  		errorCallback: expectNotAuthorizedError,
  	},
  	{
  		// If any SAN extension is present (even one without any DNS
  		// names), the CN should be ignored.
  		leaf:        ignoreCNWithSANLeaf,
  		dnsName:     "foo.example.com",
  		roots:       []string{ignoreCNWithSANRoot},
  		currentTime: 1486684488,
  		systemSkip:  true,
  
  		errorCallback: expectHostnameError,
  	},
  	{
  		// Test that excluded names are respected.
  		leaf:          excludedNamesLeaf,
  		dnsName:       "bender.local",
  		intermediates: []string{excludedNamesIntermediate},
  		roots:         []string{excludedNamesRoot},
  		currentTime:   1486684488,
  		systemSkip:    true,
  
  		errorCallback: expectNameConstraintsError,
  	},
  	{
  		// Test that unknown critical extensions in a leaf cause a
  		// verify error.
  		leaf:          criticalExtLeafWithExt,
  		dnsName:       "example.com",
  		intermediates: []string{criticalExtIntermediate},
  		roots:         []string{criticalExtRoot},
  		currentTime:   1486684488,
  		systemSkip:    true,
  
  		errorCallback: expectUnhandledCriticalExtension,
  	},
  	{
  		// Test that unknown critical extensions in an intermediate
  		// cause a verify error.
  		leaf:          criticalExtLeaf,
  		dnsName:       "example.com",
  		intermediates: []string{criticalExtIntermediateWithExt},
  		roots:         []string{criticalExtRoot},
  		currentTime:   1486684488,
  		systemSkip:    true,
  
  		errorCallback: expectUnhandledCriticalExtension,
  	},
  }
  
  func expectHostnameError(t *testing.T, i int, err error) (ok bool) {
  	if _, ok := err.(HostnameError); !ok {
  		t.Errorf("#%d: error was not a HostnameError: %s", i, err)
  		return false
  	}
  	return true
  }
  
  func expectExpired(t *testing.T, i int, err error) (ok bool) {
  	if inval, ok := err.(CertificateInvalidError); !ok || inval.Reason != Expired {
  		t.Errorf("#%d: error was not Expired: %s", i, err)
  		return false
  	}
  	return true
  }
  
  func expectUsageError(t *testing.T, i int, err error) (ok bool) {
  	if inval, ok := err.(CertificateInvalidError); !ok || inval.Reason != IncompatibleUsage {
  		t.Errorf("#%d: error was not IncompatibleUsage: %s", i, err)
  		return false
  	}
  	return true
  }
  
  func expectAuthorityUnknown(t *testing.T, i int, err error) (ok bool) {
  	e, ok := err.(UnknownAuthorityError)
  	if !ok {
  		t.Errorf("#%d: error was not UnknownAuthorityError: %s", i, err)
  		return false
  	}
  	if e.Cert == nil {
  		t.Errorf("#%d: error was UnknownAuthorityError, but missing Cert: %s", i, err)
  		return false
  	}
  	return true
  }
  
  func expectSystemRootsError(t *testing.T, i int, err error) bool {
  	if _, ok := err.(SystemRootsError); !ok {
  		t.Errorf("#%d: error was not SystemRootsError: %s", i, err)
  		return false
  	}
  	return true
  }
  
  func expectHashError(t *testing.T, i int, err error) bool {
  	if err == nil {
  		t.Errorf("#%d: no error resulted from invalid hash", i)
  		return false
  	}
  	if expected := "algorithm unimplemented"; !strings.Contains(err.Error(), expected) {
  		t.Errorf("#%d: error resulting from invalid hash didn't contain '%s', rather it was: %s", i, expected, err)
  		return false
  	}
  	return true
  }
  
  func expectSubjectIssuerMismatcthError(t *testing.T, i int, err error) (ok bool) {
  	if inval, ok := err.(CertificateInvalidError); !ok || inval.Reason != NameMismatch {
  		t.Errorf("#%d: error was not a NameMismatch: %s", i, err)
  		return false
  	}
  	return true
  }
  
  func expectNameConstraintsError(t *testing.T, i int, err error) (ok bool) {
  	if inval, ok := err.(CertificateInvalidError); !ok || inval.Reason != CANotAuthorizedForThisName {
  		t.Errorf("#%d: error was not a CANotAuthorizedForThisName: %s", i, err)
  		return false
  	}
  	return true
  }
  
  func expectNotAuthorizedError(t *testing.T, i int, err error) (ok bool) {
  	if inval, ok := err.(CertificateInvalidError); !ok || inval.Reason != NotAuthorizedToSign {
  		t.Errorf("#%d: error was not a NotAuthorizedToSign: %s", i, err)
  		return false
  	}
  	return true
  }
  
  func expectUnhandledCriticalExtension(t *testing.T, i int, err error) (ok bool) {
  	if _, ok := err.(UnhandledCriticalExtension); !ok {
  		t.Errorf("#%d: error was not an UnhandledCriticalExtension: %s", i, err)
  		return false
  	}
  	return true
  }
  
  func certificateFromPEM(pemBytes string) (*Certificate, error) {
  	block, _ := pem.Decode([]byte(pemBytes))
  	if block == nil {
  		return nil, errors.New("failed to decode PEM")
  	}
  	return ParseCertificate(block.Bytes)
  }
  
  func testVerify(t *testing.T, useSystemRoots bool) {
  	for i, test := range verifyTests {
  		if useSystemRoots && test.systemSkip {
  			continue
  		}
  		if runtime.GOOS == "windows" && test.testSystemRootsError {
  			continue
  		}
  		if useSystemRoots && !supportSHA2 && test.sha2 {
  			continue
  		}
  
  		opts := VerifyOptions{
  			Intermediates: NewCertPool(),
  			DNSName:       test.dnsName,
  			CurrentTime:   time.Unix(test.currentTime, 0),
  			KeyUsages:     test.keyUsages,
  		}
  
  		if !useSystemRoots {
  			opts.Roots = NewCertPool()
  			for j, root := range test.roots {
  				ok := opts.Roots.AppendCertsFromPEM([]byte(root))
  				if !ok {
  					t.Errorf("#%d: failed to parse root #%d", i, j)
  					return
  				}
  			}
  		}
  
  		for j, intermediate := range test.intermediates {
  			ok := opts.Intermediates.AppendCertsFromPEM([]byte(intermediate))
  			if !ok {
  				t.Errorf("#%d: failed to parse intermediate #%d", i, j)
  				return
  			}
  		}
  
  		leaf, err := certificateFromPEM(test.leaf)
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: failed to parse leaf: %s", i, err)
  			return
  		}
  
  		var oldSystemRoots *CertPool
  		if test.testSystemRootsError {
  			oldSystemRoots = systemRootsPool()
  			systemRoots = nil
  			opts.Roots = nil
  		}
  
  		chains, err := leaf.Verify(opts)
  
  		if test.testSystemRootsError {
  			systemRoots = oldSystemRoots
  		}
  
  		if test.errorCallback == nil && err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: unexpected error: %s", i, err)
  		}
  		if test.errorCallback != nil {
  			if !test.errorCallback(t, i, err) {
  				return
  			}
  		}
  
  		if len(chains) != len(test.expectedChains) {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: wanted %d chains, got %d", i, len(test.expectedChains), len(chains))
  		}
  
  		// We check that each returned chain matches a chain from
  		// expectedChains but an entry in expectedChains can't match
  		// two chains.
  		seenChains := make([]bool, len(chains))
  	NextOutputChain:
  		for _, chain := range chains {
  		TryNextExpected:
  			for j, expectedChain := range test.expectedChains {
  				if seenChains[j] {
  					continue
  				}
  				if len(chain) != len(expectedChain) {
  					continue
  				}
  				for k, cert := range chain {
  					if !strings.Contains(nameToKey(&cert.Subject), expectedChain[k]) {
  						continue TryNextExpected
  					}
  				}
  				// we matched
  				seenChains[j] = true
  				continue NextOutputChain
  			}
  			t.Errorf("#%d: No expected chain matched %s", i, chainToDebugString(chain))
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  func TestGoVerify(t *testing.T) {
  	testVerify(t, false)
  }
  
  func TestSystemVerify(t *testing.T) {
  	if runtime.GOOS != "windows" {
  		t.Skipf("skipping verify test using system APIs on %q", runtime.GOOS)
  	}
  
  	testVerify(t, true)
  }
  
  func chainToDebugString(chain []*Certificate) string {
  	var chainStr string
  	for _, cert := range chain {
  		if len(chainStr) > 0 {
  			chainStr += " -> "
  		}
  		chainStr += nameToKey(&cert.Subject)
  	}
  	return chainStr
  }
  
  func nameToKey(name *pkix.Name) string {
  	return strings.Join(name.Country, ",") + "/" + strings.Join(name.Organization, ",") + "/" + strings.Join(name.OrganizationalUnit, ",") + "/" + name.CommonName
  }
  
  const geoTrustRoot = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIDVDCCAjygAwIBAgIDAjRWMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBQUAMEIxCzAJBgNVBAYTAlVT
  MRYwFAYDVQQKEw1HZW9UcnVzdCBJbmMuMRswGQYDVQQDExJHZW9UcnVzdCBHbG9i
  YWwgQ0EwHhcNMDIwNTIxMDQwMDAwWhcNMjIwNTIxMDQwMDAwWjBCMQswCQYDVQQG
  EwJVUzEWMBQGA1UEChMNR2VvVHJ1c3QgSW5jLjEbMBkGA1UEAxMSR2VvVHJ1c3Qg
  R2xvYmFsIENBMIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEA2swYYzD9
  9BcjGlZ+W988bDjkcbd4kdS8odhM+KhDtgPpTSEHCIjaWC9mOSm9BXiLnTjoBbdq
  fnGk5sRgprDvgOSJKA+eJdbtg/OtppHHmMlCGDUUna2YRpIuT8rxh0PBFpVXLVDv
  iS2Aelet8u5fa9IAjbkU+BQVNdnARqN7csiRv8lVK83Qlz6cJmTM386DGXHKTubU
  1XupGc1V3sjs0l44U+VcT4wt/lAjNvxm5suOpDkZALeVAjmRCw7+OC7RHQWa9k0+
  bw8HHa8sHo9gOeL6NlMTOdReJivbPagUvTLrGAMoUgRx5aszPeE4uwc2hGKceeoW
  MPRfwCvocWvk+QIDAQABo1MwUTAPBgNVHRMBAf8EBTADAQH/MB0GA1UdDgQWBBTA
  ephojYn7qwVkDBF9qn1luMrMTjAfBgNVHSMEGDAWgBTAephojYn7qwVkDBF9qn1l
  uMrMTjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFAAOCAQEANeMpauUvXVSOKVCUn5kaFOSPeCpilKIn
  Z57QzxpeR+nBsqTP3UEaBU6bS+5Kb1VSsyShNwrrZHYqLizz/Tt1kL/6cdjHPTfS
  tQWVYrmm3ok9Nns4d0iXrKYgjy6myQzCsplFAMfOEVEiIuCl6rYVSAlk6l5PdPcF
  PseKUgzbFbS9bZvlxrFUaKnjaZC2mqUPuLk/IH2uSrW4nOQdtqvmlKXBx4Ot2/Un
  hw4EbNX/3aBd7YdStysVAq45pmp06drE57xNNB6pXE0zX5IJL4hmXXeXxx12E6nV
  5fEWCRE11azbJHFwLJhWC9kXtNHjUStedejV0NxPNO3CBWaAocvmMw==
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----
  `
  
  const giag2Intermediate = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIEBDCCAuygAwIBAgIDAjppMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBQUAMEIxCzAJBgNVBAYTAlVT
  MRYwFAYDVQQKEw1HZW9UcnVzdCBJbmMuMRswGQYDVQQDExJHZW9UcnVzdCBHbG9i
  YWwgQ0EwHhcNMTMwNDA1MTUxNTU1WhcNMTUwNDA0MTUxNTU1WjBJMQswCQYDVQQG
  EwJVUzETMBEGA1UEChMKR29vZ2xlIEluYzElMCMGA1UEAxMcR29vZ2xlIEludGVy
  bmV0IEF1dGhvcml0eSBHMjCCASIwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADggEPADCCAQoCggEB
  AJwqBHdc2FCROgajguDYUEi8iT/xGXAaiEZ+4I/F8YnOIe5a/mENtzJEiaB0C1NP
  VaTOgmKV7utZX8bhBYASxF6UP7xbSDj0U/ck5vuR6RXEz/RTDfRK/J9U3n2+oGtv
  h8DQUB8oMANA2ghzUWx//zo8pzcGjr1LEQTrfSTe5vn8MXH7lNVg8y5Kr0LSy+rE
  ahqyzFPdFUuLH8gZYR/Nnag+YyuENWllhMgZxUYi+FOVvuOAShDGKuy6lyARxzmZ
  EASg8GF6lSWMTlJ14rbtCMoU/M4iarNOz0YDl5cDfsCx3nuvRTPPuj5xt970JSXC
  DTWJnZ37DhF5iR43xa+OcmkCAwEAAaOB+zCB+DAfBgNVHSMEGDAWgBTAephojYn7
  qwVkDBF9qn1luMrMTjAdBgNVHQ4EFgQUSt0GFhu89mi1dvWBtrtiGrpagS8wEgYD
  VR0TAQH/BAgwBgEB/wIBADAOBgNVHQ8BAf8EBAMCAQYwOgYDVR0fBDMwMTAvoC2g
  K4YpaHR0cDovL2NybC5nZW90cnVzdC5jb20vY3Jscy9ndGdsb2JhbC5jcmwwPQYI
  KwYBBQUHAQEEMTAvMC0GCCsGAQUFBzABhiFodHRwOi8vZ3RnbG9iYWwtb2NzcC5n
  ZW90cnVzdC5jb20wFwYDVR0gBBAwDjAMBgorBgEEAdZ5AgUBMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEB
  BQUAA4IBAQA21waAESetKhSbOHezI6B1WLuxfoNCunLaHtiONgaX4PCVOzf9G0JY
  /iLIa704XtE7JW4S615ndkZAkNoUyHgN7ZVm2o6Gb4ChulYylYbc3GrKBIxbf/a/
  zG+FA1jDaFETzf3I93k9mTXwVqO94FntT0QJo544evZG0R0SnU++0ED8Vf4GXjza
  HFa9llF7b1cq26KqltyMdMKVvvBulRP/F/A8rLIQjcxz++iPAsbw+zOzlTvjwsto
  WHPbqCRiOwY1nQ2pM714A5AuTHhdUDqB1O6gyHA43LL5Z/qHQF1hwFGPa4NrzQU6
  yuGnBXj8ytqU0CwIPX4WecigUCAkVDNx
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----
  `
  
  const googleLeaf = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
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  BhMCVVMxEzARBgNVBAoTCkdvb2dsZSBJbmMxJTAjBgNVBAMTHEdvb2dsZSBJbnRl
  cm5ldCBBdXRob3JpdHkgRzIwHhcNMTQwMzEyMDkzODMwWhcNMTQwNjEwMDAwMDAw
  WjBoMQswCQYDVQQGEwJVUzETMBEGA1UECAwKQ2FsaWZvcm5pYTEWMBQGA1UEBwwN
  TW91bnRhaW4gVmlldzETMBEGA1UECgwKR29vZ2xlIEluYzEXMBUGA1UEAwwOd3d3
  Lmdvb2dsZS5jb20wggEiMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4IBDwAwggEKAoIBAQC4zYCe
  m0oUBhwE0EwBr65eBOcgcQO2PaSIAB2dEP/c1EMX2tOy0ov8rk83ePhJ+MWdT1z6
  jge9X4zQQI8ZyA9qIiwrKBZOi8DNUvrqNZC7fJAVRrb9aX/99uYOJCypIbpmWG1q
  fhbHjJewhwf8xYPj71eU4rLG80a+DapWmphtfq3h52lDQIBzLVf1yYbyrTaELaz4
  NXF7HXb5YkId/gxIsSzM0aFUVu2o8sJcLYAsJqwfFKBKOMxUcn545nlspf0mTcWZ
  0APlbwsKznNs4/xCDwIxxWjjqgHrYAFl6y07i1gzbAOqdNEyR24p+3JWI8WZBlBI
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  KwYBBQUHAwIwGQYDVR0RBBIwEIIOd3d3Lmdvb2dsZS5jb20waAYIKwYBBQUHAQEE
  XDBaMCsGCCsGAQUFBzAChh9odHRwOi8vcGtpLmdvb2dsZS5jb20vR0lBRzIuY3J0
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  IwQYMBaAFErdBhYbvPZotXb1gba7Yhq6WoEvMBcGA1UdIAQQMA4wDAYKKwYBBAHW
  eQIFATAwBgNVHR8EKTAnMCWgI6Ahhh9odHRwOi8vcGtpLmdvb2dsZS5jb20vR0lB
  RzIuY3JsMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBQUAA4IBAQCR3RJtHzgDh33b/MI1ugiki+nl8Ikj
  5larbJRE/rcA5oite+QJyAr6SU1gJJ/rRrK3ItVEHr9L621BCM7GSdoNMjB9MMcf
  tJAW0kYGJ+wqKm53wG/JaOADTnnq2Mt/j6F2uvjgN/ouns1nRHufIvd370N0LeH+
  orKqTuAPzXK7imQk6+OycYABbqCtC/9qmwRd8wwn7sF97DtYfK8WuNHtFalCAwyi
  8LxJJYJCLWoMhZ+V8GZm+FOex5qkQAjnZrtNlbQJ8ro4r+rpKXtmMFFhfa+7L+PA
  Kom08eUK8skxAzfDDijZPh10VtJ66uBoiDPdT+uCBehcBIcmSTrKjFGX
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----
  `
  
  // googleLeafWithInvalidHash is the same as googleLeaf, but the signature
  // algorithm in the certificate contains a nonsense OID.
  const googleLeafWithInvalidHash = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
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  NXF7HXb5YkId/gxIsSzM0aFUVu2o8sJcLYAsJqwfFKBKOMxUcn545nlspf0mTcWZ
  0APlbwsKznNs4/xCDwIxxWjjqgHrYAFl6y07i1gzbAOqdNEyR24p+3JWI8WZBlBI
  dk2KGj0W1fIfsvyxAgMBAAGjggFBMIIBPTAdBgNVHSUEFjAUBggrBgEFBQcDAQYI
  KwYBBQUHAwIwGQYDVR0RBBIwEIIOd3d3Lmdvb2dsZS5jb20waAYIKwYBBQUHAQEE
  XDBaMCsGCCsGAQUFBzAChh9odHRwOi8vcGtpLmdvb2dsZS5jb20vR0lBRzIuY3J0
  MCsGCCsGAQUFBzABhh9odHRwOi8vY2xpZW50czEuZ29vZ2xlLmNvbS9vY3NwMB0G
  A1UdDgQWBBTXD5Bx6iqT+dmEhbFL4OUoHyZn8zAMBgNVHRMBAf8EAjAAMB8GA1Ud
  IwQYMBaAFErdBhYbvPZotXb1gba7Yhq6WoEvMBcGA1UdIAQQMA4wDAYKKwYBBAHW
  eQIFATAwBgNVHR8EKTAnMCWgI6Ahhh9odHRwOi8vcGtpLmdvb2dsZS5jb20vR0lB
  RzIuY3JsMA0GCSqGSIb3DQFgBQUAA4IBAQCR3RJtHzgDh33b/MI1ugiki+nl8Ikj
  5larbJRE/rcA5oite+QJyAr6SU1gJJ/rRrK3ItVEHr9L621BCM7GSdoNMjB9MMcf
  tJAW0kYGJ+wqKm53wG/JaOADTnnq2Mt/j6F2uvjgN/ouns1nRHufIvd370N0LeH+
  orKqTuAPzXK7imQk6+OycYABbqCtC/9qmwRd8wwn7sF97DtYfK8WuNHtFalCAwyi
  8LxJJYJCLWoMhZ+V8GZm+FOex5qkQAjnZrtNlbQJ8ro4r+rpKXtmMFFhfa+7L+PA
  Kom08eUK8skxAzfDDijZPh10VtJ66uBoiDPdT+uCBehcBIcmSTrKjFGX
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----
  `
  
  const dnssecExpLeaf = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIGzTCCBbWgAwIBAgIDAdD6MA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBQUAMIGMMQswCQYDVQQGEwJJ
  TDEWMBQGA1UEChMNU3RhcnRDb20gTHRkLjErMCkGA1UECxMiU2VjdXJlIERpZ2l0
  YWwgQ2VydGlmaWNhdGUgU2lnbmluZzE4MDYGA1UEAxMvU3RhcnRDb20gQ2xhc3Mg
  MSBQcmltYXJ5IEludGVybWVkaWF0ZSBTZXJ2ZXIgQ0EwHhcNMTAwNzA0MTQ1MjQ1
  WhcNMTEwNzA1MTA1NzA0WjCBwTEgMB4GA1UEDRMXMjIxMTM3LWxpOWE5dHhJRzZM
  NnNyVFMxCzAJBgNVBAYTAlVTMR4wHAYDVQQKExVQZXJzb25hIE5vdCBWYWxpZGF0
  ZWQxKTAnBgNVBAsTIFN0YXJ0Q29tIEZyZWUgQ2VydGlmaWNhdGUgTWVtYmVyMRsw
  GQYDVQQDExJ3d3cuZG5zc2VjLWV4cC5vcmcxKDAmBgkqhkiG9w0BCQEWGWhvc3Rt
  YXN0ZXJAZG5zc2VjLWV4cC5vcmcwggEiMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4IBDwAwggEK
  AoIBAQDEdF/22vaxrPbqpgVYMWi+alfpzBctpbfLBdPGuqOazJdCT0NbWcK8/+B4
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  D8HVvqKdORp6INzHz71z0sghxrQ0EAEkoWAZLh+kcn2ZHdcmZaBNUfjmGbyU6PRt
  RjdqoP+owIaC1aktBN7zl4uO7cRjlYFdusINrh2kPP02KAx2W84xjxX1uyj6oS6e
  7eBfvcwe8czW/N1rbE0CoR7h9+HnIrjnVG9RhBiZEiw3mUmF++Up26+4KTdRKbu3
  +BL4yMpfd66z0+zzqu+HkvyLpFn5AgMBAAGjggL/MIIC+zAJBgNVHRMEAjAAMAsG
  A1UdDwQEAwIDqDATBgNVHSUEDDAKBggrBgEFBQcDATAdBgNVHQ4EFgQUy04I5guM
  drzfh2JQaXhgV86+4jUwHwYDVR0jBBgwFoAU60I00Jiwq5/0G2sI98xkLu8OLEUw
  LQYDVR0RBCYwJIISd3d3LmRuc3NlYy1leHAub3Jngg5kbnNzZWMtZXhwLm9yZzCC
  AUIGA1UdIASCATkwggE1MIIBMQYLKwYBBAGBtTcBAgIwggEgMC4GCCsGAQUFBwIB
  FiJodHRwOi8vd3d3LnN0YXJ0c3NsLmNvbS9wb2xpY3kucGRmMDQGCCsGAQUFBwIB
  FihodHRwOi8vd3d3LnN0YXJ0c3NsLmNvbS9pbnRlcm1lZGlhdGUucGRmMIG3Bggr
  BgEFBQcCAjCBqjAUFg1TdGFydENvbSBMdGQuMAMCAQEagZFMaW1pdGVkIExpYWJp
  bGl0eSwgc2VlIHNlY3Rpb24gKkxlZ2FsIExpbWl0YXRpb25zKiBvZiB0aGUgU3Rh
  cnRDb20gQ2VydGlmaWNhdGlvbiBBdXRob3JpdHkgUG9saWN5IGF2YWlsYWJsZSBh
  dCBodHRwOi8vd3d3LnN0YXJ0c3NsLmNvbS9wb2xpY3kucGRmMGEGA1UdHwRaMFgw
  KqAooCaGJGh0dHA6Ly93d3cuc3RhcnRzc2wuY29tL2NydDEtY3JsLmNybDAqoCig
  JoYkaHR0cDovL2NybC5zdGFydHNzbC5jb20vY3J0MS1jcmwuY3JsMIGOBggrBgEF
  BQcBAQSBgTB/MDkGCCsGAQUFBzABhi1odHRwOi8vb2NzcC5zdGFydHNzbC5jb20v
  c3ViL2NsYXNzMS9zZXJ2ZXIvY2EwQgYIKwYBBQUHMAKGNmh0dHA6Ly93d3cuc3Rh
  cnRzc2wuY29tL2NlcnRzL3N1Yi5jbGFzczEuc2VydmVyLmNhLmNydDAjBgNVHRIE
  HDAahhhodHRwOi8vd3d3LnN0YXJ0c3NsLmNvbS8wDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEFBQADggEB
  ACXj6SB59KRJPenn6gUdGEqcta97U769SATyiQ87i9er64qLwvIGLMa3o2Rcgl2Y
  kghUeyLdN/EXyFBYA8L8uvZREPoc7EZukpT/ZDLXy9i2S0jkOxvF2fD/XLbcjGjM
  iEYG1/6ASw0ri9C0k4oDDoJLCoeH9++yqF7SFCCMcDkJqiAGXNb4euDpa8vCCtEQ
  CSS+ObZbfkreRt3cNCf5LfCXe9OsTnCfc8Cuq81c0oLaG+SmaLUQNBuToq8e9/Zm
  +b+/a3RVjxmkV5OCcGVBxsXNDn54Q6wsdw0TBMcjwoEndzpLS7yWgFbbkq5ZiGpw
  Qibb2+CfKuQ+WFV1GkVQmVA=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const startComIntermediate = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIGNDCCBBygAwIBAgIBGDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFADB9MQswCQYDVQQGEwJJTDEW
  MBQGA1UEChMNU3RhcnRDb20gTHRkLjErMCkGA1UECxMiU2VjdXJlIERpZ2l0YWwg
  Q2VydGlmaWNhdGUgU2lnbmluZzEpMCcGA1UEAxMgU3RhcnRDb20gQ2VydGlmaWNh
  dGlvbiBBdXRob3JpdHkwHhcNMDcxMDI0MjA1NDE3WhcNMTcxMDI0MjA1NDE3WjCB
  jDELMAkGA1UEBhMCSUwxFjAUBgNVBAoTDVN0YXJ0Q29tIEx0ZC4xKzApBgNVBAsT
  IlNlY3VyZSBEaWdpdGFsIENlcnRpZmljYXRlIFNpZ25pbmcxODA2BgNVBAMTL1N0
  YXJ0Q29tIENsYXNzIDEgUHJpbWFyeSBJbnRlcm1lZGlhdGUgU2VydmVyIENBMIIB
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  gFYfka7hh/oyULTTRwbw5gdfcA4Q9x3AzhA2NIVaD5Ksg8asWFI/ujjo/OenJOJA
  pgh2wJJuniptTT9uYSAK21ne0n1jsz5G/vohURjXzTCm7QduO3CHtPn66+6CPAVv
  kvek3AowHpNz/gfK11+AnSJYUq4G2ouHI2mw5CrY6oPSvfNx23BaKA+vWjhwRRI/
  ME3NO68X5Q/LoKldSKqxYVDLNM08XMML6BDAjJvwAwNi/rJsPnIO7hxDKslIDlc5
  xDEhyBDBLIf+VJVSH1I8MRKbf+fAoKVZ1eKPPvDVqOHXcDGpxLPPr21TLwb0pwID
  AQABo4IBrTCCAakwDwYDVR0TAQH/BAUwAwEB/zAOBgNVHQ8BAf8EBAMCAQYwHQYD
  VR0OBBYEFOtCNNCYsKuf9BtrCPfMZC7vDixFMB8GA1UdIwQYMBaAFE4L7xqkQFul
  F2mHMMo0aEPQQa7yMGYGCCsGAQUFBwEBBFowWDAnBggrBgEFBQcwAYYbaHR0cDov
  L29jc3Auc3RhcnRzc2wuY29tL2NhMC0GCCsGAQUFBzAChiFodHRwOi8vd3d3LnN0
  YXJ0c3NsLmNvbS9zZnNjYS5jcnQwWwYDVR0fBFQwUjAnoCWgI4YhaHR0cDovL3d3
  dy5zdGFydHNzbC5jb20vc2ZzY2EuY3JsMCegJaAjhiFodHRwOi8vY3JsLnN0YXJ0
  c3NsLmNvbS9zZnNjYS5jcmwwgYAGA1UdIAR5MHcwdQYLKwYBBAGBtTcBAgEwZjAu
  BggrBgEFBQcCARYiaHR0cDovL3d3dy5zdGFydHNzbC5jb20vcG9saWN5LnBkZjA0
  BggrBgEFBQcCARYoaHR0cDovL3d3dy5zdGFydHNzbC5jb20vaW50ZXJtZWRpYXRl
  LnBkZjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFAAOCAgEAIQlJPqWIbuALi0jaMU2P91ZXouHTYlfp
  tVbzhUV1O+VQHwSL5qBaPucAroXQ+/8gA2TLrQLhxpFy+KNN1t7ozD+hiqLjfDen
  xk+PNdb01m4Ge90h2c9W/8swIkn+iQTzheWq8ecf6HWQTd35RvdCNPdFWAwRDYSw
  xtpdPvkBnufh2lWVvnQce/xNFE+sflVHfXv0pQ1JHpXo9xLBzP92piVH0PN1Nb6X
  t1gW66pceG/sUzCv6gRNzKkC4/C2BBL2MLERPZBOVmTX3DxDX3M570uvh+v2/miI
  RHLq0gfGabDBoYvvF0nXYbFFSF87ICHpW7LM9NfpMfULFWE7epTj69m8f5SuauNi
  YpaoZHy4h/OZMn6SolK+u/hlz8nyMPyLwcKmltdfieFcNID1j0cHL7SRv7Gifl9L
  WtBbnySGBVFaaQNlQ0lxxeBvlDRr9hvYqbBMflPrj0jfyjO1SPo2ShpTpjMM0InN
  SRXNiTE8kMBy12VLUjWKRhFEuT2OKGWmPnmeXAhEKa2wNREuIU640ucQPl2Eg7PD
  wuTSxv0JS3QJ3fGz0xk+gA2iCxnwOOfFwq/iI9th4p1cbiCJSS4jarJiwUW0n6+L
  p/EiO/h94pDQehn7Skzj0n1fSoMD7SfWI55rjbRZotnvbIIp3XUZPD9MEI3vu3Un
  0q6Dp6jOW6c=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const startComRoot = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIHyTCCBbGgAwIBAgIBATANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFADB9MQswCQYDVQQGEwJJTDEW
  MBQGA1UEChMNU3RhcnRDb20gTHRkLjErMCkGA1UECxMiU2VjdXJlIERpZ2l0YWwg
  Q2VydGlmaWNhdGUgU2lnbmluZzEpMCcGA1UEAxMgU3RhcnRDb20gQ2VydGlmaWNh
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  MQswCQYDVQQGEwJJTDEWMBQGA1UEChMNU3RhcnRDb20gTHRkLjErMCkGA1UECxMi
  U2VjdXJlIERpZ2l0YWwgQ2VydGlmaWNhdGUgU2lnbmluZzEpMCcGA1UEAxMgU3Rh
  cnRDb20gQ2VydGlmaWNhdGlvbiBBdXRob3JpdHkwggIiMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUA
  A4ICDwAwggIKAoICAQDBiNsJvGxGfHiflXu1M5DycmLWwTYgIiRezul38kMKogZk
  pMyONvg45iPwbm2xPN1yo4UcodM9tDMr0y+v/uqwQVlntsQGfQqedIXWeUyAN3rf
  OQVSWff0G0ZDpNKFhdLDcfN1YjS6LIp/Ho/u7TTQEceWzVI9ujPW3U3eCztKS5/C
  Ji/6tRYccjV3yjxd5srhJosaNnZcAdt0FCX+7bWgiA/deMotHweXMAEtcnn6RtYT
  Kqi5pquDSR3l8u/d5AGOGAqPY1MWhWKpDhk6zLVmpsJrdAfkK+F2PrRt2PZE4XNi
  HzvEvqBTViVsUQn3qqvKv3b9bZvzndu/PWa8DFaqr5hIlTpL36dYUNk4dalb6kMM
  Av+Z6+hsTXBbKWWc3apdzK8BMewM69KN6Oqce+Zu9ydmDBpI125C4z/eIT574Q1w
  +2OqqGwaVLRcJXrJosmLFqa7LH4XXgVNWG4SHQHuEhANxjJ/GP/89PrNbpHoNkm+
  Gkhpi8KWTRoSsmkXwQqQ1vp5Iki/untp+HDH+no32NgN0nZPV/+Qt+OR0t3vwmC3
  Zzrd/qqc8NSLf3Iizsafl7b4r4qgEKjZ+xjGtrVcUjyJthkqcwEKDwOzEmDyei+B
  26Nu/yYwl/WL3YlXtq09s68rxbd2AvCl1iuahhQqcvbjM4xdCUsT37uMdBNSSwID
  AQABo4ICUjCCAk4wDAYDVR0TBAUwAwEB/zALBgNVHQ8EBAMCAa4wHQYDVR0OBBYE
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  BgsrBgEEAYG1NwEBATCCATswLwYIKwYBBQUHAgEWI2h0dHA6Ly9jZXJ0LnN0YXJ0
  Y29tLm9yZy9wb2xpY3kucGRmMDUGCCsGAQUFBwIBFilodHRwOi8vY2VydC5zdGFy
  dGNvbS5vcmcvaW50ZXJtZWRpYXRlLnBkZjCB0AYIKwYBBQUHAgIwgcMwJxYgU3Rh
  cnQgQ29tbWVyY2lhbCAoU3RhcnRDb20pIEx0ZC4wAwIBARqBl0xpbWl0ZWQgTGlh
  YmlsaXR5LCByZWFkIHRoZSBzZWN0aW9uICpMZWdhbCBMaW1pdGF0aW9ucyogb2Yg
  dGhlIFN0YXJ0Q29tIENlcnRpZmljYXRpb24gQXV0aG9yaXR5IFBvbGljeSBhdmFp
  bGFibGUgYXQgaHR0cDovL2NlcnQuc3RhcnRjb20ub3JnL3BvbGljeS5wZGYwEQYJ
  YIZIAYb4QgEBBAQDAgAHMDgGCWCGSAGG+EIBDQQrFilTdGFydENvbSBGcmVlIFNT
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  ewT4F+irsfMuXGRuczE6Eri8sxHkfY+BUZo7jYn0TZNmezwD7dOaHZrzZVD1oNB1
  ny+v8OqCQ5j4aZyJecRDjkZy42Q2Eq/3JR44iZB3fsNrarnDy0RLrHiQi+fHLB5L
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  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const smimeLeaf = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
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  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const smimeIntermediate = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
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  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  var megaLeaf = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
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  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  var comodoIntermediate1 = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
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  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  var comodoRoot = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
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  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  var nameConstraintsLeaf = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
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  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  var nameConstraintsIntermediate2 = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
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  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  var globalSignRoot = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
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  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  var moipLeafCert = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
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  jhuy8PqqZS9OuLilTeLu4a8z2JI=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  var comodoIntermediateSHA384 = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIGDjCCA/agAwIBAgIQBqdDgNTr/tQ1taP34Wq92DANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQwFADCB
  hTELMAkGA1UEBhMCR0IxGzAZBgNVBAgTEkdyZWF0ZXIgTWFuY2hlc3RlcjEQMA4G
  A1UEBxMHU2FsZm9yZDEaMBgGA1UEChMRQ09NT0RPIENBIExpbWl0ZWQxKzApBgNV
  BAMTIkNPTU9ETyBSU0EgQ2VydGlmaWNhdGlvbiBBdXRob3JpdHkwHhcNMTIwMjEy
  MDAwMDAwWhcNMjcwMjExMjM1OTU5WjCBkjELMAkGA1UEBhMCR0IxGzAZBgNVBAgT
  EkdyZWF0ZXIgTWFuY2hlc3RlcjEQMA4GA1UEBxMHU2FsZm9yZDEaMBgGA1UEChMR
  Q09NT0RPIENBIExpbWl0ZWQxODA2BgNVBAMTL0NPTU9ETyBSU0EgRXh0ZW5kZWQg
  VmFsaWRhdGlvbiBTZWN1cmUgU2VydmVyIENBMIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOC
  AQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEAlVbeVLTf1QJJe9FbXKKyHo+cK2JMK40SKPMalaPGEP0p3uGf
  CzhAk9HvbpUQ/OGQF3cs7nU+e2PsYZJuTzurgElr3wDqAwB/L3XVKC/sVmePgIOj
  vdwDmZOLlJFWW6G4ajo/Br0OksxgnP214J9mMF/b5pTwlWqvyIqvgNnmiDkBfBzA
  xSr3e5Wg8narbZtyOTDr0VdVAZ1YEZ18bYSPSeidCfw8/QpKdhQhXBZzQCMZdMO6
  WAqmli7eNuWf0MLw4eDBYuPCGEUZUaoXHugjddTI0JYT/8ck0YwLJ66eetw6YWNg
  iJctXQUL5Tvrrs46R3N2qPos3cCHF+msMJn4HwIDAQABo4IBaTCCAWUwHwYDVR0j
  BBgwFoAUu69+Aj36pvE8hI6t7jiY7NkyMtQwHQYDVR0OBBYEFDna/8ooFIqodBMI
  ueQOqdL6fp1pMA4GA1UdDwEB/wQEAwIBBjASBgNVHRMBAf8ECDAGAQH/AgEAMD4G
  A1UdIAQ3MDUwMwYEVR0gADArMCkGCCsGAQUFBwIBFh1odHRwczovL3NlY3VyZS5j
  b21vZG8uY29tL0NQUzBMBgNVHR8ERTBDMEGgP6A9hjtodHRwOi8vY3JsLmNvbW9k
  b2NhLmNvbS9DT01PRE9SU0FDZXJ0aWZpY2F0aW9uQXV0aG9yaXR5LmNybDBxBggr
  BgEFBQcBAQRlMGMwOwYIKwYBBQUHMAKGL2h0dHA6Ly9jcnQuY29tb2RvY2EuY29t
  L0NPTU9ET1JTQUFkZFRydXN0Q0EuY3J0MCQGCCsGAQUFBzABhhhodHRwOi8vb2Nz
  cC5jb21vZG9jYS5jb20wDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEMBQADggIBAERCnUFRK0iIXZebeV4R
  AUpSGXtBLMeJPNBy3IX6WK/VJeQT+FhlZ58N/1eLqYVeyqZLsKeyLeCMIs37/3mk
  jCuN/gI9JN6pXV/kD0fQ22YlPodHDK4ixVAihNftSlka9pOlk7DgG4HyVsTIEFPk
  1Hax0VtpS3ey4E/EhOfUoFDuPPpE/NBXueEoU/1Tzdy5H3pAvTA/2GzS8+cHnx8i
  teoiccsq8FZ8/qyo0QYPFBRSTP5kKwxpKrgNUG4+BAe/eiCL+O5lCeHHSQgyPQ0o
  fkkdt0rvAucNgBfIXOBhYsvss2B5JdoaZXOcOBCgJjqwyBZ9kzEi7nQLiMBciUEA
  KKlHMd99SUWa9eanRRrSjhMQ34Ovmw2tfn6dNVA0BM7pINae253UqNpktNEvWS5e
  ojZh1CSggjMziqHRbO9haKPl0latxf1eYusVqHQSTC8xjOnB3xBLAer2VBvNfzu9
  XJ/B288ByvK6YBIhMe2pZLiySVgXbVrXzYxtvp5/4gJYp9vDLVj2dAZqmvZh+fYA
  tmnYOosxWd2R5nwnI4fdAw+PKowegwFOAWEMUnNt/AiiuSpm5HZNMaBWm9lTjaK2
  jwLI5jqmBNFI+8NKAnb9L9K8E7bobTQk+p0pisehKxTxlgBzuRPpwLk6R1YCcYAn
  pLwltum95OmYdBbxN4SBB7SC
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const comodoRSAAuthority = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIFdDCCBFygAwIBAgIQJ2buVutJ846r13Ci/ITeIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQwFADBv
  MQswCQYDVQQGEwJTRTEUMBIGA1UEChMLQWRkVHJ1c3QgQUIxJjAkBgNVBAsTHUFk
  ZFRydXN0IEV4dGVybmFsIFRUUCBOZXR3b3JrMSIwIAYDVQQDExlBZGRUcnVzdCBF
  eHRlcm5hbCBDQSBSb290MB4XDTAwMDUzMDEwNDgzOFoXDTIwMDUzMDEwNDgzOFow
  gYUxCzAJBgNVBAYTAkdCMRswGQYDVQQIExJHcmVhdGVyIE1hbmNoZXN0ZXIxEDAO
  BgNVBAcTB1NhbGZvcmQxGjAYBgNVBAoTEUNPTU9ETyBDQSBMaW1pdGVkMSswKQYD
  VQQDEyJDT01PRE8gUlNBIENlcnRpZmljYXRpb24gQXV0aG9yaXR5MIICIjANBgkq
  hkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAg8AMIICCgKCAgEAkehUktIKVrGsDSTdxc9EZ3SZKzejfSNw
  AHG8U9/E+ioSj0t/EFa9n3Byt2F/yUsPF6c947AEYe7/EZfH9IY+Cvo+XPmT5jR6
  2RRr55yzhaCCenavcZDX7P0N+pxs+t+wgvQUfvm+xKYvT3+Zf7X8Z0NyvQwA1onr
  ayzT7Y+YHBSrfuXjbvzYqOSSJNpDa2K4Vf3qwbxstovzDo2a5JtsaZn4eEgwRdWt
  4Q08RWD8MpZRJ7xnw8outmvqRsfHIKCxH2XeSAi6pE6p8oNGN4Tr6MyBSENnTnIq
  m1y9TBsoilwie7SrmNnu4FGDwwlGTm0+mfqVF9p8M1dBPI1R7Qu2XK8sYxrfV8g/
  vOldxJuvRZnio1oktLqpVj3Pb6r/SVi+8Kj/9Lit6Tf7urj0Czr56ENCHonYhMsT
  8dm74YlguIwoVqwUHZwK53Hrzw7dPamWoUi9PPevtQ0iTMARgexWO/bTouJbt7IE
  IlKVgJNp6I5MZfGRAy1wdALqi2cVKWlSArvX31BqVUa/oKMoYX9w0MOiqiwhqkfO
  KJwGRXa/ghgntNWutMtQ5mv0TIZxMOmm3xaG4Nj/QN370EKIf6MzOi5cHkERgWPO
  GHFrK+ymircxXDpqR+DDeVnWIBqv8mqYqnK8V0rSS527EPywTEHl7R09XiidnMy/
  s1Hap0flhFMCAwEAAaOB9DCB8TAfBgNVHSMEGDAWgBStvZh6NLQm9/rEJlTvA73g
  JMtUGjAdBgNVHQ4EFgQUu69+Aj36pvE8hI6t7jiY7NkyMtQwDgYDVR0PAQH/BAQD
  AgGGMA8GA1UdEwEB/wQFMAMBAf8wEQYDVR0gBAowCDAGBgRVHSAAMEQGA1UdHwQ9
  MDswOaA3oDWGM2h0dHA6Ly9jcmwudXNlcnRydXN0LmNvbS9BZGRUcnVzdEV4dGVy
  bmFsQ0FSb290LmNybDA1BggrBgEFBQcBAQQpMCcwJQYIKwYBBQUHMAGGGWh0dHA6
  Ly9vY3NwLnVzZXJ0cnVzdC5jb20wDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEMBQADggEBAGS/g/FfmoXQ
  zbihKVcN6Fr30ek+8nYEbvFScLsePP9NDXRqzIGCJdPDoCpdTPW6i6FtxFQJdcfj
  Jw5dhHk3QBN39bSsHNA7qxcS1u80GH4r6XnTq1dFDK8o+tDb5VCViLvfhVdpfZLY
  Uspzgb8c8+a4bmYRBbMelC1/kZWSWfFMzqORcUx8Rww7Cxn2obFshj5cqsQugsv5
  B5a6SE2Q8pTIqXOi6wZ7I53eovNNVZ96YUWYGGjHXkBrI/V5eu+MtWuLt29G9Hvx
  PUsE2JOAWVrgQSQdso8VYFhH2+9uRv0V9dlfmrPb2LjkQLPNlzmuhbsdjrzch5vR
  pu/xO28QOG8=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const addTrustRoot = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIENjCCAx6gAwIBAgIBATANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFADBvMQswCQYDVQQGEwJTRTEU
  MBIGA1UEChMLQWRkVHJ1c3QgQUIxJjAkBgNVBAsTHUFkZFRydXN0IEV4dGVybmFs
  IFRUUCBOZXR3b3JrMSIwIAYDVQQDExlBZGRUcnVzdCBFeHRlcm5hbCBDQSBSb290
  MB4XDTAwMDUzMDEwNDgzOFoXDTIwMDUzMDEwNDgzOFowbzELMAkGA1UEBhMCU0Ux
  FDASBgNVBAoTC0FkZFRydXN0IEFCMSYwJAYDVQQLEx1BZGRUcnVzdCBFeHRlcm5h
  bCBUVFAgTmV0d29yazEiMCAGA1UEAxMZQWRkVHJ1c3QgRXh0ZXJuYWwgQ0EgUm9v
  dDCCASIwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADggEPADCCAQoCggEBALf3GjPm8gAELTngTlvt
  H7xsD821+iO2zt6bETOXpClMfZOfvUq8k+0DGuOPz+VtUFrWlymUWoCwSXrbLpX9
  uMq/NzgtHj6RQa1wVsfwTz/oMp50ysiQVOnGXw94nZpAPA6sYapeFI+eh6FqUNzX
  mk6vBbOmcZSccbNQYArHE504B4YCqOmoaSYYkKtMsE8jqzpPhNjfzp/haW+710LX
  a0Tkx63ubUFfclpxCDezeWWkWaCUN/cALw3CknLa0Dhy2xSoRcRdKn23tNbE7qzN
  E0S3ySvdQwAl+mG5aWpYIxG3pzOPVnVZ9c0p10a3CitlttNCbxWyuHv77+ldU9U0
  WicCAwEAAaOB3DCB2TAdBgNVHQ4EFgQUrb2YejS0Jvf6xCZU7wO94CTLVBowCwYD
  VR0PBAQDAgEGMA8GA1UdEwEB/wQFMAMBAf8wgZkGA1UdIwSBkTCBjoAUrb2YejS0
  Jvf6xCZU7wO94CTLVBqhc6RxMG8xCzAJBgNVBAYTAlNFMRQwEgYDVQQKEwtBZGRU
  cnVzdCBBQjEmMCQGA1UECxMdQWRkVHJ1c3QgRXh0ZXJuYWwgVFRQIE5ldHdvcmsx
  IjAgBgNVBAMTGUFkZFRydXN0IEV4dGVybmFsIENBIFJvb3SCAQEwDQYJKoZIhvcN
  AQEFBQADggEBALCb4IUlwtYj4g+WBpKdQZic2YR5gdkeWxQHIzZlj7DYd7usQWxH
  YINRsPkyPef89iYTx4AWpb9a/IfPeHmJIZriTAcKhjW88t5RxNKWt9x+Tu5w/Rw5
  6wwCURQtjr0W4MHfRnXnJK3s9EK0hZNwEGe6nQY1ShjTK3rMUUKhemPR5ruhxSvC
  Nr4TDea9Y355e6cJDUCrat2PisP29owaQgVR1EX1n6diIWgVIEM8med8vSTYqZEX
  c4g/VhsxOBi0cQ+azcgOno4uG+GMmIPLHzHxREzGBHNJdmAPx/i9F4BrLunMTA5a
  mnkPIAou1Z5jJh5VkpTYghdae9C8x49OhgQ=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const selfSigned = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIC/DCCAeSgAwIBAgIRAK0SWRVmi67xU3z0gkgY+PkwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQAw
  EjEQMA4GA1UEChMHQWNtZSBDbzAeFw0xNjA4MTkxNjMzNDdaFw0xNzA4MTkxNjMz
  NDdaMBIxEDAOBgNVBAoTB0FjbWUgQ28wggEiMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4IBDwAw
  ggEKAoIBAQDWkm1kdCwxyKEt6OTmZitkmLGH8cQu9z7rUdrhW8lWNm4kh2SuaUWP
  pscBjda5iqg51aoKuWJR2rw6ElDne+X5eit2FT8zJgAU8v39lMFjbaVZfS9TFOYF
  w0Tk0Luo/PyKJpZnwhsP++iiGQiteJbndy8aLKmJ2MpLfpDGIgxEIyNb5dgoDi0D
  WReDCpE6K9WDYqvKVGnQ2Jvqqra6Gfx0tFkuqJxQuqA8aUOlPHcCH4KBZdNEoXdY
  YL3E4dCAh0YiDs80wNZx4cHqEM3L8gTEFqW2Tn1TSuPZO6gjJ9QPsuUZVjaMZuuO
  NVxqLGujZkDzARhC3fBpptMuaAfi20+BAgMBAAGjTTBLMA4GA1UdDwEB/wQEAwIF
  oDATBgNVHSUEDDAKBggrBgEFBQcDATAMBgNVHRMBAf8EAjAAMBYGA1UdEQQPMA2C
  C2Zvby5leGFtcGxlMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAA4IBAQBPvvfnDhsHWt+/cfwdAVim
  4EDn+hYOMkTQwU0pouYIvY8QXYkZ8MBxpBtBMK4JhFU+ewSWoBAEH2dCCvx/BDxN
  UGTSJHMbsvJHcFvdmsvvRxOqQ/cJz7behx0cfoeHMwcs0/vWv8ms5wHesb5Ek7L0
  pl01FCBGTcncVqr6RK1r4fTpeCCfRIERD+YRJz8TtPH6ydesfLL8jIV40H8NiDfG
  vRAvOtNiKtPzFeQVdbRPOskC4rcHyPeiDAMAMixeLi63+CFty4da3r5lRezeedCE
  cw3ESZzThBwWqvPOtJdpXdm+r57pDW8qD+/0lY8wfImMNkQAyCUCLg/1Lxt/hrBj
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const issuerSubjectMatchRoot = `
  Certificate:
      Data:
          Version: 3 (0x2)
          Serial Number: 161640039802297062 (0x23e42c281e55ae6)
      Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
          Issuer: O=Golang, CN=Root ca
          Validity
              Not Before: Jan  1 00:00:00 2015 GMT
              Not After : Jan  1 00:00:00 2025 GMT
          Subject: O=Golang, CN=Root ca
          Subject Public Key Info:
              Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
                  Public-Key: (1024 bit)
                  Modulus:
                      00:e9:0e:7f:11:0c:e6:5a:e6:86:83:70:f6:51:07:
                      2e:02:78:11:f5:b2:24:92:38:ee:26:62:02:c7:94:
                      f1:3e:a1:77:6a:c0:8f:d5:22:68:b6:5d:e2:4c:da:
                      e0:85:11:35:c2:92:72:49:8d:81:b4:88:97:6b:b7:
                      fc:b2:44:5b:d9:4d:06:70:f9:0c:c6:8f:e9:b3:df:
                      a3:6a:84:6c:43:59:be:9d:b2:d0:76:9b:c3:d7:fa:
                      99:59:c3:b8:e5:f3:53:03:bd:49:d6:b3:cc:a2:43:
                      fe:ad:c2:0b:b9:01:b8:56:29:94:03:24:a7:0d:28:
                      21:29:a9:ae:94:5b:4a:f9:9f
                  Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
          X509v3 extensions:
              X509v3 Key Usage: critical
                  Certificate Sign
              X509v3 Extended Key Usage:
                  TLS Web Server Authentication, TLS Web Client Authentication
              X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical
                  CA:TRUE
              X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
                  40:37:D7:01:FB:40:2F:B8:1C:7E:54:04:27:8C:59:01
      Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
           6f:84:df:49:e0:99:d4:71:66:1d:32:86:56:cb:ea:5a:6b:0e:
           00:6a:d1:5a:6e:1f:06:23:07:ff:cb:d1:1a:74:e4:24:43:0b:
           aa:2a:a0:73:75:25:82:bc:bf:3f:a9:f8:48:88:ac:ed:3a:94:
           3b:0d:d3:88:c8:67:44:61:33:df:71:6c:c5:af:ed:16:8c:bf:
           82:f9:49:bb:e3:2a:07:53:36:37:25:77:de:91:a4:77:09:7f:
           6f:b2:91:58:c4:05:89:ea:8e:fa:e1:3b:19:ef:f8:f6:94:b7:
           7b:27:e6:e4:84:dd:2b:f5:93:f5:3c:d8:86:c5:38:01:56:5c:
           9f:6d
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIICIDCCAYmgAwIBAgIIAj5CwoHlWuYwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQAwIzEPMA0GA1UE
  ChMGR29sYW5nMRAwDgYDVQQDEwdSb290IGNhMB4XDTE1MDEwMTAwMDAwMFoXDTI1
  MDEwMTAwMDAwMFowIzEPMA0GA1UEChMGR29sYW5nMRAwDgYDVQQDEwdSb290IGNh
  MIGfMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4GNADCBiQKBgQDpDn8RDOZa5oaDcPZRBy4CeBH1
  siSSOO4mYgLHlPE+oXdqwI/VImi2XeJM2uCFETXCknJJjYG0iJdrt/yyRFvZTQZw
  +QzGj+mz36NqhGxDWb6dstB2m8PX+plZw7jl81MDvUnWs8yiQ/6twgu5AbhWKZQD
  JKcNKCEpqa6UW0r5nwIDAQABo10wWzAOBgNVHQ8BAf8EBAMCAgQwHQYDVR0lBBYw
  FAYIKwYBBQUHAwEGCCsGAQUFBwMCMA8GA1UdEwEB/wQFMAMBAf8wGQYDVR0OBBIE
  EEA31wH7QC+4HH5UBCeMWQEwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADgYEAb4TfSeCZ1HFmHTKG
  VsvqWmsOAGrRWm4fBiMH/8vRGnTkJEMLqiqgc3Ulgry/P6n4SIis7TqUOw3TiMhn
  RGEz33Fsxa/tFoy/gvlJu+MqB1M2NyV33pGkdwl/b7KRWMQFieqO+uE7Ge/49pS3
  eyfm5ITdK/WT9TzYhsU4AVZcn20=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const issuerSubjectMatchLeaf = `
  Certificate:
      Data:
          Version: 3 (0x2)
          Serial Number: 16785088708916013734 (0xe8f09d3fe25beaa6)
      Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
          Issuer: O=Golang, CN=Root CA
          Validity
              Not Before: Jan  1 00:00:00 2015 GMT
              Not After : Jan  1 00:00:00 2025 GMT
          Subject: O=Golang, CN=Leaf
          Subject Public Key Info:
              Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
                  Public-Key: (1024 bit)
                  Modulus:
                      00:db:46:7d:93:2e:12:27:06:48:bc:06:28:21:ab:
                      7e:c4:b6:a2:5d:fe:1e:52:45:88:7a:36:47:a5:08:
                      0d:92:42:5b:c2:81:c0:be:97:79:98:40:fb:4f:6d:
                      14:fd:2b:13:8b:c2:a5:2e:67:d8:d4:09:9e:d6:22:
                      38:b7:4a:0b:74:73:2b:c2:34:f1:d1:93:e5:96:d9:
                      74:7b:f3:58:9f:6c:61:3c:c0:b0:41:d4:d9:2b:2b:
                      24:23:77:5b:1c:3b:bd:75:5d:ce:20:54:cf:a1:63:
                      87:1d:1e:24:c4:f3:1d:1a:50:8b:aa:b6:14:43:ed:
                      97:a7:75:62:f4:14:c8:52:d7
                  Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
          X509v3 extensions:
              X509v3 Key Usage: critical
                  Digital Signature, Key Encipherment
              X509v3 Extended Key Usage:
                  TLS Web Server Authentication, TLS Web Client Authentication
              X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical
                  CA:FALSE
              X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
                  9F:91:16:1F:43:43:3E:49:A6:DE:6D:B6:80:D7:9F:60
              X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
                  keyid:40:37:D7:01:FB:40:2F:B8:1C:7E:54:04:27:8C:59:01
  
      Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
           8d:86:05:da:89:f5:1d:c5:16:14:41:b9:34:87:2b:5c:38:99:
           e3:d9:5a:5b:7a:5b:de:0b:5c:08:45:09:6f:1c:9d:31:5f:08:
           ca:7a:a3:99:da:83:0b:22:be:4f:02:35:91:4e:5d:5c:37:bf:
           89:22:58:7d:30:76:d2:2f:d0:a0:ee:77:9e:77:c0:d6:19:eb:
           ec:a0:63:35:6a:80:9b:80:1a:80:de:64:bc:40:38:3c:22:69:
           ad:46:26:a2:3d:ea:f4:c2:92:49:16:03:96:ae:64:21:b9:7c:
           ee:64:91:47:81:aa:b4:0c:09:2b:12:1a:b2:f3:af:50:b3:b1:
           ce:24
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIICODCCAaGgAwIBAgIJAOjwnT/iW+qmMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAMCMxDzANBgNV
  BAoTBkdvbGFuZzEQMA4GA1UEAxMHUm9vdCBDQTAeFw0xNTAxMDEwMDAwMDBaFw0y
  NTAxMDEwMDAwMDBaMCAxDzANBgNVBAoTBkdvbGFuZzENMAsGA1UEAxMETGVhZjCB
  nzANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOBjQAwgYkCgYEA20Z9ky4SJwZIvAYoIat+xLaiXf4e
  UkWIejZHpQgNkkJbwoHAvpd5mED7T20U/SsTi8KlLmfY1Ame1iI4t0oLdHMrwjTx
  0ZPlltl0e/NYn2xhPMCwQdTZKyskI3dbHDu9dV3OIFTPoWOHHR4kxPMdGlCLqrYU
  Q+2Xp3Vi9BTIUtcCAwEAAaN3MHUwDgYDVR0PAQH/BAQDAgWgMB0GA1UdJQQWMBQG
  CCsGAQUFBwMBBggrBgEFBQcDAjAMBgNVHRMBAf8EAjAAMBkGA1UdDgQSBBCfkRYf
  Q0M+SabebbaA159gMBsGA1UdIwQUMBKAEEA31wH7QC+4HH5UBCeMWQEwDQYJKoZI
  hvcNAQELBQADgYEAjYYF2on1HcUWFEG5NIcrXDiZ49laW3pb3gtcCEUJbxydMV8I
  ynqjmdqDCyK+TwI1kU5dXDe/iSJYfTB20i/QoO53nnfA1hnr7KBjNWqAm4AagN5k
  vEA4PCJprUYmoj3q9MKSSRYDlq5kIbl87mSRR4GqtAwJKxIasvOvULOxziQ=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----
  `
  
  const x509v1TestRoot = `
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIICIDCCAYmgAwIBAgIIAj5CwoHlWuYwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQAwIzEPMA0GA1UE
  ChMGR29sYW5nMRAwDgYDVQQDEwdSb290IENBMB4XDTE1MDEwMTAwMDAwMFoXDTI1
  MDEwMTAwMDAwMFowIzEPMA0GA1UEChMGR29sYW5nMRAwDgYDVQQDEwdSb290IENB
  MIGfMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4GNADCBiQKBgQDpDn8RDOZa5oaDcPZRBy4CeBH1
  siSSOO4mYgLHlPE+oXdqwI/VImi2XeJM2uCFETXCknJJjYG0iJdrt/yyRFvZTQZw
  +QzGj+mz36NqhGxDWb6dstB2m8PX+plZw7jl81MDvUnWs8yiQ/6twgu5AbhWKZQD
  JKcNKCEpqa6UW0r5nwIDAQABo10wWzAOBgNVHQ8BAf8EBAMCAgQwHQYDVR0lBBYw
  FAYIKwYBBQUHAwEGCCsGAQUFBwMCMA8GA1UdEwEB/wQFMAMBAf8wGQYDVR0OBBIE
  EEA31wH7QC+4HH5UBCeMWQEwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADgYEAcIwqeNUpQr9cOcYm
  YjpGpYkQ6b248xijCK7zI+lOeWN89zfSXn1AvfsC9pSdTMeDklWktbF/Ad0IN8Md
  h2NtN34ard0hEfHc8qW8mkXdsysVmq6cPvFYaHz+dBtkHuHDoy8YQnC0zdN/WyYB
  /1JmacUUofl+HusHuLkDxmadogI=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const x509v1TestIntermediate = `
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIByjCCATMCCQCCdEMsT8ykqTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFADAjMQ8wDQYDVQQKEwZH
  b2xhbmcxEDAOBgNVBAMTB1Jvb3QgQ0EwHhcNMTUwMTAxMDAwMDAwWhcNMjUwMTAx
  MDAwMDAwWjAwMQ8wDQYDVQQKEwZHb2xhbmcxHTAbBgNVBAMTFFguNTA5djEgaW50
  ZXJtZWRpYXRlMIGfMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4GNADCBiQKBgQDJ2QyniAOT+5YL
  jeinEBJr3NsC/Q2QJ/VKmgvp+xRxuKTHJiVmxVijmp0vWg8AWfkmuE4p3hXQbbqM
  k5yxrk1n60ONhim2L4VXriEvCE7X2OXhTmBls5Ufr7aqIgPMikwjScCXwz8E8qI8
  UxyAhnjeJwMYBU8TuwBImSd4LBHoQQIDAQABMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAA4GBAIab
  DRG6FbF9kL9jb/TDHkbVBk+sl/Pxi4/XjuFyIALlARgAkeZcPmL5tNW1ImHkwsHR
  zWE77kJDibzd141u21ZbLsKvEdUJXjla43bdyMmEqf5VGpC3D4sFt3QVH7lGeRur
  x5Wlq1u3YDL/j6s1nU2dQ3ySB/oP7J+vQ9V4QeM+
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const x509v1TestLeaf = `
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIICMzCCAZygAwIBAgIJAPo99mqJJrpJMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAMDAxDzANBgNV
  BAoTBkdvbGFuZzEdMBsGA1UEAxMUWC41MDl2MSBpbnRlcm1lZGlhdGUwHhcNMTUw
  MTAxMDAwMDAwWhcNMjUwMTAxMDAwMDAwWjArMQ8wDQYDVQQKEwZHb2xhbmcxGDAW
  BgNVBAMTD2Zvby5leGFtcGxlLmNvbTCBnzANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOBjQAwgYkC
  gYEApUh60Z+a5/oKJxG//Dn8CihSo2CJHNIIO3zEJZ1EeNSMZCynaIR6D3IPZEIR
  +RG2oGt+f5EEukAPYxwasp6VeZEezoQWJ+97nPCT6DpwLlWp3i2MF8piK2R9vxkG
  Z5n0+HzYk1VM8epIrZFUXSMGTX8w1y041PX/yYLxbdEifdcCAwEAAaNaMFgwDgYD
  VR0PAQH/BAQDAgWgMB0GA1UdJQQWMBQGCCsGAQUFBwMBBggrBgEFBQcDAjAMBgNV
  HRMBAf8EAjAAMBkGA1UdDgQSBBBFozXe0SnzAmjy+1U6M/cvMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEB
  CwUAA4GBADYzYUvaToO/ucBskPdqXV16AaakIhhSENswYVSl97/sODaxsjishKq9
  5R7siu+JnIFotA7IbBe633p75xEnLN88X626N/XRFG9iScLzpj0o0PWXBUiB+fxL
  /jt8qszOXCv2vYdUTPNuPqufXLWMoirpuXrr1liJDmedCcAHepY/
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const ignoreCNWithSANRoot = `
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIDPzCCAiegAwIBAgIIJkzCwkNrPHMwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQAwMDEQMA4GA1UE
  ChMHVEVTVElORzEcMBoGA1UEAxMTKipUZXN0aW5nKiogUm9vdCBDQTAeFw0xNTAx
  MDEwMDAwMDBaFw0yNTAxMDEwMDAwMDBaMDAxEDAOBgNVBAoTB1RFU1RJTkcxHDAa
  BgNVBAMTEyoqVGVzdGluZyoqIFJvb3QgQ0EwggEiMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4IB
  DwAwggEKAoIBAQC4YAf5YqlXGcikvbMWtVrNICt+V/NNWljwfvSKdg4Inm7k6BwW
  P6y4Y+n4qSYIWNU4iRkdpajufzctxQCO6ty13iw3qVktzcC5XBIiS6ymiRhhDgnY
  VQqyakVGw9MxrPwdRZVlssUv3Hmy6tU+v5Ok31SLY5z3wKgYWvSyYs0b8bKNU8kf
  2FmSHnBN16lxGdjhe3ji58F/zFMr0ds+HakrLIvVdFcQFAnQopM8FTHpoWNNzGU3
  KaiO0jBbMFkd6uVjVnuRJ+xjuiqi/NWwiwQA+CEr9HKzGkxOF8nAsHamdmO1wW+w
  OsCrC0qWQ/f5NTOVATTJe0vj88OMTvo3071VAgMBAAGjXTBbMA4GA1UdDwEB/wQE
  AwICpDAdBgNVHSUEFjAUBggrBgEFBQcDAQYIKwYBBQUHAwIwDwYDVR0TAQH/BAUw
  AwEB/zAZBgNVHQ4EEgQQQDfXAftAL7gcflQEJ4xZATANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFAAOC
  AQEAGOn3XjxHyHbXLKrRmpwV447B7iNBXR5VlhwOgt1kWaHDL2+8f/9/h0HMkB6j
  fC+/yyuYVqYuOeavqMGVrh33D2ODuTQcFlOx5lXukP46j3j+Lm0jjZ1qNX7vlP8I
  VlUXERhbelkw8O4oikakwIY9GE8syuSgYf+VeBW/lvuAZQrdnPfabxe05Tre6RXy
  nJHMB1q07YHpbwIkcV/lfCE9pig2nPXTLwYZz9cl46Ul5RCpPUi+IKURo3x8y0FU
  aSLjI/Ya0zwUARMmyZ3RRGCyhIarPb20mKSaMf1/Nb23pS3k1QgmZhk5pAnXYsWu
  BJ6bvwEAasFiLGP6Zbdmxb2hIA==
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const ignoreCNWithSANLeaf = `
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIDaTCCAlGgAwIBAgIJAONakvRTxgJhMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAMDAxEDAOBgNV
  BAoTB1RFU1RJTkcxHDAaBgNVBAMTEyoqVGVzdGluZyoqIFJvb3QgQ0EwHhcNMTUw
  MTAxMDAwMDAwWhcNMjUwMTAxMDAwMDAwWjAsMRAwDgYDVQQKEwdURVNUSU5HMRgw
  FgYDVQQDEw9mb28uZXhhbXBsZS5jb20wggEiMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4IBDwAw
  ggEKAoIBAQDBqskp89V/JMIBBqcauKSOVLcMyIE/t0jgSWVrsI4sksBTabLsfMdS
  ui2n+dHQ1dRBuw3o4g4fPrWwS3nMnV3pZUHEn2TPi5N1xkjTaxObXgKIY2GKmFP3
  rJ9vYqHT6mT4K93kCHoRcmJWWySc7S3JAOhTcdB4G+tIdQJN63E+XRYQQfNrn5HZ
  hxQoOzaguHFx+ZGSD4Ntk6BSZz5NfjqCYqYxe+iCpTpEEYhIpi8joSPSmkTMTxBW
  S1W2gXbYNQ9KjNkGM6FnQsUJrSPMrWs4v3UB/U88N5LkZeF41SqD9ySFGwbGajFV
  nyzj12+4K4D8BLhlOc0Eo/F/8GwOwvmxAgMBAAGjgYkwgYYwDgYDVR0PAQH/BAQD
  AgWgMB0GA1UdJQQWMBQGCCsGAQUFBwMBBggrBgEFBQcDAjAMBgNVHRMBAf8EAjAA
  MBkGA1UdDgQSBBCjeab27q+5pV43jBGANOJ1MBsGA1UdIwQUMBKAEEA31wH7QC+4
  HH5UBCeMWQEwDwYDVR0RBAgwBocEfwAAATANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFAAOCAQEAGZfZ
  ErTVxxpIg64s22mQpXSk/72THVQsfsKHzlXmztM0CJzH8ccoN67ZqKxJCfdiE/FI
  Emb6BVV4cGPeIKpcxaM2dwX/Y+Y0JaxpQJvqLxs+EByRL0gPP3shgg86WWCjYLxv
  AgOn862d/JXGDrC9vIlQ/DDQcyL5g0JV5UjG2G9TUigbnrXxBw7BoWK6wmoSaHnR
  sZKEHSs3RUJvm7qqpA9Yfzm9jg+i9j32zh1xFacghAOmFRFXa9eCVeigZ/KK2mEY
  j2kBQyvnyKsXHLAKUoUOpd6t/1PHrfXnGj+HmzZNloJ/BZ1kiWb4eLvMljoLGkZn
  xZbqP3Krgjj4XNaXjg==
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const excludedNamesLeaf = `
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIID4DCCAsigAwIBAgIHDUSFtJknhzANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFADCBnjELMAkGA1UE
  BhMCVVMxEzARBgNVBAgMCkNhbGlmb3JuaWExEjAQBgNVBAcMCUxvcyBHYXRvczEU
  MBIGA1UECgwLTmV0ZmxpeCBJbmMxLTArBgNVBAsMJFBsYXRmb3JtIFNlY3VyaXR5
  ICgzNzM0NTE1NTYyODA2Mzk3KTEhMB8GA1UEAwwYSW50ZXJtZWRpYXRlIENBIGZv
  ciAzMzkyMB4XDTE3MDIwODIxMTUwNFoXDTE4MDIwODIwMjQ1OFowgZAxCzAJBgNV
  BAYTAlVTMRMwEQYDVQQIDApDYWxpZm9ybmlhMRIwEAYDVQQHDAlMb3MgR2F0b3Mx
  FDASBgNVBAoMC05ldGZsaXggSW5jMS0wKwYDVQQLDCRQbGF0Zm9ybSBTZWN1cml0
  eSAoMzczNDUxNTc0ODUwMjY5NikxEzARBgNVBAMMCjE3Mi4xNi4wLjEwggEiMA0G
  CSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4IBDwAwggEKAoIBAQCZ0oP1bMv6bOeqcKbzinnGpNOpenhA
  zdFFsgea62znWsH3Wg4+1Md8uPCqlaQIsaJQKZHc50eKD3bg0Io7c6kxHkBQr1b8
  Q7cGeK3CjdqG3NwS/aizzrLKOwL693hFwwy7JY7GGCvogbhyQRKn6iV0U9zMm7bu
  /9pQVV/wx8u01u2uAlLttjyQ5LJkxo5t8cATFVqxdN5J9eY//VSDiTwXnlpQITBP
  /Ow+zYuZ3kFlzH3CtCOhOEvNG3Ar1NvP3Icq35PlHV+Eki4otnKfixwByoiGpqCB
  UEIY04VrZJjwBxk08y/3jY2B3VLYGgi+rryyCxIqkB7UpSNPMMWSG4UpAgMBAAGj
  LzAtMAwGA1UdEwEB/wQCMAAwHQYDVR0RBBYwFIIMYmVuZGVyLmxvY2FshwSsEAAB
  MA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAA4IBAQCLW3JO8L7LKByjzj2RciPjCGH5XF87Wd20gYLq
  sNKcFwCIeyZhnQy5aZ164a5G9AIk2HLvH6HevBFPhA9Ivmyv/wYEfnPd1VcFkpgP
  hDt8MCFJ8eSjCyKdtZh1MPMLrLVymmJV+Rc9JUUYM9TIeERkpl0rskcO1YGewkYt
  qKlWE+0S16+pzsWvKn831uylqwIb8ANBPsCX4aM4muFBHavSWAHgRO+P+yXVw8Q+
  VQDnMHUe5PbZd1/+1KKVs1K/CkBCtoHNHp1d/JT+2zUQJphwja9CcgfFdVhSnHL4
  oEEOFtqVMIuQfR2isi08qW/JGOHc4sFoLYB8hvdaxKWSE19A
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----
  `
  
  const excludedNamesIntermediate = `
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIDzTCCArWgAwIBAgIHDUSFqYeczDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFADCBmTELMAkGA1UE
  BhMCVVMxEzARBgNVBAgMCkNhbGlmb3JuaWExEjAQBgNVBAcMCUxvcyBHYXRvczEU
  MBIGA1UECgwLTmV0ZmxpeCBJbmMxLTArBgNVBAsMJFBsYXRmb3JtIFNlY3VyaXR5
  ICgzNzM0NTE1NDc5MDY0NjAyKTEcMBoGA1UEAwwTTG9jYWwgUm9vdCBmb3IgMzM5
  MjAeFw0xNzAyMDgyMTE1MDRaFw0xODAyMDgyMDI0NThaMIGeMQswCQYDVQQGEwJV
  UzETMBEGA1UECAwKQ2FsaWZvcm5pYTESMBAGA1UEBwwJTG9zIEdhdG9zMRQwEgYD
  VQQKDAtOZXRmbGl4IEluYzEtMCsGA1UECwwkUGxhdGZvcm0gU2VjdXJpdHkgKDM3
  MzQ1MTU1NjI4MDYzOTcpMSEwHwYDVQQDDBhJbnRlcm1lZGlhdGUgQ0EgZm9yIDMz
  OTIwggEiMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4IBDwAwggEKAoIBAQCOyEs6tJ/t9emQTvlx
  3FS7uJSou5rKkuqVxZdIuYQ+B2ZviBYUnMRT9bXDB0nsVdKZdp0hdchdiwNXDG/I
  CiWu48jkcv/BdynVyayOT+0pOJSYLaPYpzBx1Pb9M5651ct9GSbj6Tz0ChVonoIE
  1AIZ0kkebucZRRFHd0xbAKVRKyUzPN6HJ7WfgyauUp7RmlC35wTmrmARrFohQLlL
  7oICy+hIQePMy9x1LSFTbPxZ5AUUXVC3eUACU3vLClF/Xs8XGHebZpUXCdMQjOGS
  nq1eFguFHR1poSB8uSmmLqm4vqUH9CDhEgiBAC8yekJ8//kZQ7lUEqZj3YxVbk+Y
  E4H5AgMBAAGjEzARMA8GA1UdEwEB/wQFMAMBAf8wDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADggEB
  ADxrnmNX5gWChgX9K5fYwhFDj5ofxZXAKVQk+WjmkwMcmCx3dtWSm++Wdksj/ZlA
  V1cLW3ohWv1/OAZuOlw7sLf98aJpX+UUmIYYQxDubq+4/q7VA7HzEf2k/i/oN1NI
  JgtrhpPcZ/LMO6k7DYx0qlfYq8pTSfd6MI4LnWKgLc+JSPJJjmvspgio2ZFcnYr7
  A264BwLo6v1Mos1o1JUvFFcp4GANlw0XFiWh7JXYRl8WmS5DoouUC+aNJ3lmyF6z
  LbIjZCSfgZnk/LK1KU1j91FI2bc2ULYZvAC1PAg8/zvIgxn6YM2Q7ZsdEgWw0FpS
  zMBX1/lk4wkFckeUIlkD55Y=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const excludedNamesRoot = `
  -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIEGTCCAwGgAwIBAgIHDUSFpInn/zANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFADCBozELMAkGA1UE
  BhMCVVMxEzARBgNVBAgMCkNhbGlmb3JuaWExEjAQBgNVBAcMCUxvcyBHYXRvczEU
  MBIGA1UECgwLTmV0ZmxpeCBJbmMxLTArBgNVBAsMJFBsYXRmb3JtIFNlY3VyaXR5
  ICgzNzMxNTA5NDM3NDYyNDg1KTEmMCQGA1UEAwwdTmFtZSBDb25zdHJhaW50cyBU
  ZXN0IFJvb3QgQ0EwHhcNMTcwMjA4MjExNTA0WhcNMTgwMjA4MjAyNDU4WjCBmTEL
  MAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxEzARBgNVBAgMCkNhbGlmb3JuaWExEjAQBgNVBAcMCUxvcyBH
  YXRvczEUMBIGA1UECgwLTmV0ZmxpeCBJbmMxLTArBgNVBAsMJFBsYXRmb3JtIFNl
  Y3VyaXR5ICgzNzM0NTE1NDc5MDY0NjAyKTEcMBoGA1UEAwwTTG9jYWwgUm9vdCBm
  b3IgMzM5MjCCASIwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADggEPADCCAQoCggEBAJymcnX29ekc
  7+MLyr8QuAzoHWznmGdDd2sITwWRjM89/21cdlHCGKSpULUNdFp9HDLWvYECtxt+
  8TuzKiQz7qAerzGUT1zI5McIjHy0e/i4xIkfiBiNeTCuB/N9QRbZlcfM80ErkaA4
  gCAFK8qZAcWkHIl6e+KaQFMPLKk9kckgAnVDHEJe8oLNCogCJ15558b65g05p9eb
  5Lg+E98hoPRTQaDwlz3CZPfTTA2EiEZInSi8qzodFCbTpJUVTbiVUH/JtVjlibbb
  smdcx5PORK+8ZJkhLEh54AjaWOX4tB/7Tkk8stg2VBmrIARt/j4UVj7cTrIWU3bV
  m8TwHJG+YgsCAwEAAaNaMFgwDwYDVR0TAQH/BAUwAwEB/zBFBgNVHR4EPjA8oBww
  CocICgEAAP//AAAwDoIMYmVuZGVyLmxvY2FsoRwwCocICgEAAP//AAAwDoIMYmVu
  ZGVyLmxvY2FsMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAA4IBAQAMjbheffPxtSKSv9NySW+8qmHs
  n7Mb5GGyCFu+cMZSoSaabstbml+zHEFJvWz6/1E95K4F8jKhAcu/CwDf4IZrSD2+
  Hee0DolVSQhZpnHgPyj7ZATz48e3aJaQPUlhCEOh0wwF4Y0N4FV0t7R6woLylYRZ
  yU1yRHUqUYpN0DWFpsPbBqgM6uUAVO2ayBFhPgWUaqkmSbZ/Nq7isGvknaTmcIwT
  6mOAFN0qFb4RGzfGJW7x6z7KCULS7qVDp6fU3tRoScHFEgRubks6jzQ1W5ooSm4o
  +NQCZDd5eFeU8PpNX7rgaYE4GPq+EEmLVCBYmdctr8QVdqJ//8Xu3+1phjDy
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  var unknownAuthorityErrorTests = []struct {
  	cert     string
  	expected string
  }{
  	{selfSignedWithCommonName, "x509: certificate signed by unknown authority (possibly because of \"empty\" while trying to verify candidate authority certificate \"test\")"},
  	{selfSignedNoCommonNameWithOrgName, "x509: certificate signed by unknown authority (possibly because of \"empty\" while trying to verify candidate authority certificate \"ca\")"},
  	{selfSignedNoCommonNameNoOrgName, "x509: certificate signed by unknown authority (possibly because of \"empty\" while trying to verify candidate authority certificate \"serial:0\")"},
  }
  
  func TestUnknownAuthorityError(t *testing.T) {
  	for i, tt := range unknownAuthorityErrorTests {
  		der, _ := pem.Decode([]byte(tt.cert))
  		if der == nil {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: Unable to decode PEM block", i)
  		}
  		c, err := ParseCertificate(der.Bytes)
  		if err != nil {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: Unable to parse certificate -> %s", i, err)
  		}
  		uae := &UnknownAuthorityError{
  			Cert:     c,
  			hintErr:  fmt.Errorf("empty"),
  			hintCert: c,
  		}
  		actual := uae.Error()
  		if actual != tt.expected {
  			t.Errorf("#%d: UnknownAuthorityError.Error() response invalid actual: %s expected: %s", i, actual, tt.expected)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  var nameConstraintTests = []struct {
  	constraint, domain string
  	shouldMatch        bool
  }{
  	{"", "anything.com", true},
  	{"example.com", "example.com", true},
  	{"example.com", "ExAmPle.coM", true},
  	{"example.com", "exampl1.com", false},
  	{"example.com", "www.ExAmPle.coM", true},
  	{"example.com", "notexample.com", false},
  	{".example.com", "example.com", false},
  	{".example.com", "www.example.com", true},
  	{".example.com", "www..example.com", false},
  }
  
  func TestNameConstraints(t *testing.T) {
  	for i, test := range nameConstraintTests {
  		result := matchNameConstraint(test.domain, test.constraint)
  		if result != test.shouldMatch {
  			t.Errorf("unexpected result for test #%d: domain=%s, constraint=%s, result=%t", i, test.domain, test.constraint, result)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  const selfSignedWithCommonName = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIDCjCCAfKgAwIBAgIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFADAaMQswCQYDVQQKEwJjYTEL
  MAkGA1UEAxMCY2EwHhcNMTYwODI4MTcwOTE4WhcNMjEwODI3MTcwOTE4WjAcMQsw
  CQYDVQQKEwJjYTENMAsGA1UEAxMEdGVzdDCCASIwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADggEP
  ADCCAQoCggEBAOH55PfRsbvmcabfLLko1w/yuapY/hk13Cgmc3WE/Z1ZStxGiVxY
  gQVH9n4W/TbUsrep/TmcC4MV7xEm5252ArcgaH6BeQ4QOTFj/6Jx0RT7U/ix+79x
  8RRysf7OlzNpGIctwZEM7i/G+0ZfqX9ULxL/EW9tppSxMX1jlXZQarnU7BERL5cH
  +G2jcbU9H28FXYishqpVYE9L7xrXMm61BAwvGKB0jcVW6JdhoAOSfQbbgp7JjIlq
  czXqUsv1UdORO/horIoJptynTvuARjZzyWatya6as7wyOgEBllE6BjPK9zpn+lp3
  tQ8dwKVqm/qBPhIrVqYG/Ec7pIv8mJfYabMCAwEAAaNZMFcwDgYDVR0PAQH/BAQD
  AgOoMB0GA1UdJQQWMBQGCCsGAQUFBwMCBggrBgEFBQcDATAMBgNVHRMBAf8EAjAA
  MAoGA1UdDgQDBAEAMAwGA1UdIwQFMAOAAQAwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADggEBAAAM
  XMFphzq4S5FBcRdB2fRrmcoz+jEROBWvIH/1QUJeBEBz3ZqBaJYfBtQTvqCA5Rjw
  dxyIwVd1W3q3aSulM0tO62UCU6L6YeeY/eq8FmpD7nMJo7kCrXUUAMjxbYvS3zkT
  v/NErK6SgWnkQiPJBZNX1Q9+aSbLT/sbaCTdbWqcGNRuLGJkmqfIyoxRt0Hhpqsx
  jP5cBaVl50t4qoCuVIE9cOucnxYXnI7X5HpXWvu8Pfxo4SwVjb1az8Fk5s8ZnxGe
  fPB6Q3L/pKBe0SEe5GywpwtokPLB3lAygcuHbxp/1FlQ1NQZqq+vgXRIla26bNJf
  IuYkJwt6w+LH/9HZgf8=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  const selfSignedNoCommonNameWithOrgName = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIC+zCCAeOgAwIBAgIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFADAaMQswCQYDVQQKEwJjYTEL
  MAkGA1UEAxMCY2EwHhcNMTYwODI4MTgxMzQ4WhcNMjEwODI3MTgxMzQ4WjANMQsw
  CQYDVQQKEwJjYTCCASIwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADggEPADCCAQoCggEBAL5EjrUa
  7EtOMxWiIgTzp2FlQvncPsG329O3l3uNGnbigb8TmNMw2M8UhoDjd84pnU5RAfqd
  8t5TJyw/ybnIKBN131Q2xX+gPQ0dFyMvcO+i1CUgCxmYZomKVA2MXO1RD1hLTYGS
  gOVjc3no3MBwd8uVQp0NStqJ1QvLtNG4Uy+B28qe+ZFGGbjGqx8/CU4A8Szlpf7/
  xAZR8w5qFUUlpA2LQYeHHJ5fQVXw7kyL1diNrKNi0G3qcY0IrBh++hT+hnEEXyXu
  g8a0Ux18hoE8D6rAr34rCZl6AWfqW5wjwm+N5Ns2ugr9U4N8uCKJYMPHb2CtdubU
  46IzVucpTfGLdaMCAwEAAaNZMFcwDgYDVR0PAQH/BAQDAgOoMB0GA1UdJQQWMBQG
  CCsGAQUFBwMCBggrBgEFBQcDATAMBgNVHRMBAf8EAjAAMAoGA1UdDgQDBAEAMAwG
  A1UdIwQFMAOAAQAwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADggEBAEn5SgVpJ3zjsdzPqK7Qd/sB
  bYd1qtPHlrszjhbHBg35C6mDgKhcv4o6N+fuC+FojZb8lIxWzJtvT9pQbfy/V6u3
  wOb816Hm71uiP89sioIOKCvSAstj/p9doKDOUaKOcZBTw0PS2m9eja8bnleZzBvK
  rD8cNkHf74v98KvBhcwBlDifVzmkWzMG6TL1EkRXUyLKiWgoTUFSkCDV927oXXMR
  DKnszq+AVw+K8hbeV2A7GqT7YfeqOAvSbatTDnDtKOPmlCnQui8A149VgZzXv7eU
  29ssJSqjUPyp58dlV6ZuynxPho1QVZUOQgnJToXIQ3/5vIvJRXy52GJCs4/Gh/w=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  const selfSignedNoCommonNameNoOrgName = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIC7jCCAdagAwIBAgIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFADAaMQswCQYDVQQKEwJjYTEL
  MAkGA1UEAxMCY2EwHhcNMTYwODI4MTgxOTQ1WhcNMjEwODI3MTgxOTQ1WjAAMIIB
  IjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEAp3E+Jl6DpgzogHUW/i/AAcCM
  fnNJLOamNVKFGmmxhb4XTHxRaWoTzrlsyzIMS0WzivvJeZVe6mWbvuP2kZanKgIz
  35YXRTR9HbqkNTMuvnpUESzWxbGWE2jmt2+a/Jnz89FS4WIYRhF7nI2z8PvZOfrI
  2gETTT2tEpoF2S4soaYfm0DBeT8K0/rogAaf+oeUS6V+v3miRcAooJgpNJGu9kqm
  S0xKPn1RCFVjpiRd6YNS0xZirjYQIBMFBvoSoHjaOdgJptNRBprYPOxVJ/ItzGf0
  kPmzPFCx2tKfxV9HLYBPgxi+fP3IIx8aIYuJn8yReWtYEMYU11hDPeAFN5Gm+wID
  AQABo1kwVzAOBgNVHQ8BAf8EBAMCA6gwHQYDVR0lBBYwFAYIKwYBBQUHAwIGCCsG
  AQUFBwMBMAwGA1UdEwEB/wQCMAAwCgYDVR0OBAMEAQAwDAYDVR0jBAUwA4ABADAN
  BgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFAAOCAQEATZVOFeiCpPM5QysToLv+8k7Rjoqt6L5IxMUJGEpq
  4ENmldmwkhEKr9VnYEJY3njydnnTm97d9vOfnLj9nA9wMBODeOO3KL2uJR2oDnmM
  9z1NSe2aQKnyBb++DM3ZdikpHn/xEpGV19pYKFQVn35x3lpPh2XijqRDO/erKemb
  w67CoNRb81dy+4Q1lGpA8ORoLWh5fIq2t2eNGc4qB8vlTIKiESzAwu7u3sRfuWQi
  4R+gnfLd37FWflMHwztFbVTuNtPOljCX0LN7KcuoXYlr05RhQrmoN7fQHsrZMNLs
  8FVjHdKKu+uPstwd04Uy4BR/H2y1yerN9j/L6ZkMl98iiA==
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const criticalExtRoot = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIBqzCCAVGgAwIBAgIJAJ+mI/85cXApMAoGCCqGSM49BAMCMB0xDDAKBgNVBAoT
  A09yZzENMAsGA1UEAxMEUm9vdDAeFw0xNTAxMDEwMDAwMDBaFw0yNTAxMDEwMDAw
  MDBaMB0xDDAKBgNVBAoTA09yZzENMAsGA1UEAxMEUm9vdDBZMBMGByqGSM49AgEG
  CCqGSM49AwEHA0IABJGp9joiG2QSQA+1FczEDAsWo84rFiP3GTL+n+ugcS6TyNib
  gzMsdbJgVi+a33y0SzLZxB+YvU3/4KTk8yKLC+2jejB4MA4GA1UdDwEB/wQEAwIC
  BDAdBgNVHSUEFjAUBggrBgEFBQcDAQYIKwYBBQUHAwIwDwYDVR0TAQH/BAUwAwEB
  /zAZBgNVHQ4EEgQQQDfXAftAL7gcflQEJ4xZATAbBgNVHSMEFDASgBBAN9cB+0Av
  uBx+VAQnjFkBMAoGCCqGSM49BAMCA0gAMEUCIFeSV00fABFceWR52K+CfIgOHotY
  FizzGiLB47hGwjMuAiEA8e0um2Kr8FPQ4wmFKaTRKHMaZizCGl3m+RG5QsE1KWo=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const criticalExtIntermediate = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIBszCCAVmgAwIBAgIJAL2kcGZKpzVqMAoGCCqGSM49BAMCMB0xDDAKBgNVBAoT
  A09yZzENMAsGA1UEAxMEUm9vdDAeFw0xNTAxMDEwMDAwMDBaFw0yNTAxMDEwMDAw
  MDBaMCUxDDAKBgNVBAoTA09yZzEVMBMGA1UEAxMMSW50ZXJtZWRpYXRlMFkwEwYH
  KoZIzj0CAQYIKoZIzj0DAQcDQgAESqVq92iPEq01cL4o99WiXDc5GZjpjNlzMS1n
  rk8oHcVDp4tQRRQG3F4A6dF1rn/L923ha3b0fhDLlAvXZB+7EKN6MHgwDgYDVR0P
  AQH/BAQDAgIEMB0GA1UdJQQWMBQGCCsGAQUFBwMBBggrBgEFBQcDAjAPBgNVHRMB
  Af8EBTADAQH/MBkGA1UdDgQSBBCMGmiotXbbXVd7H40UsgajMBsGA1UdIwQUMBKA
  EEA31wH7QC+4HH5UBCeMWQEwCgYIKoZIzj0EAwIDSAAwRQIhAOhhNRb6KV7h3wbE
  cdap8bojzvUcPD78fbsQPCNw1jPxAiBOeAJhlTwpKn9KHpeJphYSzydj9NqcS26Y
  xXbdbm27KQ==
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const criticalExtLeafWithExt = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIBxTCCAWugAwIBAgIJAJZAUtw5ccb1MAoGCCqGSM49BAMCMCUxDDAKBgNVBAoT
  A09yZzEVMBMGA1UEAxMMSW50ZXJtZWRpYXRlMB4XDTE1MDEwMTAwMDAwMFoXDTI1
  MDEwMTAwMDAwMFowJDEMMAoGA1UEChMDT3JnMRQwEgYDVQQDEwtleGFtcGxlLmNv
  bTBZMBMGByqGSM49AgEGCCqGSM49AwEHA0IABF3ABa2+B6gUyg6ayCaRQWYY/+No
  6PceLqEavZNUeVNuz7bS74Toy8I7R3bGMkMgbKpLSPlPTroAATvebTXoBaijgYQw
  gYEwDgYDVR0PAQH/BAQDAgWgMB0GA1UdJQQWMBQGCCsGAQUFBwMBBggrBgEFBQcD
  AjAMBgNVHRMBAf8EAjAAMBkGA1UdDgQSBBBRNtBL2vq8nCV3qVp7ycxMMBsGA1Ud
  IwQUMBKAEIwaaKi1dttdV3sfjRSyBqMwCgYDUQMEAQH/BAAwCgYIKoZIzj0EAwID
  SAAwRQIgVjy8GBgZFiagexEuDLqtGjIRJQtBcf7lYgf6XFPH1h4CIQCT6nHhGo6E
  I+crEm4P5q72AnA/Iy0m24l7OvLuXObAmg==
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const criticalExtIntermediateWithExt = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIB2TCCAX6gAwIBAgIIQD3NrSZtcUUwCgYIKoZIzj0EAwIwHTEMMAoGA1UEChMD
  T3JnMQ0wCwYDVQQDEwRSb290MB4XDTE1MDEwMTAwMDAwMFoXDTI1MDEwMTAwMDAw
  MFowPTEMMAoGA1UEChMDT3JnMS0wKwYDVQQDEyRJbnRlcm1lZGlhdGUgd2l0aCBD
  cml0aWNhbCBFeHRlbnNpb24wWTATBgcqhkjOPQIBBggqhkjOPQMBBwNCAAQtnmzH
  mcRm10bdDBnJE7xQEJ25cLCL5okuEphRR0Zneo6+nQZikoh+UBbtt5GV3Dms7LeP
  oF5HOplYDCd8wi/wo4GHMIGEMA4GA1UdDwEB/wQEAwICBDAdBgNVHSUEFjAUBggr
  BgEFBQcDAQYIKwYBBQUHAwIwDwYDVR0TAQH/BAUwAwEB/zAZBgNVHQ4EEgQQKxdv
  UuQZ6sO3XvBsxgNZ3zAbBgNVHSMEFDASgBBAN9cB+0AvuBx+VAQnjFkBMAoGA1ED
  BAEB/wQAMAoGCCqGSM49BAMCA0kAMEYCIQCQzTPd6XKex+OAPsKT/1DsoMsg8vcG
  c2qZ4Q0apT/kvgIhAKu2TnNQMIUdcO0BYQIl+Uhxc78dc9h4lO+YJB47pHGx
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  
  const criticalExtLeaf = `-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
  MIIBzzCCAXWgAwIBAgIJANoWFIlhCI9MMAoGCCqGSM49BAMCMD0xDDAKBgNVBAoT
  A09yZzEtMCsGA1UEAxMkSW50ZXJtZWRpYXRlIHdpdGggQ3JpdGljYWwgRXh0ZW5z
  aW9uMB4XDTE1MDEwMTAwMDAwMFoXDTI1MDEwMTAwMDAwMFowJDEMMAoGA1UEChMD
  T3JnMRQwEgYDVQQDEwtleGFtcGxlLmNvbTBZMBMGByqGSM49AgEGCCqGSM49AwEH
  A0IABG1Lfh8A0Ho2UvZN5H0+ONil9c8jwtC0y0xIZftyQE+Fwr9XwqG3rV2g4M1h
  GnJa9lV9MPHg8+b85Hixm0ZSw7SjdzB1MA4GA1UdDwEB/wQEAwIFoDAdBgNVHSUE
  FjAUBggrBgEFBQcDAQYIKwYBBQUHAwIwDAYDVR0TAQH/BAIwADAZBgNVHQ4EEgQQ
  UNhY4JhezH9gQYqvDMWrWDAbBgNVHSMEFDASgBArF29S5Bnqw7de8GzGA1nfMAoG
  CCqGSM49BAMCA0gAMEUCIQClA3d4tdrDu9Eb5ZBpgyC+fU1xTZB0dKQHz6M5fPZA
  2AIgN96lM+CPGicwhN24uQI6flOsO3H0TJ5lNzBYLtnQtlc=
  -----END CERTIFICATE-----`
  

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