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Source file src/cmd/link/internal/ld/pe.go

Documentation: cmd/link/internal/ld

  // Copyright 2009 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
  // Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
  // license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
  
  package ld
  
  import (
  	"cmd/internal/objabi"
  	"cmd/internal/sys"
  	"cmd/link/internal/sym"
  	"debug/pe"
  	"encoding/binary"
  	"fmt"
  	"sort"
  	"strconv"
  	"strings"
  )
  
  type IMAGE_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR struct {
  	OriginalFirstThunk uint32
  	TimeDateStamp      uint32
  	ForwarderChain     uint32
  	Name               uint32
  	FirstThunk         uint32
  }
  
  type IMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY struct {
  	Characteristics       uint32
  	TimeDateStamp         uint32
  	MajorVersion          uint16
  	MinorVersion          uint16
  	Name                  uint32
  	Base                  uint32
  	NumberOfFunctions     uint32
  	NumberOfNames         uint32
  	AddressOfFunctions    uint32
  	AddressOfNames        uint32
  	AddressOfNameOrdinals uint32
  }
  
  const (
  	PEBASE = 0x00400000
  )
  
  var (
  	// SectionAlignment must be greater than or equal to FileAlignment.
  	// The default is the page size for the architecture.
  	PESECTALIGN int64 = 0x1000
  
  	// FileAlignment should be a power of 2 between 512 and 64 K, inclusive.
  	// The default is 512. If the SectionAlignment is less than
  	// the architecture's page size, then FileAlignment must match SectionAlignment.
  	PEFILEALIGN int64 = 2 << 8
  )
  
  const (
  	IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_I386              = 0x14c
  	IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_AMD64             = 0x8664
  	IMAGE_FILE_RELOCS_STRIPPED           = 0x0001
  	IMAGE_FILE_EXECUTABLE_IMAGE          = 0x0002
  	IMAGE_FILE_LINE_NUMS_STRIPPED        = 0x0004
  	IMAGE_FILE_LARGE_ADDRESS_AWARE       = 0x0020
  	IMAGE_FILE_32BIT_MACHINE             = 0x0100
  	IMAGE_FILE_DEBUG_STRIPPED            = 0x0200
  	IMAGE_SCN_CNT_CODE                   = 0x00000020
  	IMAGE_SCN_CNT_INITIALIZED_DATA       = 0x00000040
  	IMAGE_SCN_CNT_UNINITIALIZED_DATA     = 0x00000080
  	IMAGE_SCN_MEM_EXECUTE                = 0x20000000
  	IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ                   = 0x40000000
  	IMAGE_SCN_MEM_WRITE                  = 0x80000000
  	IMAGE_SCN_MEM_DISCARDABLE            = 0x2000000
  	IMAGE_SCN_LNK_NRELOC_OVFL            = 0x1000000
  	IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_32BYTES              = 0x600000
  	IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_EXPORT         = 0
  	IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_IMPORT         = 1
  	IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_RESOURCE       = 2
  	IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_EXCEPTION      = 3
  	IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_SECURITY       = 4
  	IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_BASERELOC      = 5
  	IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_DEBUG          = 6
  	IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_COPYRIGHT      = 7
  	IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_ARCHITECTURE   = 7
  	IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_GLOBALPTR      = 8
  	IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_TLS            = 9
  	IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_LOAD_CONFIG    = 10
  	IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_BOUND_IMPORT   = 11
  	IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_IAT            = 12
  	IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_DELAY_IMPORT   = 13
  	IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_COM_DESCRIPTOR = 14
  	IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_WINDOWS_GUI          = 2
  	IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_WINDOWS_CUI          = 3
  )
  
  // TODO(crawshaw): add these constants to debug/pe.
  const (
  	// TODO: the Microsoft doco says IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_ARRAY is 3 and IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_FUNCTION is 2
  	IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_NULL      = 0
  	IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_STRUCT    = 8
  	IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_FUNCTION = 0x20
  	IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_ARRAY    = 0x30
  	IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_EXTERNAL = 2
  	IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_STATIC   = 3
  
  	IMAGE_REL_I386_DIR32  = 0x0006
  	IMAGE_REL_I386_SECREL = 0x000B
  	IMAGE_REL_I386_REL32  = 0x0014
  
  	IMAGE_REL_AMD64_ADDR64 = 0x0001
  	IMAGE_REL_AMD64_ADDR32 = 0x0002
  	IMAGE_REL_AMD64_REL32  = 0x0004
  	IMAGE_REL_AMD64_SECREL = 0x000B
  )
  
  // Copyright 2009 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
  // Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
  // license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
  
  // PE (Portable Executable) file writing
  // https://www.microsoft.com/whdc/system/platform/firmware/PECOFF.mspx
  
  // DOS stub that prints out
  // "This program cannot be run in DOS mode."
  var dosstub = []uint8{
  	0x4d,
  	0x5a,
  	0x90,
  	0x00,
  	0x03,
  	0x00,
  	0x04,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0xff,
  	0xff,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x8b,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x40,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x80,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x0e,
  	0x1f,
  	0xba,
  	0x0e,
  	0x00,
  	0xb4,
  	0x09,
  	0xcd,
  	0x21,
  	0xb8,
  	0x01,
  	0x4c,
  	0xcd,
  	0x21,
  	0x54,
  	0x68,
  	0x69,
  	0x73,
  	0x20,
  	0x70,
  	0x72,
  	0x6f,
  	0x67,
  	0x72,
  	0x61,
  	0x6d,
  	0x20,
  	0x63,
  	0x61,
  	0x6e,
  	0x6e,
  	0x6f,
  	0x74,
  	0x20,
  	0x62,
  	0x65,
  	0x20,
  	0x72,
  	0x75,
  	0x6e,
  	0x20,
  	0x69,
  	0x6e,
  	0x20,
  	0x44,
  	0x4f,
  	0x53,
  	0x20,
  	0x6d,
  	0x6f,
  	0x64,
  	0x65,
  	0x2e,
  	0x0d,
  	0x0d,
  	0x0a,
  	0x24,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  	0x00,
  }
  
  type Imp struct {
  	s       *sym.Symbol
  	off     uint64
  	next    *Imp
  	argsize int
  }
  
  type Dll struct {
  	name     string
  	nameoff  uint64
  	thunkoff uint64
  	ms       *Imp
  	next     *Dll
  }
  
  var (
  	rsrcsym     *sym.Symbol
  	PESECTHEADR int32
  	PEFILEHEADR int32
  	pe64        int
  	dr          *Dll
  	dexport     [1024]*sym.Symbol
  	nexport     int
  )
  
  // peStringTable is a COFF string table.
  type peStringTable struct {
  	strings    []string
  	stringsLen int
  }
  
  // size resturns size of string table t.
  func (t *peStringTable) size() int {
  	// string table starts with 4-byte length at the beginning
  	return t.stringsLen + 4
  }
  
  // add adds string str to string table t.
  func (t *peStringTable) add(str string) int {
  	off := t.size()
  	t.strings = append(t.strings, str)
  	t.stringsLen += len(str) + 1 // each string will have 0 appended to it
  	return off
  }
  
  // write writes string table t into the output file.
  func (t *peStringTable) write(out *OutBuf) {
  	out.Write32(uint32(t.size()))
  	for _, s := range t.strings {
  		out.WriteString(s)
  		out.Write8(0)
  	}
  }
  
  // peSection represents section from COFF section table.
  type peSection struct {
  	name                 string
  	shortName            string
  	index                int // one-based index into the Section Table
  	virtualSize          uint32
  	virtualAddress       uint32
  	sizeOfRawData        uint32
  	pointerToRawData     uint32
  	pointerToRelocations uint32
  	numberOfRelocations  uint16
  	characteristics      uint32
  }
  
  // checkOffset verifies COFF section sect offset in the file.
  func (sect *peSection) checkOffset(off int64) {
  	if off != int64(sect.pointerToRawData) {
  		Errorf(nil, "%s.PointerToRawData = %#x, want %#x", sect.name, uint64(int64(sect.pointerToRawData)), uint64(off))
  		errorexit()
  	}
  }
  
  // checkSegment verifies COFF section sect matches address
  // and file offset provided in segment seg.
  func (sect *peSection) checkSegment(seg *sym.Segment) {
  	if seg.Vaddr-PEBASE != uint64(sect.virtualAddress) {
  		Errorf(nil, "%s.VirtualAddress = %#x, want %#x", sect.name, uint64(int64(sect.virtualAddress)), uint64(int64(seg.Vaddr-PEBASE)))
  		errorexit()
  	}
  	if seg.Fileoff != uint64(sect.pointerToRawData) {
  		Errorf(nil, "%s.PointerToRawData = %#x, want %#x", sect.name, uint64(int64(sect.pointerToRawData)), uint64(int64(seg.Fileoff)))
  		errorexit()
  	}
  }
  
  // pad adds zeros to the section sect. It writes as many bytes
  // as necessary to make section sect.SizeOfRawData bytes long.
  // It assumes that n bytes are already written to the file.
  func (sect *peSection) pad(out *OutBuf, n uint32) {
  	out.WriteStringN("", int(sect.sizeOfRawData-n))
  }
  
  // write writes COFF section sect into the output file.
  func (sect *peSection) write(out *OutBuf, linkmode LinkMode) error {
  	h := pe.SectionHeader32{
  		VirtualSize:          sect.virtualSize,
  		SizeOfRawData:        sect.sizeOfRawData,
  		PointerToRawData:     sect.pointerToRawData,
  		PointerToRelocations: sect.pointerToRelocations,
  		NumberOfRelocations:  sect.numberOfRelocations,
  		Characteristics:      sect.characteristics,
  	}
  	if linkmode != LinkExternal {
  		h.VirtualAddress = sect.virtualAddress
  	}
  	copy(h.Name[:], sect.shortName)
  	return binary.Write(out, binary.LittleEndian, h)
  }
  
  // emitRelocations emits the relocation entries for the sect.
  // The actual relocations are emitted by relocfn.
  // This updates the corresponding PE section table entry
  // with the relocation offset and count.
  func (sect *peSection) emitRelocations(out *OutBuf, relocfn func() int) {
  	sect.pointerToRelocations = uint32(out.Offset())
  	// first entry: extended relocs
  	out.Write32(0) // placeholder for number of relocation + 1
  	out.Write32(0)
  	out.Write16(0)
  
  	n := relocfn() + 1
  
  	cpos := out.Offset()
  	out.SeekSet(int64(sect.pointerToRelocations))
  	out.Write32(uint32(n))
  	out.SeekSet(cpos)
  	if n > 0x10000 {
  		n = 0x10000
  		sect.characteristics |= IMAGE_SCN_LNK_NRELOC_OVFL
  	} else {
  		sect.pointerToRelocations += 10 // skip the extend reloc entry
  	}
  	sect.numberOfRelocations = uint16(n - 1)
  }
  
  // peFile is used to build COFF file.
  type peFile struct {
  	sections       []*peSection
  	stringTable    peStringTable
  	textSect       *peSection
  	rdataSect      *peSection
  	dataSect       *peSection
  	bssSect        *peSection
  	ctorsSect      *peSection
  	nextSectOffset uint32
  	nextFileOffset uint32
  	symtabOffset   int64 // offset to the start of symbol table
  	symbolCount    int   // number of symbol table records written
  	dataDirectory  [16]pe.DataDirectory
  }
  
  // addSection adds section to the COFF file f.
  func (f *peFile) addSection(name string, sectsize int, filesize int) *peSection {
  	sect := &peSection{
  		name:             name,
  		shortName:        name,
  		index:            len(f.sections) + 1,
  		virtualSize:      uint32(sectsize),
  		virtualAddress:   f.nextSectOffset,
  		pointerToRawData: f.nextFileOffset,
  	}
  	f.nextSectOffset = uint32(Rnd(int64(f.nextSectOffset)+int64(sectsize), PESECTALIGN))
  	if filesize > 0 {
  		sect.sizeOfRawData = uint32(Rnd(int64(filesize), PEFILEALIGN))
  		f.nextFileOffset += sect.sizeOfRawData
  	}
  	f.sections = append(f.sections, sect)
  	return sect
  }
  
  // addDWARFSection adds DWARF section to the COFF file f.
  // This function is similar to addSection, but DWARF section names are
  // longer than 8 characters, so they need to be stored in the string table.
  func (f *peFile) addDWARFSection(name string, size int) *peSection {
  	if size == 0 {
  		Exitf("DWARF section %q is empty", name)
  	}
  	// DWARF section names are longer than 8 characters.
  	// PE format requires such names to be stored in string table,
  	// and section names replaced with slash (/) followed by
  	// correspondent string table index.
  	// see http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/system/platform/firmware/PECOFFdwn.mspx
  	// for details
  	off := f.stringTable.add(name)
  	h := f.addSection(name, size, size)
  	h.shortName = fmt.Sprintf("/%d", off)
  	h.characteristics = IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ | IMAGE_SCN_MEM_DISCARDABLE
  	return h
  }
  
  // addDWARF adds DWARF information to the COFF file f.
  func (f *peFile) addDWARF() {
  	if *FlagS { // disable symbol table
  		return
  	}
  	if *FlagW { // disable dwarf
  		return
  	}
  	for _, sect := range Segdwarf.Sections {
  		h := f.addDWARFSection(sect.Name, int(sect.Length))
  		fileoff := sect.Vaddr - Segdwarf.Vaddr + Segdwarf.Fileoff
  		if uint64(h.pointerToRawData) != fileoff {
  			Exitf("%s.PointerToRawData = %#x, want %#x", sect.Name, h.pointerToRawData, fileoff)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  // addInitArray adds .ctors COFF section to the file f.
  func (f *peFile) addInitArray(ctxt *Link) *peSection {
  	// The size below was determined by the specification for array relocations,
  	// and by observing what GCC writes here. If the initarray section grows to
  	// contain more than one constructor entry, the size will need to be 8 * constructor_count.
  	// However, the entire Go runtime is initialized from just one function, so it is unlikely
  	// that this will need to grow in the future.
  	var size int
  	switch objabi.GOARCH {
  	default:
  		Exitf("peFile.addInitArray: unsupported GOARCH=%q\n", objabi.GOARCH)
  	case "386":
  		size = 4
  	case "amd64":
  		size = 8
  	}
  	sect := f.addSection(".ctors", size, size)
  	sect.characteristics = IMAGE_SCN_CNT_INITIALIZED_DATA | IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ
  	sect.sizeOfRawData = uint32(size)
  	ctxt.Out.SeekSet(int64(sect.pointerToRawData))
  	sect.checkOffset(ctxt.Out.Offset())
  
  	init_entry := ctxt.Syms.Lookup(*flagEntrySymbol, 0)
  	addr := uint64(init_entry.Value) - init_entry.Sect.Vaddr
  	switch objabi.GOARCH {
  	case "386":
  		ctxt.Out.Write32(uint32(addr))
  	case "amd64":
  		ctxt.Out.Write64(addr)
  	}
  	return sect
  }
  
  // emitRelocations emits relocation entries for go.o in external linking.
  func (f *peFile) emitRelocations(ctxt *Link) {
  	for ctxt.Out.Offset()&7 != 0 {
  		ctxt.Out.Write8(0)
  	}
  
  	// relocsect relocates symbols from first in section sect, and returns
  	// the total number of relocations emitted.
  	relocsect := func(sect *sym.Section, syms []*sym.Symbol, base uint64) int {
  		// If main section has no bits, nothing to relocate.
  		if sect.Vaddr >= sect.Seg.Vaddr+sect.Seg.Filelen {
  			return 0
  		}
  		relocs := 0
  		sect.Reloff = uint64(ctxt.Out.Offset())
  		for i, s := range syms {
  			if !s.Attr.Reachable() {
  				continue
  			}
  			if uint64(s.Value) >= sect.Vaddr {
  				syms = syms[i:]
  				break
  			}
  		}
  		eaddr := int32(sect.Vaddr + sect.Length)
  		for _, sym := range syms {
  			if !sym.Attr.Reachable() {
  				continue
  			}
  			if sym.Value >= int64(eaddr) {
  				break
  			}
  			for ri := range sym.R {
  				r := &sym.R[ri]
  				if r.Done {
  					continue
  				}
  				if r.Xsym == nil {
  					Errorf(sym, "missing xsym in relocation")
  					continue
  				}
  				if r.Xsym.Dynid < 0 {
  					Errorf(sym, "reloc %d to non-coff symbol %s (outer=%s) %d", r.Type, r.Sym.Name, r.Xsym.Name, r.Sym.Type)
  				}
  				if !thearch.PEreloc1(ctxt.Arch, ctxt.Out, sym, r, int64(uint64(sym.Value+int64(r.Off))-base)) {
  					Errorf(sym, "unsupported obj reloc %d/%d to %s", r.Type, r.Siz, r.Sym.Name)
  				}
  				relocs++
  			}
  		}
  		sect.Rellen = uint64(ctxt.Out.Offset()) - sect.Reloff
  		return relocs
  	}
  
  	sects := []struct {
  		peSect *peSection
  		seg    *sym.Segment
  		syms   []*sym.Symbol
  	}{
  		{f.textSect, &Segtext, ctxt.Textp},
  		{f.rdataSect, &Segrodata, datap},
  		{f.dataSect, &Segdata, datap},
  	}
  	for _, s := range sects {
  		s.peSect.emitRelocations(ctxt.Out, func() int {
  			var n int
  			for _, sect := range s.seg.Sections {
  				n += relocsect(sect, s.syms, s.seg.Vaddr)
  			}
  			return n
  		})
  	}
  
  dwarfLoop:
  	for _, sect := range Segdwarf.Sections {
  		for _, pesect := range f.sections {
  			if sect.Name == pesect.name {
  				pesect.emitRelocations(ctxt.Out, func() int {
  					return relocsect(sect, dwarfp, sect.Vaddr)
  				})
  				continue dwarfLoop
  			}
  		}
  		Errorf(nil, "emitRelocations: could not find %q section", sect.Name)
  	}
  
  	f.ctorsSect.emitRelocations(ctxt.Out, func() int {
  		dottext := ctxt.Syms.Lookup(".text", 0)
  		ctxt.Out.Write32(0)
  		ctxt.Out.Write32(uint32(dottext.Dynid))
  		switch objabi.GOARCH {
  		default:
  			Errorf(dottext, "unknown architecture for PE: %q\n", objabi.GOARCH)
  		case "386":
  			ctxt.Out.Write16(IMAGE_REL_I386_DIR32)
  		case "amd64":
  			ctxt.Out.Write16(IMAGE_REL_AMD64_ADDR64)
  		}
  		return 1
  	})
  }
  
  // writeSymbol appends symbol s to file f symbol table.
  // It also sets s.Dynid to written symbol number.
  func (f *peFile) writeSymbol(out *OutBuf, s *sym.Symbol, value int64, sectidx int, typ uint16, class uint8) {
  	if len(s.Name) > 8 {
  		out.Write32(0)
  		out.Write32(uint32(f.stringTable.add(s.Name)))
  	} else {
  		out.WriteStringN(s.Name, 8)
  	}
  	out.Write32(uint32(value))
  	out.Write16(uint16(sectidx))
  	out.Write16(typ)
  	out.Write8(class)
  	out.Write8(0) // no aux entries
  
  	s.Dynid = int32(f.symbolCount)
  
  	f.symbolCount++
  }
  
  // mapToPESection searches peFile f for s symbol's location.
  // It returns PE section index, and offset within that section.
  func (f *peFile) mapToPESection(s *sym.Symbol, linkmode LinkMode) (pesectidx int, offset int64, err error) {
  	if s.Sect == nil {
  		return 0, 0, fmt.Errorf("could not map %s symbol with no section", s.Name)
  	}
  	if s.Sect.Seg == &Segtext {
  		return f.textSect.index, int64(uint64(s.Value) - Segtext.Vaddr), nil
  	}
  	if s.Sect.Seg == &Segrodata {
  		return f.rdataSect.index, int64(uint64(s.Value) - Segrodata.Vaddr), nil
  	}
  	if s.Sect.Seg != &Segdata {
  		return 0, 0, fmt.Errorf("could not map %s symbol with non .text or .rdata or .data section", s.Name)
  	}
  	v := uint64(s.Value) - Segdata.Vaddr
  	if linkmode != LinkExternal {
  		return f.dataSect.index, int64(v), nil
  	}
  	if s.Type == sym.SDATA {
  		return f.dataSect.index, int64(v), nil
  	}
  	// Note: although address of runtime.edata (type sym.SDATA) is at the start of .bss section
  	// it still belongs to the .data section, not the .bss section.
  	if v < Segdata.Filelen {
  		return f.dataSect.index, int64(v), nil
  	}
  	return f.bssSect.index, int64(v - Segdata.Filelen), nil
  }
  
  // writeSymbols writes all COFF symbol table records.
  func (f *peFile) writeSymbols(ctxt *Link) {
  
  	put := func(ctxt *Link, s *sym.Symbol, name string, type_ SymbolType, addr int64, gotype *sym.Symbol) {
  		if s == nil {
  			return
  		}
  		if s.Sect == nil && type_ != UndefinedSym {
  			return
  		}
  		switch type_ {
  		default:
  			return
  		case DataSym, BSSSym, TextSym, UndefinedSym:
  		}
  
  		// Only windows/386 requires underscore prefix on external symbols.
  		if ctxt.Arch.Family == sys.I386 &&
  			ctxt.LinkMode == LinkExternal &&
  			(s.Type == sym.SHOSTOBJ || s.Attr.CgoExport()) {
  			s.Name = "_" + s.Name
  		}
  
  		var typ uint16
  		if ctxt.LinkMode == LinkExternal {
  			typ = IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_NULL
  		} else {
  			// TODO: fix IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_ARRAY value and use following expression, instead of 0x0308
  			typ = IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_ARRAY<<8 + IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_STRUCT
  			typ = 0x0308 // "array of structs"
  		}
  		sect, value, err := f.mapToPESection(s, ctxt.LinkMode)
  		if err != nil {
  			if type_ == UndefinedSym {
  				typ = IMAGE_SYM_DTYPE_FUNCTION
  			} else {
  				Errorf(s, "addpesym: %v", err)
  			}
  		}
  		class := IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_EXTERNAL
  		if s.Version != 0 || s.Attr.VisibilityHidden() || s.Attr.Local() {
  			class = IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_STATIC
  		}
  		f.writeSymbol(ctxt.Out, s, value, sect, typ, uint8(class))
  	}
  
  	if ctxt.LinkMode == LinkExternal {
  		// Include section symbols as external, because
  		// .ctors and .debug_* section relocations refer to it.
  		for _, pesect := range f.sections {
  			sym := ctxt.Syms.Lookup(pesect.name, 0)
  			f.writeSymbol(ctxt.Out, sym, 0, pesect.index, IMAGE_SYM_TYPE_NULL, IMAGE_SYM_CLASS_STATIC)
  		}
  	}
  
  	genasmsym(ctxt, put)
  }
  
  // writeSymbolTableAndStringTable writes out symbol and string tables for peFile f.
  func (f *peFile) writeSymbolTableAndStringTable(ctxt *Link) {
  	f.symtabOffset = ctxt.Out.Offset()
  
  	// write COFF symbol table
  	if !*FlagS || ctxt.LinkMode == LinkExternal {
  		f.writeSymbols(ctxt)
  	}
  
  	// update COFF file header and section table
  	size := f.stringTable.size() + 18*f.symbolCount
  	var h *peSection
  	if ctxt.LinkMode != LinkExternal {
  		// We do not really need .symtab for go.o, and if we have one, ld
  		// will also include it in the exe, and that will confuse windows.
  		h = f.addSection(".symtab", size, size)
  		h.characteristics = IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ | IMAGE_SCN_MEM_DISCARDABLE
  		h.checkOffset(f.symtabOffset)
  	}
  
  	// write COFF string table
  	f.stringTable.write(ctxt.Out)
  	if ctxt.LinkMode != LinkExternal {
  		h.pad(ctxt.Out, uint32(size))
  	}
  }
  
  // writeFileHeader writes COFF file header for peFile f.
  func (f *peFile) writeFileHeader(arch *sys.Arch, out *OutBuf, linkmode LinkMode) {
  	var fh pe.FileHeader
  
  	switch arch.Family {
  	default:
  		Exitf("unknown PE architecture: %v", arch.Family)
  	case sys.AMD64:
  		fh.Machine = IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_AMD64
  	case sys.I386:
  		fh.Machine = IMAGE_FILE_MACHINE_I386
  	}
  
  	fh.NumberOfSections = uint16(len(f.sections))
  
  	// Being able to produce identical output for identical input is
  	// much more beneficial than having build timestamp in the header.
  	fh.TimeDateStamp = 0
  
  	if linkmode == LinkExternal {
  		fh.Characteristics = IMAGE_FILE_LINE_NUMS_STRIPPED
  	} else {
  		fh.Characteristics = IMAGE_FILE_RELOCS_STRIPPED | IMAGE_FILE_EXECUTABLE_IMAGE | IMAGE_FILE_DEBUG_STRIPPED
  	}
  	if pe64 != 0 {
  		var oh64 pe.OptionalHeader64
  		fh.SizeOfOptionalHeader = uint16(binary.Size(&oh64))
  		fh.Characteristics |= IMAGE_FILE_LARGE_ADDRESS_AWARE
  	} else {
  		var oh pe.OptionalHeader32
  		fh.SizeOfOptionalHeader = uint16(binary.Size(&oh))
  		fh.Characteristics |= IMAGE_FILE_32BIT_MACHINE
  	}
  
  	fh.PointerToSymbolTable = uint32(f.symtabOffset)
  	fh.NumberOfSymbols = uint32(f.symbolCount)
  
  	binary.Write(out, binary.LittleEndian, &fh)
  }
  
  // writeOptionalHeader writes COFF optional header for peFile f.
  func (f *peFile) writeOptionalHeader(ctxt *Link) {
  	var oh pe.OptionalHeader32
  	var oh64 pe.OptionalHeader64
  
  	if pe64 != 0 {
  		oh64.Magic = 0x20b // PE32+
  	} else {
  		oh.Magic = 0x10b // PE32
  		oh.BaseOfData = f.dataSect.virtualAddress
  	}
  
  	// Fill out both oh64 and oh. We only use one. Oh well.
  	oh64.MajorLinkerVersion = 3
  	oh.MajorLinkerVersion = 3
  	oh64.MinorLinkerVersion = 0
  	oh.MinorLinkerVersion = 0
  	oh64.SizeOfCode = f.textSect.sizeOfRawData
  	oh.SizeOfCode = f.textSect.sizeOfRawData
  	oh64.SizeOfInitializedData = f.dataSect.sizeOfRawData
  	oh.SizeOfInitializedData = f.dataSect.sizeOfRawData
  	oh64.SizeOfUninitializedData = 0
  	oh.SizeOfUninitializedData = 0
  	if ctxt.LinkMode != LinkExternal {
  		oh64.AddressOfEntryPoint = uint32(Entryvalue(ctxt) - PEBASE)
  		oh.AddressOfEntryPoint = uint32(Entryvalue(ctxt) - PEBASE)
  	}
  	oh64.BaseOfCode = f.textSect.virtualAddress
  	oh.BaseOfCode = f.textSect.virtualAddress
  	oh64.ImageBase = PEBASE
  	oh.ImageBase = PEBASE
  	oh64.SectionAlignment = uint32(PESECTALIGN)
  	oh.SectionAlignment = uint32(PESECTALIGN)
  	oh64.FileAlignment = uint32(PEFILEALIGN)
  	oh.FileAlignment = uint32(PEFILEALIGN)
  	oh64.MajorOperatingSystemVersion = 4
  	oh.MajorOperatingSystemVersion = 4
  	oh64.MinorOperatingSystemVersion = 0
  	oh.MinorOperatingSystemVersion = 0
  	oh64.MajorImageVersion = 1
  	oh.MajorImageVersion = 1
  	oh64.MinorImageVersion = 0
  	oh.MinorImageVersion = 0
  	oh64.MajorSubsystemVersion = 4
  	oh.MajorSubsystemVersion = 4
  	oh64.MinorSubsystemVersion = 0
  	oh.MinorSubsystemVersion = 0
  	oh64.SizeOfImage = f.nextSectOffset
  	oh.SizeOfImage = f.nextSectOffset
  	oh64.SizeOfHeaders = uint32(PEFILEHEADR)
  	oh.SizeOfHeaders = uint32(PEFILEHEADR)
  	if windowsgui {
  		oh64.Subsystem = IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_WINDOWS_GUI
  		oh.Subsystem = IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_WINDOWS_GUI
  	} else {
  		oh64.Subsystem = IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_WINDOWS_CUI
  		oh.Subsystem = IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_WINDOWS_CUI
  	}
  
  	// Disable stack growth as we don't want Windows to
  	// fiddle with the thread stack limits, which we set
  	// ourselves to circumvent the stack checks in the
  	// Windows exception dispatcher.
  	// Commit size must be strictly less than reserve
  	// size otherwise reserve will be rounded up to a
  	// larger size, as verified with VMMap.
  
  	// On 64-bit, we always reserve 2MB stacks. "Pure" Go code is
  	// okay with much smaller stacks, but the syscall package
  	// makes it easy to call into arbitrary C code without cgo,
  	// and system calls even in "pure" Go code are actually C
  	// calls that may need more stack than we think.
  	//
  	// The default stack reserve size directly affects only the main
  	// thread, ctrlhandler thread, and profileloop thread. For
  	// these, it must be greater than the stack size assumed by
  	// externalthreadhandler.
  	//
  	// For other threads, the runtime explicitly asks the kernel
  	// to use the default stack size so that all stacks are
  	// consistent.
  	//
  	// At thread start, in minit, the runtime queries the OS for
  	// the actual stack bounds so that the stack size doesn't need
  	// to be hard-coded into the runtime.
  	oh64.SizeOfStackReserve = 0x00200000
  	if !iscgo {
  		oh64.SizeOfStackCommit = 0x00001000
  	} else {
  		// TODO(brainman): Maybe remove optional header writing altogether for cgo.
  		// For cgo it is the external linker that is building final executable.
  		// And it probably does not use any information stored in optional header.
  		oh64.SizeOfStackCommit = 0x00200000 - 0x2000 // account for 2 guard pages
  	}
  
  	oh.SizeOfStackReserve = 0x00100000
  	if !iscgo {
  		oh.SizeOfStackCommit = 0x00001000
  	} else {
  		oh.SizeOfStackCommit = 0x00100000 - 0x2000 // account for 2 guard pages
  	}
  
  	oh64.SizeOfHeapReserve = 0x00100000
  	oh.SizeOfHeapReserve = 0x00100000
  	oh64.SizeOfHeapCommit = 0x00001000
  	oh.SizeOfHeapCommit = 0x00001000
  	oh64.NumberOfRvaAndSizes = 16
  	oh.NumberOfRvaAndSizes = 16
  
  	if pe64 != 0 {
  		oh64.DataDirectory = f.dataDirectory
  	} else {
  		oh.DataDirectory = f.dataDirectory
  	}
  
  	if pe64 != 0 {
  		binary.Write(ctxt.Out, binary.LittleEndian, &oh64)
  	} else {
  		binary.Write(ctxt.Out, binary.LittleEndian, &oh)
  	}
  }
  
  var pefile peFile
  
  func Peinit(ctxt *Link) {
  	var l int
  
  	switch ctxt.Arch.Family {
  	// 64-bit architectures
  	case sys.AMD64:
  		pe64 = 1
  		var oh64 pe.OptionalHeader64
  		l = binary.Size(&oh64)
  
  	// 32-bit architectures
  	default:
  		var oh pe.OptionalHeader32
  		l = binary.Size(&oh)
  
  	}
  
  	if ctxt.LinkMode == LinkExternal {
  		// .rdata section will contain "masks" and "shifts" symbols, and they
  		// need to be aligned to 16-bytes. So make all sections aligned
  		// to 32-byte and mark them all IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_32BYTES so external
  		// linker will honour that requirement.
  		PESECTALIGN = 32
  		PEFILEALIGN = 0
  	}
  
  	var sh [16]pe.SectionHeader32
  	var fh pe.FileHeader
  	PEFILEHEADR = int32(Rnd(int64(len(dosstub)+binary.Size(&fh)+l+binary.Size(&sh)), PEFILEALIGN))
  	if ctxt.LinkMode != LinkExternal {
  		PESECTHEADR = int32(Rnd(int64(PEFILEHEADR), PESECTALIGN))
  	} else {
  		PESECTHEADR = 0
  	}
  	pefile.nextSectOffset = uint32(PESECTHEADR)
  	pefile.nextFileOffset = uint32(PEFILEHEADR)
  
  	if ctxt.LinkMode == LinkInternal {
  		// some mingw libs depend on this symbol, for example, FindPESectionByName
  		ctxt.xdefine("__image_base__", sym.SDATA, PEBASE)
  		ctxt.xdefine("_image_base__", sym.SDATA, PEBASE)
  	}
  
  	HEADR = PEFILEHEADR
  	if *FlagTextAddr == -1 {
  		*FlagTextAddr = PEBASE + int64(PESECTHEADR)
  	}
  	if *FlagDataAddr == -1 {
  		*FlagDataAddr = 0
  	}
  	if *FlagRound == -1 {
  		*FlagRound = int(PESECTALIGN)
  	}
  	if *FlagDataAddr != 0 && *FlagRound != 0 {
  		fmt.Printf("warning: -D0x%x is ignored because of -R0x%x\n", uint64(*FlagDataAddr), uint32(*FlagRound))
  	}
  }
  
  func pewrite(ctxt *Link) {
  	ctxt.Out.SeekSet(0)
  	if ctxt.LinkMode != LinkExternal {
  		ctxt.Out.Write(dosstub)
  		ctxt.Out.WriteStringN("PE", 4)
  	}
  
  	pefile.writeFileHeader(ctxt.Arch, ctxt.Out, ctxt.LinkMode)
  
  	pefile.writeOptionalHeader(ctxt)
  
  	for _, sect := range pefile.sections {
  		sect.write(ctxt.Out, ctxt.LinkMode)
  	}
  }
  
  func strput(out *OutBuf, s string) {
  	out.WriteString(s)
  	out.Write8(0)
  	// string must be padded to even size
  	if (len(s)+1)%2 != 0 {
  		out.Write8(0)
  	}
  }
  
  func initdynimport(ctxt *Link) *Dll {
  	var d *Dll
  
  	dr = nil
  	var m *Imp
  	for _, s := range ctxt.Syms.Allsym {
  		if !s.Attr.Reachable() || s.Type != sym.SDYNIMPORT {
  			continue
  		}
  		for d = dr; d != nil; d = d.next {
  			if d.name == s.Dynimplib() {
  				m = new(Imp)
  				break
  			}
  		}
  
  		if d == nil {
  			d = new(Dll)
  			d.name = s.Dynimplib()
  			d.next = dr
  			dr = d
  			m = new(Imp)
  		}
  
  		// Because external link requires properly stdcall decorated name,
  		// all external symbols in runtime use %n to denote that the number
  		// of uinptrs this function consumes. Store the argsize and discard
  		// the %n suffix if any.
  		m.argsize = -1
  		if i := strings.IndexByte(s.Extname, '%'); i >= 0 {
  			var err error
  			m.argsize, err = strconv.Atoi(s.Extname[i+1:])
  			if err != nil {
  				Errorf(s, "failed to parse stdcall decoration: %v", err)
  			}
  			m.argsize *= ctxt.Arch.PtrSize
  			s.Extname = s.Extname[:i]
  		}
  
  		m.s = s
  		m.next = d.ms
  		d.ms = m
  	}
  
  	if ctxt.LinkMode == LinkExternal {
  		// Add real symbol name
  		for d := dr; d != nil; d = d.next {
  			for m = d.ms; m != nil; m = m.next {
  				m.s.Type = sym.SDATA
  				m.s.Grow(int64(ctxt.Arch.PtrSize))
  				dynName := m.s.Extname
  				// only windows/386 requires stdcall decoration
  				if ctxt.Arch.Family == sys.I386 && m.argsize >= 0 {
  					dynName += fmt.Sprintf("@%d", m.argsize)
  				}
  				dynSym := ctxt.Syms.Lookup(dynName, 0)
  				dynSym.Attr |= sym.AttrReachable
  				dynSym.Type = sym.SHOSTOBJ
  				r := m.s.AddRel()
  				r.Sym = dynSym
  				r.Off = 0
  				r.Siz = uint8(ctxt.Arch.PtrSize)
  				r.Type = objabi.R_ADDR
  			}
  		}
  	} else {
  		dynamic := ctxt.Syms.Lookup(".windynamic", 0)
  		dynamic.Attr |= sym.AttrReachable
  		dynamic.Type = sym.SWINDOWS
  		for d := dr; d != nil; d = d.next {
  			for m = d.ms; m != nil; m = m.next {
  				m.s.Type = sym.SWINDOWS
  				m.s.Attr |= sym.AttrSubSymbol
  				m.s.Sub = dynamic.Sub
  				dynamic.Sub = m.s
  				m.s.Value = dynamic.Size
  				dynamic.Size += int64(ctxt.Arch.PtrSize)
  			}
  
  			dynamic.Size += int64(ctxt.Arch.PtrSize)
  		}
  	}
  
  	return dr
  }
  
  // peimporteddlls returns the gcc command line argument to link all imported
  // DLLs.
  func peimporteddlls() []string {
  	var dlls []string
  
  	for d := dr; d != nil; d = d.next {
  		dlls = append(dlls, "-l"+strings.TrimSuffix(d.name, ".dll"))
  	}
  
  	return dlls
  }
  
  func addimports(ctxt *Link, datsect *peSection) {
  	startoff := ctxt.Out.Offset()
  	dynamic := ctxt.Syms.Lookup(".windynamic", 0)
  
  	// skip import descriptor table (will write it later)
  	n := uint64(0)
  
  	for d := dr; d != nil; d = d.next {
  		n++
  	}
  	ctxt.Out.SeekSet(startoff + int64(binary.Size(&IMAGE_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR{}))*int64(n+1))
  
  	// write dll names
  	for d := dr; d != nil; d = d.next {
  		d.nameoff = uint64(ctxt.Out.Offset()) - uint64(startoff)
  		strput(ctxt.Out, d.name)
  	}
  
  	// write function names
  	for d := dr; d != nil; d = d.next {
  		for m := d.ms; m != nil; m = m.next {
  			m.off = uint64(pefile.nextSectOffset) + uint64(ctxt.Out.Offset()) - uint64(startoff)
  			ctxt.Out.Write16(0) // hint
  			strput(ctxt.Out, m.s.Extname)
  		}
  	}
  
  	// write OriginalFirstThunks
  	oftbase := uint64(ctxt.Out.Offset()) - uint64(startoff)
  
  	n = uint64(ctxt.Out.Offset())
  	for d := dr; d != nil; d = d.next {
  		d.thunkoff = uint64(ctxt.Out.Offset()) - n
  		for m := d.ms; m != nil; m = m.next {
  			if pe64 != 0 {
  				ctxt.Out.Write64(m.off)
  			} else {
  				ctxt.Out.Write32(uint32(m.off))
  			}
  		}
  
  		if pe64 != 0 {
  			ctxt.Out.Write64(0)
  		} else {
  			ctxt.Out.Write32(0)
  		}
  	}
  
  	// add pe section and pad it at the end
  	n = uint64(ctxt.Out.Offset()) - uint64(startoff)
  
  	isect := pefile.addSection(".idata", int(n), int(n))
  	isect.characteristics = IMAGE_SCN_CNT_INITIALIZED_DATA | IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ | IMAGE_SCN_MEM_WRITE
  	isect.checkOffset(startoff)
  	isect.pad(ctxt.Out, uint32(n))
  	endoff := ctxt.Out.Offset()
  
  	// write FirstThunks (allocated in .data section)
  	ftbase := uint64(dynamic.Value) - uint64(datsect.virtualAddress) - PEBASE
  
  	ctxt.Out.SeekSet(int64(uint64(datsect.pointerToRawData) + ftbase))
  	for d := dr; d != nil; d = d.next {
  		for m := d.ms; m != nil; m = m.next {
  			if pe64 != 0 {
  				ctxt.Out.Write64(m.off)
  			} else {
  				ctxt.Out.Write32(uint32(m.off))
  			}
  		}
  
  		if pe64 != 0 {
  			ctxt.Out.Write64(0)
  		} else {
  			ctxt.Out.Write32(0)
  		}
  	}
  
  	// finally write import descriptor table
  	out := ctxt.Out
  	out.SeekSet(startoff)
  
  	for d := dr; d != nil; d = d.next {
  		out.Write32(uint32(uint64(isect.virtualAddress) + oftbase + d.thunkoff))
  		out.Write32(0)
  		out.Write32(0)
  		out.Write32(uint32(uint64(isect.virtualAddress) + d.nameoff))
  		out.Write32(uint32(uint64(datsect.virtualAddress) + ftbase + d.thunkoff))
  	}
  
  	out.Write32(0) //end
  	out.Write32(0)
  	out.Write32(0)
  	out.Write32(0)
  	out.Write32(0)
  
  	// update data directory
  	pefile.dataDirectory[IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_IMPORT].VirtualAddress = isect.virtualAddress
  	pefile.dataDirectory[IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_IMPORT].Size = isect.virtualSize
  	pefile.dataDirectory[IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_IAT].VirtualAddress = uint32(dynamic.Value - PEBASE)
  	pefile.dataDirectory[IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_IAT].Size = uint32(dynamic.Size)
  
  	out.SeekSet(endoff)
  }
  
  type byExtname []*sym.Symbol
  
  func (s byExtname) Len() int           { return len(s) }
  func (s byExtname) Swap(i, j int)      { s[i], s[j] = s[j], s[i] }
  func (s byExtname) Less(i, j int) bool { return s[i].Extname < s[j].Extname }
  
  func initdynexport(ctxt *Link) {
  	nexport = 0
  	for _, s := range ctxt.Syms.Allsym {
  		if !s.Attr.Reachable() || !s.Attr.CgoExportDynamic() {
  			continue
  		}
  		if nexport+1 > len(dexport) {
  			Errorf(s, "pe dynexport table is full")
  			errorexit()
  		}
  
  		dexport[nexport] = s
  		nexport++
  	}
  
  	sort.Sort(byExtname(dexport[:nexport]))
  }
  
  func addexports(ctxt *Link) {
  	var e IMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY
  
  	size := binary.Size(&e) + 10*nexport + len(*flagOutfile) + 1
  	for i := 0; i < nexport; i++ {
  		size += len(dexport[i].Extname) + 1
  	}
  
  	if nexport == 0 {
  		return
  	}
  
  	sect := pefile.addSection(".edata", size, size)
  	sect.characteristics = IMAGE_SCN_CNT_INITIALIZED_DATA | IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ
  	sect.checkOffset(ctxt.Out.Offset())
  	va := int(sect.virtualAddress)
  	pefile.dataDirectory[IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_EXPORT].VirtualAddress = uint32(va)
  	pefile.dataDirectory[IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_EXPORT].Size = sect.virtualSize
  
  	vaName := va + binary.Size(&e) + nexport*4
  	vaAddr := va + binary.Size(&e)
  	vaNa := va + binary.Size(&e) + nexport*8
  
  	e.Characteristics = 0
  	e.MajorVersion = 0
  	e.MinorVersion = 0
  	e.NumberOfFunctions = uint32(nexport)
  	e.NumberOfNames = uint32(nexport)
  	e.Name = uint32(va+binary.Size(&e)) + uint32(nexport)*10 // Program names.
  	e.Base = 1
  	e.AddressOfFunctions = uint32(vaAddr)
  	e.AddressOfNames = uint32(vaName)
  	e.AddressOfNameOrdinals = uint32(vaNa)
  
  	out := ctxt.Out
  
  	// put IMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY
  	binary.Write(out, binary.LittleEndian, &e)
  
  	// put EXPORT Address Table
  	for i := 0; i < nexport; i++ {
  		out.Write32(uint32(dexport[i].Value - PEBASE))
  	}
  
  	// put EXPORT Name Pointer Table
  	v := int(e.Name + uint32(len(*flagOutfile)) + 1)
  
  	for i := 0; i < nexport; i++ {
  		out.Write32(uint32(v))
  		v += len(dexport[i].Extname) + 1
  	}
  
  	// put EXPORT Ordinal Table
  	for i := 0; i < nexport; i++ {
  		out.Write16(uint16(i))
  	}
  
  	// put Names
  	out.WriteStringN(*flagOutfile, len(*flagOutfile)+1)
  
  	for i := 0; i < nexport; i++ {
  		out.WriteStringN(dexport[i].Extname, len(dexport[i].Extname)+1)
  	}
  	sect.pad(out, uint32(size))
  }
  
  func (ctxt *Link) dope() {
  	/* relocation table */
  	rel := ctxt.Syms.Lookup(".rel", 0)
  
  	rel.Attr |= sym.AttrReachable
  	rel.Type = sym.SELFROSECT
  
  	initdynimport(ctxt)
  	initdynexport(ctxt)
  }
  
  func setpersrc(ctxt *Link, sym *sym.Symbol) {
  	if rsrcsym != nil {
  		Errorf(sym, "too many .rsrc sections")
  	}
  
  	rsrcsym = sym
  }
  
  func addpersrc(ctxt *Link) {
  	if rsrcsym == nil {
  		return
  	}
  
  	h := pefile.addSection(".rsrc", int(rsrcsym.Size), int(rsrcsym.Size))
  	h.characteristics = IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ | IMAGE_SCN_MEM_WRITE | IMAGE_SCN_CNT_INITIALIZED_DATA
  	h.checkOffset(ctxt.Out.Offset())
  
  	// relocation
  	for ri := range rsrcsym.R {
  		r := &rsrcsym.R[ri]
  		p := rsrcsym.P[r.Off:]
  		val := uint32(int64(h.virtualAddress) + r.Add)
  
  		// 32-bit little-endian
  		p[0] = byte(val)
  
  		p[1] = byte(val >> 8)
  		p[2] = byte(val >> 16)
  		p[3] = byte(val >> 24)
  	}
  
  	ctxt.Out.Write(rsrcsym.P)
  	h.pad(ctxt.Out, uint32(rsrcsym.Size))
  
  	// update data directory
  	pefile.dataDirectory[IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_RESOURCE].VirtualAddress = h.virtualAddress
  
  	pefile.dataDirectory[IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_RESOURCE].Size = h.virtualSize
  }
  
  func Asmbpe(ctxt *Link) {
  	switch ctxt.Arch.Family {
  	default:
  		Exitf("unknown PE architecture: %v", ctxt.Arch.Family)
  	case sys.AMD64, sys.I386:
  	}
  
  	t := pefile.addSection(".text", int(Segtext.Length), int(Segtext.Length))
  	t.characteristics = IMAGE_SCN_CNT_CODE | IMAGE_SCN_CNT_INITIALIZED_DATA | IMAGE_SCN_MEM_EXECUTE | IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ
  	if ctxt.LinkMode == LinkExternal {
  		// some data symbols (e.g. masks) end up in the .text section, and they normally
  		// expect larger alignment requirement than the default text section alignment.
  		t.characteristics |= IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_32BYTES
  	}
  	t.checkSegment(&Segtext)
  	pefile.textSect = t
  
  	ro := pefile.addSection(".rdata", int(Segrodata.Length), int(Segrodata.Length))
  	ro.characteristics = IMAGE_SCN_CNT_INITIALIZED_DATA | IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ
  	if ctxt.LinkMode == LinkExternal {
  		// some data symbols (e.g. masks) end up in the .rdata section, and they normally
  		// expect larger alignment requirement than the default text section alignment.
  		ro.characteristics |= IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_32BYTES
  	} else {
  		// TODO(brainman): should not need IMAGE_SCN_MEM_EXECUTE, but I do not know why it carshes without it
  		ro.characteristics |= IMAGE_SCN_MEM_EXECUTE
  	}
  	ro.checkSegment(&Segrodata)
  	pefile.rdataSect = ro
  
  	var d *peSection
  	if ctxt.LinkMode != LinkExternal {
  		d = pefile.addSection(".data", int(Segdata.Length), int(Segdata.Filelen))
  		d.characteristics = IMAGE_SCN_CNT_INITIALIZED_DATA | IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ | IMAGE_SCN_MEM_WRITE
  		d.checkSegment(&Segdata)
  		pefile.dataSect = d
  	} else {
  		d = pefile.addSection(".data", int(Segdata.Filelen), int(Segdata.Filelen))
  		d.characteristics = IMAGE_SCN_CNT_INITIALIZED_DATA | IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ | IMAGE_SCN_MEM_WRITE | IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_32BYTES
  		d.checkSegment(&Segdata)
  		pefile.dataSect = d
  
  		b := pefile.addSection(".bss", int(Segdata.Length-Segdata.Filelen), 0)
  		b.characteristics = IMAGE_SCN_CNT_UNINITIALIZED_DATA | IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ | IMAGE_SCN_MEM_WRITE | IMAGE_SCN_ALIGN_32BYTES
  		b.pointerToRawData = 0
  		pefile.bssSect = b
  	}
  
  	pefile.addDWARF()
  
  	if ctxt.LinkMode == LinkExternal {
  		pefile.ctorsSect = pefile.addInitArray(ctxt)
  	}
  
  	ctxt.Out.SeekSet(int64(pefile.nextFileOffset))
  	if ctxt.LinkMode != LinkExternal {
  		addimports(ctxt, d)
  		addexports(ctxt)
  	}
  	pefile.writeSymbolTableAndStringTable(ctxt)
  	addpersrc(ctxt)
  	if ctxt.LinkMode == LinkExternal {
  		pefile.emitRelocations(ctxt)
  	}
  
  	pewrite(ctxt)
  }
  

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