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Source file src/cmd/api/goapi.go

Documentation: cmd/api

  // Copyright 2011 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
  // Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
  // license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
  
  // Binary api computes the exported API of a set of Go packages.
  package main
  
  import (
  	"bufio"
  	"bytes"
  	"flag"
  	"fmt"
  	"go/ast"
  	"go/build"
  	"go/parser"
  	"go/token"
  	"go/types"
  	"io"
  	"io/ioutil"
  	"log"
  	"os"
  	"os/exec"
  	"path/filepath"
  	"regexp"
  	"runtime"
  	"sort"
  	"strings"
  )
  
  // Flags
  var (
  	checkFile  = flag.String("c", "", "optional comma-separated filename(s) to check API against")
  	allowNew   = flag.Bool("allow_new", true, "allow API additions")
  	exceptFile = flag.String("except", "", "optional filename of packages that are allowed to change without triggering a failure in the tool")
  	nextFile   = flag.String("next", "", "optional filename of tentative upcoming API features for the next release. This file can be lazily maintained. It only affects the delta warnings from the -c file printed on success.")
  	verbose    = flag.Bool("v", false, "verbose debugging")
  	forceCtx   = flag.String("contexts", "", "optional comma-separated list of <goos>-<goarch>[-cgo] to override default contexts.")
  )
  
  // contexts are the default contexts which are scanned, unless
  // overridden by the -contexts flag.
  var contexts = []*build.Context{
  	{GOOS: "linux", GOARCH: "386", CgoEnabled: true},
  	{GOOS: "linux", GOARCH: "386"},
  	{GOOS: "linux", GOARCH: "amd64", CgoEnabled: true},
  	{GOOS: "linux", GOARCH: "amd64"},
  	{GOOS: "linux", GOARCH: "arm", CgoEnabled: true},
  	{GOOS: "linux", GOARCH: "arm"},
  	{GOOS: "darwin", GOARCH: "386", CgoEnabled: true},
  	{GOOS: "darwin", GOARCH: "386"},
  	{GOOS: "darwin", GOARCH: "amd64", CgoEnabled: true},
  	{GOOS: "darwin", GOARCH: "amd64"},
  	{GOOS: "windows", GOARCH: "amd64"},
  	{GOOS: "windows", GOARCH: "386"},
  	{GOOS: "freebsd", GOARCH: "386", CgoEnabled: true},
  	{GOOS: "freebsd", GOARCH: "386"},
  	{GOOS: "freebsd", GOARCH: "amd64", CgoEnabled: true},
  	{GOOS: "freebsd", GOARCH: "amd64"},
  	{GOOS: "freebsd", GOARCH: "arm", CgoEnabled: true},
  	{GOOS: "freebsd", GOARCH: "arm"},
  	{GOOS: "netbsd", GOARCH: "386", CgoEnabled: true},
  	{GOOS: "netbsd", GOARCH: "386"},
  	{GOOS: "netbsd", GOARCH: "amd64", CgoEnabled: true},
  	{GOOS: "netbsd", GOARCH: "amd64"},
  	{GOOS: "netbsd", GOARCH: "arm", CgoEnabled: true},
  	{GOOS: "netbsd", GOARCH: "arm"},
  	{GOOS: "openbsd", GOARCH: "386", CgoEnabled: true},
  	{GOOS: "openbsd", GOARCH: "386"},
  	{GOOS: "openbsd", GOARCH: "amd64", CgoEnabled: true},
  	{GOOS: "openbsd", GOARCH: "amd64"},
  }
  
  func contextName(c *build.Context) string {
  	s := c.GOOS + "-" + c.GOARCH
  	if c.CgoEnabled {
  		return s + "-cgo"
  	}
  	return s
  }
  
  func parseContext(c string) *build.Context {
  	parts := strings.Split(c, "-")
  	if len(parts) < 2 {
  		log.Fatalf("bad context: %q", c)
  	}
  	bc := &build.Context{
  		GOOS:   parts[0],
  		GOARCH: parts[1],
  	}
  	if len(parts) == 3 {
  		if parts[2] == "cgo" {
  			bc.CgoEnabled = true
  		} else {
  			log.Fatalf("bad context: %q", c)
  		}
  	}
  	return bc
  }
  
  func setContexts() {
  	contexts = []*build.Context{}
  	for _, c := range strings.Split(*forceCtx, ",") {
  		contexts = append(contexts, parseContext(c))
  	}
  }
  
  var internalPkg = regexp.MustCompile(`(^|/)internal($|/)`)
  
  func main() {
  	flag.Parse()
  
  	if !strings.Contains(runtime.Version(), "weekly") && !strings.Contains(runtime.Version(), "devel") {
  		if *nextFile != "" {
  			fmt.Printf("Go version is %q, ignoring -next %s\n", runtime.Version(), *nextFile)
  			*nextFile = ""
  		}
  	}
  
  	if *forceCtx != "" {
  		setContexts()
  	}
  	for _, c := range contexts {
  		c.Compiler = build.Default.Compiler
  	}
  
  	var pkgNames []string
  	if flag.NArg() > 0 {
  		pkgNames = flag.Args()
  	} else {
  		stds, err := exec.Command("go", "list", "std").Output()
  		if err != nil {
  			log.Fatal(err)
  		}
  		for _, pkg := range strings.Fields(string(stds)) {
  			if !internalPkg.MatchString(pkg) {
  				pkgNames = append(pkgNames, pkg)
  			}
  		}
  	}
  
  	var featureCtx = make(map[string]map[string]bool) // feature -> context name -> true
  	for _, context := range contexts {
  		w := NewWalker(context, filepath.Join(build.Default.GOROOT, "src"))
  
  		for _, name := range pkgNames {
  			// Vendored packages do not contribute to our
  			// public API surface.
  			if strings.HasPrefix(name, "vendor/") {
  				continue
  			}
  			// - Package "unsafe" contains special signatures requiring
  			//   extra care when printing them - ignore since it is not
  			//   going to change w/o a language change.
  			// - We don't care about the API of commands.
  			if name != "unsafe" && !strings.HasPrefix(name, "cmd/") {
  				if name == "runtime/cgo" && !context.CgoEnabled {
  					// w.Import(name) will return nil
  					continue
  				}
  				pkg, _ := w.Import(name)
  				w.export(pkg)
  			}
  		}
  
  		ctxName := contextName(context)
  		for _, f := range w.Features() {
  			if featureCtx[f] == nil {
  				featureCtx[f] = make(map[string]bool)
  			}
  			featureCtx[f][ctxName] = true
  		}
  	}
  
  	var features []string
  	for f, cmap := range featureCtx {
  		if len(cmap) == len(contexts) {
  			features = append(features, f)
  			continue
  		}
  		comma := strings.Index(f, ",")
  		for cname := range cmap {
  			f2 := fmt.Sprintf("%s (%s)%s", f[:comma], cname, f[comma:])
  			features = append(features, f2)
  		}
  	}
  
  	fail := false
  	defer func() {
  		if fail {
  			os.Exit(1)
  		}
  	}()
  
  	bw := bufio.NewWriter(os.Stdout)
  	defer bw.Flush()
  
  	if *checkFile == "" {
  		sort.Strings(features)
  		for _, f := range features {
  			fmt.Fprintln(bw, f)
  		}
  		return
  	}
  
  	var required []string
  	for _, file := range strings.Split(*checkFile, ",") {
  		required = append(required, fileFeatures(file)...)
  	}
  	optional := fileFeatures(*nextFile)
  	exception := fileFeatures(*exceptFile)
  	fail = !compareAPI(bw, features, required, optional, exception,
  		*allowNew && strings.Contains(runtime.Version(), "devel"))
  }
  
  // export emits the exported package features.
  func (w *Walker) export(pkg *types.Package) {
  	if *verbose {
  		log.Println(pkg)
  	}
  	pop := w.pushScope("pkg " + pkg.Path())
  	w.current = pkg
  	scope := pkg.Scope()
  	for _, name := range scope.Names() {
  		if ast.IsExported(name) {
  			w.emitObj(scope.Lookup(name))
  		}
  	}
  	pop()
  }
  
  func set(items []string) map[string]bool {
  	s := make(map[string]bool)
  	for _, v := range items {
  		s[v] = true
  	}
  	return s
  }
  
  var spaceParensRx = regexp.MustCompile(` \(\S+?\)`)
  
  func featureWithoutContext(f string) string {
  	if !strings.Contains(f, "(") {
  		return f
  	}
  	return spaceParensRx.ReplaceAllString(f, "")
  }
  
  func compareAPI(w io.Writer, features, required, optional, exception []string, allowAdd bool) (ok bool) {
  	ok = true
  
  	optionalSet := set(optional)
  	exceptionSet := set(exception)
  	featureSet := set(features)
  
  	sort.Strings(features)
  	sort.Strings(required)
  
  	take := func(sl *[]string) string {
  		s := (*sl)[0]
  		*sl = (*sl)[1:]
  		return s
  	}
  
  	for len(required) > 0 || len(features) > 0 {
  		switch {
  		case len(features) == 0 || (len(required) > 0 && required[0] < features[0]):
  			feature := take(&required)
  			if exceptionSet[feature] {
  				// An "unfortunate" case: the feature was once
  				// included in the API (e.g. go1.txt), but was
  				// subsequently removed. These are already
  				// acknowledged by being in the file
  				// "api/except.txt". No need to print them out
  				// here.
  			} else if featureSet[featureWithoutContext(feature)] {
  				// okay.
  			} else {
  				fmt.Fprintf(w, "-%s\n", feature)
  				ok = false // broke compatibility
  			}
  		case len(required) == 0 || (len(features) > 0 && required[0] > features[0]):
  			newFeature := take(&features)
  			if optionalSet[newFeature] {
  				// Known added feature to the upcoming release.
  				// Delete it from the map so we can detect any upcoming features
  				// which were never seen.  (so we can clean up the nextFile)
  				delete(optionalSet, newFeature)
  			} else {
  				fmt.Fprintf(w, "+%s\n", newFeature)
  				if !allowAdd {
  					ok = false // we're in lock-down mode for next release
  				}
  			}
  		default:
  			take(&required)
  			take(&features)
  		}
  	}
  
  	// In next file, but not in API.
  	var missing []string
  	for feature := range optionalSet {
  		missing = append(missing, feature)
  	}
  	sort.Strings(missing)
  	for _, feature := range missing {
  		fmt.Fprintf(w, "±%s\n", feature)
  	}
  	return
  }
  
  func fileFeatures(filename string) []string {
  	if filename == "" {
  		return nil
  	}
  	bs, err := ioutil.ReadFile(filename)
  	if err != nil {
  		log.Fatalf("Error reading file %s: %v", filename, err)
  	}
  	lines := strings.Split(string(bs), "\n")
  	var nonblank []string
  	for _, line := range lines {
  		line = strings.TrimSpace(line)
  		if line != "" && !strings.HasPrefix(line, "#") {
  			nonblank = append(nonblank, line)
  		}
  	}
  	return nonblank
  }
  
  var fset = token.NewFileSet()
  
  type Walker struct {
  	context  *build.Context
  	root     string
  	scope    []string
  	current  *types.Package
  	features map[string]bool           // set
  	imported map[string]*types.Package // packages already imported
  }
  
  func NewWalker(context *build.Context, root string) *Walker {
  	return &Walker{
  		context:  context,
  		root:     root,
  		features: map[string]bool{},
  		imported: map[string]*types.Package{"unsafe": types.Unsafe},
  	}
  }
  
  func (w *Walker) Features() (fs []string) {
  	for f := range w.features {
  		fs = append(fs, f)
  	}
  	sort.Strings(fs)
  	return
  }
  
  var parsedFileCache = make(map[string]*ast.File)
  
  func (w *Walker) parseFile(dir, file string) (*ast.File, error) {
  	filename := filepath.Join(dir, file)
  	if f := parsedFileCache[filename]; f != nil {
  		return f, nil
  	}
  
  	f, err := parser.ParseFile(fset, filename, nil, 0)
  	if err != nil {
  		return nil, err
  	}
  	parsedFileCache[filename] = f
  
  	return f, nil
  }
  
  // The package cache doesn't operate correctly in rare (so far artificial)
  // circumstances (issue 8425). Disable before debugging non-obvious errors
  // from the type-checker.
  const usePkgCache = true
  
  var (
  	pkgCache = map[string]*types.Package{} // map tagKey to package
  	pkgTags  = map[string][]string{}       // map import dir to list of relevant tags
  )
  
  // tagKey returns the tag-based key to use in the pkgCache.
  // It is a comma-separated string; the first part is dir, the rest tags.
  // The satisfied tags are derived from context but only those that
  // matter (the ones listed in the tags argument) are used.
  // The tags list, which came from go/build's Package.AllTags,
  // is known to be sorted.
  func tagKey(dir string, context *build.Context, tags []string) string {
  	ctags := map[string]bool{
  		context.GOOS:   true,
  		context.GOARCH: true,
  	}
  	if context.CgoEnabled {
  		ctags["cgo"] = true
  	}
  	for _, tag := range context.BuildTags {
  		ctags[tag] = true
  	}
  	// TODO: ReleaseTags (need to load default)
  	key := dir
  	for _, tag := range tags {
  		if ctags[tag] {
  			key += "," + tag
  		}
  	}
  	return key
  }
  
  // Importing is a sentinel taking the place in Walker.imported
  // for a package that is in the process of being imported.
  var importing types.Package
  
  func (w *Walker) Import(name string) (*types.Package, error) {
  	pkg := w.imported[name]
  	if pkg != nil {
  		if pkg == &importing {
  			log.Fatalf("cycle importing package %q", name)
  		}
  		return pkg, nil
  	}
  	w.imported[name] = &importing
  
  	root := w.root
  	if strings.HasPrefix(name, "golang_org/x/") {
  		root = filepath.Join(root, "vendor")
  	}
  
  	// Determine package files.
  	dir := filepath.Join(root, filepath.FromSlash(name))
  	if fi, err := os.Stat(dir); err != nil || !fi.IsDir() {
  		log.Fatalf("no source in tree for import %q: %v", name, err)
  	}
  
  	context := w.context
  	if context == nil {
  		context = &build.Default
  	}
  
  	// Look in cache.
  	// If we've already done an import with the same set
  	// of relevant tags, reuse the result.
  	var key string
  	if usePkgCache {
  		if tags, ok := pkgTags[dir]; ok {
  			key = tagKey(dir, context, tags)
  			if pkg := pkgCache[key]; pkg != nil {
  				w.imported[name] = pkg
  				return pkg, nil
  			}
  		}
  	}
  
  	info, err := context.ImportDir(dir, 0)
  	if err != nil {
  		if _, nogo := err.(*build.NoGoError); nogo {
  			return nil, nil
  		}
  		log.Fatalf("pkg %q, dir %q: ScanDir: %v", name, dir, err)
  	}
  
  	// Save tags list first time we see a directory.
  	if usePkgCache {
  		if _, ok := pkgTags[dir]; !ok {
  			pkgTags[dir] = info.AllTags
  			key = tagKey(dir, context, info.AllTags)
  		}
  	}
  
  	filenames := append(append([]string{}, info.GoFiles...), info.CgoFiles...)
  
  	// Parse package files.
  	var files []*ast.File
  	for _, file := range filenames {
  		f, err := w.parseFile(dir, file)
  		if err != nil {
  			log.Fatalf("error parsing package %s: %s", name, err)
  		}
  		files = append(files, f)
  	}
  
  	// Type-check package files.
  	conf := types.Config{
  		IgnoreFuncBodies: true,
  		FakeImportC:      true,
  		Importer:         w,
  	}
  	pkg, err = conf.Check(name, fset, files, nil)
  	if err != nil {
  		ctxt := "<no context>"
  		if w.context != nil {
  			ctxt = fmt.Sprintf("%s-%s", w.context.GOOS, w.context.GOARCH)
  		}
  		log.Fatalf("error typechecking package %s: %s (%s)", name, err, ctxt)
  	}
  
  	if usePkgCache {
  		pkgCache[key] = pkg
  	}
  
  	w.imported[name] = pkg
  	return pkg, nil
  }
  
  // pushScope enters a new scope (walking a package, type, node, etc)
  // and returns a function that will leave the scope (with sanity checking
  // for mismatched pushes & pops)
  func (w *Walker) pushScope(name string) (popFunc func()) {
  	w.scope = append(w.scope, name)
  	return func() {
  		if len(w.scope) == 0 {
  			log.Fatalf("attempt to leave scope %q with empty scope list", name)
  		}
  		if w.scope[len(w.scope)-1] != name {
  			log.Fatalf("attempt to leave scope %q, but scope is currently %#v", name, w.scope)
  		}
  		w.scope = w.scope[:len(w.scope)-1]
  	}
  }
  
  func sortedMethodNames(typ *types.Interface) []string {
  	n := typ.NumMethods()
  	list := make([]string, n)
  	for i := range list {
  		list[i] = typ.Method(i).Name()
  	}
  	sort.Strings(list)
  	return list
  }
  
  func (w *Walker) writeType(buf *bytes.Buffer, typ types.Type) {
  	switch typ := typ.(type) {
  	case *types.Basic:
  		s := typ.Name()
  		switch typ.Kind() {
  		case types.UnsafePointer:
  			s = "unsafe.Pointer"
  		case types.UntypedBool:
  			s = "ideal-bool"
  		case types.UntypedInt:
  			s = "ideal-int"
  		case types.UntypedRune:
  			// "ideal-char" for compatibility with old tool
  			// TODO(gri) change to "ideal-rune"
  			s = "ideal-char"
  		case types.UntypedFloat:
  			s = "ideal-float"
  		case types.UntypedComplex:
  			s = "ideal-complex"
  		case types.UntypedString:
  			s = "ideal-string"
  		case types.UntypedNil:
  			panic("should never see untyped nil type")
  		default:
  			switch s {
  			case "byte":
  				s = "uint8"
  			case "rune":
  				s = "int32"
  			}
  		}
  		buf.WriteString(s)
  
  	case *types.Array:
  		fmt.Fprintf(buf, "[%d]", typ.Len())
  		w.writeType(buf, typ.Elem())
  
  	case *types.Slice:
  		buf.WriteString("[]")
  		w.writeType(buf, typ.Elem())
  
  	case *types.Struct:
  		buf.WriteString("struct")
  
  	case *types.Pointer:
  		buf.WriteByte('*')
  		w.writeType(buf, typ.Elem())
  
  	case *types.Tuple:
  		panic("should never see a tuple type")
  
  	case *types.Signature:
  		buf.WriteString("func")
  		w.writeSignature(buf, typ)
  
  	case *types.Interface:
  		buf.WriteString("interface{")
  		if typ.NumMethods() > 0 {
  			buf.WriteByte(' ')
  			buf.WriteString(strings.Join(sortedMethodNames(typ), ", "))
  			buf.WriteByte(' ')
  		}
  		buf.WriteString("}")
  
  	case *types.Map:
  		buf.WriteString("map[")
  		w.writeType(buf, typ.Key())
  		buf.WriteByte(']')
  		w.writeType(buf, typ.Elem())
  
  	case *types.Chan:
  		var s string
  		switch typ.Dir() {
  		case types.SendOnly:
  			s = "chan<- "
  		case types.RecvOnly:
  			s = "<-chan "
  		case types.SendRecv:
  			s = "chan "
  		default:
  			panic("unreachable")
  		}
  		buf.WriteString(s)
  		w.writeType(buf, typ.Elem())
  
  	case *types.Named:
  		obj := typ.Obj()
  		pkg := obj.Pkg()
  		if pkg != nil && pkg != w.current {
  			buf.WriteString(pkg.Name())
  			buf.WriteByte('.')
  		}
  		buf.WriteString(typ.Obj().Name())
  
  	default:
  		panic(fmt.Sprintf("unknown type %T", typ))
  	}
  }
  
  func (w *Walker) writeSignature(buf *bytes.Buffer, sig *types.Signature) {
  	w.writeParams(buf, sig.Params(), sig.Variadic())
  	switch res := sig.Results(); res.Len() {
  	case 0:
  		// nothing to do
  	case 1:
  		buf.WriteByte(' ')
  		w.writeType(buf, res.At(0).Type())
  	default:
  		buf.WriteByte(' ')
  		w.writeParams(buf, res, false)
  	}
  }
  
  func (w *Walker) writeParams(buf *bytes.Buffer, t *types.Tuple, variadic bool) {
  	buf.WriteByte('(')
  	for i, n := 0, t.Len(); i < n; i++ {
  		if i > 0 {
  			buf.WriteString(", ")
  		}
  		typ := t.At(i).Type()
  		if variadic && i+1 == n {
  			buf.WriteString("...")
  			typ = typ.(*types.Slice).Elem()
  		}
  		w.writeType(buf, typ)
  	}
  	buf.WriteByte(')')
  }
  
  func (w *Walker) typeString(typ types.Type) string {
  	var buf bytes.Buffer
  	w.writeType(&buf, typ)
  	return buf.String()
  }
  
  func (w *Walker) signatureString(sig *types.Signature) string {
  	var buf bytes.Buffer
  	w.writeSignature(&buf, sig)
  	return buf.String()
  }
  
  func (w *Walker) emitObj(obj types.Object) {
  	switch obj := obj.(type) {
  	case *types.Const:
  		w.emitf("const %s %s", obj.Name(), w.typeString(obj.Type()))
  		x := obj.Val()
  		short := x.String()
  		exact := x.ExactString()
  		if short == exact {
  			w.emitf("const %s = %s", obj.Name(), short)
  		} else {
  			w.emitf("const %s = %s  // %s", obj.Name(), short, exact)
  		}
  	case *types.Var:
  		w.emitf("var %s %s", obj.Name(), w.typeString(obj.Type()))
  	case *types.TypeName:
  		w.emitType(obj)
  	case *types.Func:
  		w.emitFunc(obj)
  	default:
  		panic("unknown object: " + obj.String())
  	}
  }
  
  func (w *Walker) emitType(obj *types.TypeName) {
  	name := obj.Name()
  	typ := obj.Type()
  	switch typ := typ.Underlying().(type) {
  	case *types.Struct:
  		w.emitStructType(name, typ)
  	case *types.Interface:
  		w.emitIfaceType(name, typ)
  		return // methods are handled by emitIfaceType
  	default:
  		w.emitf("type %s %s", name, w.typeString(typ.Underlying()))
  	}
  
  	// emit methods with value receiver
  	var methodNames map[string]bool
  	vset := types.NewMethodSet(typ)
  	for i, n := 0, vset.Len(); i < n; i++ {
  		m := vset.At(i)
  		if m.Obj().Exported() {
  			w.emitMethod(m)
  			if methodNames == nil {
  				methodNames = make(map[string]bool)
  			}
  			methodNames[m.Obj().Name()] = true
  		}
  	}
  
  	// emit methods with pointer receiver; exclude
  	// methods that we have emitted already
  	// (the method set of *T includes the methods of T)
  	pset := types.NewMethodSet(types.NewPointer(typ))
  	for i, n := 0, pset.Len(); i < n; i++ {
  		m := pset.At(i)
  		if m.Obj().Exported() && !methodNames[m.Obj().Name()] {
  			w.emitMethod(m)
  		}
  	}
  }
  
  func (w *Walker) emitStructType(name string, typ *types.Struct) {
  	typeStruct := fmt.Sprintf("type %s struct", name)
  	w.emitf(typeStruct)
  	defer w.pushScope(typeStruct)()
  
  	for i := 0; i < typ.NumFields(); i++ {
  		f := typ.Field(i)
  		if !f.Exported() {
  			continue
  		}
  		typ := f.Type()
  		if f.Anonymous() {
  			w.emitf("embedded %s", w.typeString(typ))
  			continue
  		}
  		w.emitf("%s %s", f.Name(), w.typeString(typ))
  	}
  }
  
  func (w *Walker) emitIfaceType(name string, typ *types.Interface) {
  	pop := w.pushScope("type " + name + " interface")
  
  	var methodNames []string
  	complete := true
  	mset := types.NewMethodSet(typ)
  	for i, n := 0, mset.Len(); i < n; i++ {
  		m := mset.At(i).Obj().(*types.Func)
  		if !m.Exported() {
  			complete = false
  			continue
  		}
  		methodNames = append(methodNames, m.Name())
  		w.emitf("%s%s", m.Name(), w.signatureString(m.Type().(*types.Signature)))
  	}
  
  	if !complete {
  		// The method set has unexported methods, so all the
  		// implementations are provided by the same package,
  		// so the method set can be extended. Instead of recording
  		// the full set of names (below), record only that there were
  		// unexported methods. (If the interface shrinks, we will notice
  		// because a method signature emitted during the last loop
  		// will disappear.)
  		w.emitf("unexported methods")
  	}
  
  	pop()
  
  	if !complete {
  		return
  	}
  
  	if len(methodNames) == 0 {
  		w.emitf("type %s interface {}", name)
  		return
  	}
  
  	sort.Strings(methodNames)
  	w.emitf("type %s interface { %s }", name, strings.Join(methodNames, ", "))
  }
  
  func (w *Walker) emitFunc(f *types.Func) {
  	sig := f.Type().(*types.Signature)
  	if sig.Recv() != nil {
  		panic("method considered a regular function: " + f.String())
  	}
  	w.emitf("func %s%s", f.Name(), w.signatureString(sig))
  }
  
  func (w *Walker) emitMethod(m *types.Selection) {
  	sig := m.Type().(*types.Signature)
  	recv := sig.Recv().Type()
  	// report exported methods with unexported receiver base type
  	if true {
  		base := recv
  		if p, _ := recv.(*types.Pointer); p != nil {
  			base = p.Elem()
  		}
  		if obj := base.(*types.Named).Obj(); !obj.Exported() {
  			log.Fatalf("exported method with unexported receiver base type: %s", m)
  		}
  	}
  	w.emitf("method (%s) %s%s", w.typeString(recv), m.Obj().Name(), w.signatureString(sig))
  }
  
  func (w *Walker) emitf(format string, args ...interface{}) {
  	f := strings.Join(w.scope, ", ") + ", " + fmt.Sprintf(format, args...)
  	if strings.Contains(f, "\n") {
  		panic("feature contains newlines: " + f)
  	}
  
  	if _, dup := w.features[f]; dup {
  		panic("duplicate feature inserted: " + f)
  	}
  	w.features[f] = true
  
  	if *verbose {
  		log.Printf("feature: %s", f)
  	}
  }
  

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