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Package math

import "math"
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Package math provides basic constants and mathematical functions.

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Constants
func Abs(x float64) float64
func Acos(x float64) float64
func Acosh(x float64) float64
func Asin(x float64) float64
func Asinh(x float64) float64
func Atan(x float64) float64
func Atan2(y, x float64) float64
func Atanh(x float64) float64
func Cbrt(x float64) float64
func Ceil(x float64) float64
func Copysign(x, y float64) float64
func Cos(x float64) float64
func Cosh(x float64) float64
func Dim(x, y float64) float64
func Erf(x float64) float64
func Erfc(x float64) float64
func Exp(x float64) float64
func Exp2(x float64) float64
func Expm1(x float64) float64
func Float32bits(f float32) uint32
func Float32frombits(b uint32) float32
func Float64bits(f float64) uint64
func Float64frombits(b uint64) float64
func Floor(x float64) float64
func Frexp(f float64) (frac float64, exp int)
func Gamma(x float64) float64
func Hypot(p, q float64) float64
func Ilogb(x float64) int
func Inf(sign int) float64
func IsInf(f float64, sign int) bool
func IsNaN(f float64) (is bool)
func J0(x float64) float64
func J1(x float64) float64
func Jn(n int, x float64) float64
func Ldexp(frac float64, exp int) float64
func Lgamma(x float64) (lgamma float64, sign int)
func Log(x float64) float64
func Log10(x float64) float64
func Log1p(x float64) float64
func Log2(x float64) float64
func Logb(x float64) float64
func Max(x, y float64) float64
func Min(x, y float64) float64
func Mod(x, y float64) float64
func Modf(f float64) (int float64, frac float64)
func NaN() float64
func Nextafter(x, y float64) (r float64)
func Nextafter32(x, y float32) (r float32)
func Pow(x, y float64) float64
func Pow10(e int) float64
func Remainder(x, y float64) float64
func Signbit(x float64) bool
func Sin(x float64) float64
func Sincos(x float64) (sin, cos float64)
func Sinh(x float64) float64
func Sqrt(x float64) float64
func Tan(x float64) float64
func Tanh(x float64) float64
func Trunc(x float64) float64
func Y0(x float64) float64
func Y1(x float64) float64
func Yn(n int, x float64) float64

Package files

abs.go acosh.go asin.go asinh.go atan.go atan2.go atanh.go bits.go cbrt.go const.go copysign.go dim.go erf.go exp.go expm1.go floor.go floor_asm.go frexp.go gamma.go hypot.go j0.go j1.go jn.go ldexp.go lgamma.go log.go log10.go log1p.go logb.go mod.go modf.go nextafter.go pow.go pow10.go remainder.go signbit.go sin.go sincos.go sinh.go sqrt.go tan.go tanh.go unsafe.go

Constants

Mathematical constants.

const (
        E   = 2.71828182845904523536028747135266249775724709369995957496696763 // http://oeis.org/A001113
        Pi  = 3.14159265358979323846264338327950288419716939937510582097494459 // http://oeis.org/A000796
        Phi = 1.61803398874989484820458683436563811772030917980576286213544862 // http://oeis.org/A001622

        Sqrt2   = 1.41421356237309504880168872420969807856967187537694807317667974 // http://oeis.org/A002193
        SqrtE   = 1.64872127070012814684865078781416357165377610071014801157507931 // http://oeis.org/A019774
        SqrtPi  = 1.77245385090551602729816748334114518279754945612238712821380779 // http://oeis.org/A002161
        SqrtPhi = 1.27201964951406896425242246173749149171560804184009624861664038 // http://oeis.org/A139339

        Ln2    = 0.693147180559945309417232121458176568075500134360255254120680009 // http://oeis.org/A002162
        Log2E  = 1 / Ln2
        Ln10   = 2.30258509299404568401799145468436420760110148862877297603332790 // http://oeis.org/A002392
        Log10E = 1 / Ln10
)

Floating-point limit values. Max is the largest finite value representable by the type. SmallestNonzero is the smallest positive, non-zero value representable by the type.

const (
        MaxFloat32             = 3.40282346638528859811704183484516925440e+38  // 2**127 * (2**24 - 1) / 2**23
        SmallestNonzeroFloat32 = 1.401298464324817070923729583289916131280e-45 // 1 / 2**(127 - 1 + 23)

        MaxFloat64             = 1.797693134862315708145274237317043567981e+308 // 2**1023 * (2**53 - 1) / 2**52
        SmallestNonzeroFloat64 = 4.940656458412465441765687928682213723651e-324 // 1 / 2**(1023 - 1 + 52)
)

Integer limit values.

const (
        MaxInt8   = 1<<7 - 1
        MinInt8   = -1 << 7
        MaxInt16  = 1<<15 - 1
        MinInt16  = -1 << 15
        MaxInt32  = 1<<31 - 1
        MinInt32  = -1 << 31
        MaxInt64  = 1<<63 - 1
        MinInt64  = -1 << 63
        MaxUint8  = 1<<8 - 1
        MaxUint16 = 1<<16 - 1
        MaxUint32 = 1<<32 - 1
        MaxUint64 = 1<<64 - 1
)

func Abs

Abs returns the absolute value of x.

Special cases are:

Abs(±Inf) = +Inf
Abs(NaN) = NaN
func Abs(x float64) float64

func Acos

Acos returns the arccosine, in radians, of x.

Special case is:

Acos(x) = NaN if x < -1 or x > 1
func Acos(x float64) float64

func Acosh

Acosh returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of x.

Special cases are:

Acosh(+Inf) = +Inf
Acosh(x) = NaN if x < 1
Acosh(NaN) = NaN
func Acosh(x float64) float64

func Asin

Asin returns the arcsine, in radians, of x.

Special cases are:

Asin(±0) = ±0
Asin(x) = NaN if x < -1 or x > 1
func Asin(x float64) float64

func Asinh

Asinh returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of x.

Special cases are:

Asinh(±0) = ±0
Asinh(±Inf) = ±Inf
Asinh(NaN) = NaN
func Asinh(x float64) float64

func Atan

Atan returns the arctangent, in radians, of x.

Special cases are:

Atan(±0) = ±0
Atan(±Inf) = ±Pi/2
func Atan(x float64) float64

func Atan2

Atan2 returns the arc tangent of y/x, using the signs of the two to determine the quadrant of the return value.

Special cases are (in order):

Atan2(y, NaN) = NaN
Atan2(NaN, x) = NaN
Atan2(+0, x>=0) = +0
Atan2(-0, x>=0) = -0
Atan2(+0, x<=-0) = +Pi
Atan2(-0, x<=-0) = -Pi
Atan2(y>0, 0) = +Pi/2
Atan2(y<0, 0) = -Pi/2
Atan2(+Inf, +Inf) = +Pi/4
Atan2(-Inf, +Inf) = -Pi/4
Atan2(+Inf, -Inf) = 3Pi/4
Atan2(-Inf, -Inf) = -3Pi/4
Atan2(y, +Inf) = 0
Atan2(y>0, -Inf) = +Pi
Atan2(y<0, -Inf) = -Pi
Atan2(+Inf, x) = +Pi/2
Atan2(-Inf, x) = -Pi/2
func Atan2(y, x float64) float64

func Atanh

Atanh returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of x.

Special cases are:

Atanh(1) = +Inf
Atanh(±0) = ±0
Atanh(-1) = -Inf
Atanh(x) = NaN if x < -1 or x > 1
Atanh(NaN) = NaN
func Atanh(x float64) float64

func Cbrt

Cbrt returns the cube root of x.

Special cases are:

Cbrt(±0) = ±0
Cbrt(±Inf) = ±Inf
Cbrt(NaN) = NaN
func Cbrt(x float64) float64

func Ceil

Ceil returns the least integer value greater than or equal to x.

Special cases are:

Ceil(±0) = ±0
Ceil(±Inf) = ±Inf
Ceil(NaN) = NaN
func Ceil(x float64) float64

func Copysign

Copysign returns a value with the magnitude of x and the sign of y.

func Copysign(x, y float64) float64

func Cos

Cos returns the cosine of the radian argument x.

Special cases are:

Cos(±Inf) = NaN
Cos(NaN) = NaN
func Cos(x float64) float64

func Cosh

Cosh returns the hyperbolic cosine of x.

Special cases are:

Cosh(±0) = 1
Cosh(±Inf) = +Inf
Cosh(NaN) = NaN
func Cosh(x float64) float64

func Dim

Dim returns the maximum of x-y or 0.

Special cases are:

Dim(+Inf, +Inf) = NaN
Dim(-Inf, -Inf) = NaN
Dim(x, NaN) = Dim(NaN, x) = NaN
func Dim(x, y float64) float64

func Erf

Erf returns the error function of x.

Special cases are:

Erf(+Inf) = 1
Erf(-Inf) = -1
Erf(NaN) = NaN
func Erf(x float64) float64

func Erfc

Erfc returns the complementary error function of x.

Special cases are:

Erfc(+Inf) = 0
Erfc(-Inf) = 2
Erfc(NaN) = NaN
func Erfc(x float64) float64

func Exp

Exp returns e**x, the base-e exponential of x.

Special cases are:

Exp(+Inf) = +Inf
Exp(NaN) = NaN

Very large values overflow to 0 or +Inf. Very small values underflow to 1.

func Exp(x float64) float64

func Exp2

Exp2 returns 2**x, the base-2 exponential of x.

Special cases are the same as Exp.

func Exp2(x float64) float64

func Expm1

Expm1 returns e**x - 1, the base-e exponential of x minus 1. It is more accurate than Exp(x) - 1 when x is near zero.

Special cases are:

Expm1(+Inf) = +Inf
Expm1(-Inf) = -1
Expm1(NaN) = NaN

Very large values overflow to -1 or +Inf.

func Expm1(x float64) float64

func Float32bits

Float32bits returns the IEEE 754 binary representation of f.

func Float32bits(f float32) uint32

func Float32frombits

Float32frombits returns the floating point number corresponding to the IEEE 754 binary representation b.

func Float32frombits(b uint32) float32

func Float64bits

Float64bits returns the IEEE 754 binary representation of f.

func Float64bits(f float64) uint64

func Float64frombits

Float64frombits returns the floating point number corresponding the IEEE 754 binary representation b.

func Float64frombits(b uint64) float64

func Floor

Floor returns the greatest integer value less than or equal to x.

Special cases are:

Floor(±0) = ±0
Floor(±Inf) = ±Inf
Floor(NaN) = NaN
func Floor(x float64) float64

func Frexp

Frexp breaks f into a normalized fraction and an integral power of two. It returns frac and exp satisfying f == frac × 2**exp, with the absolute value of frac in the interval [½, 1).

Special cases are:

Frexp(±0) = ±0, 0
Frexp(±Inf) = ±Inf, 0
Frexp(NaN) = NaN, 0
func Frexp(f float64) (frac float64, exp int)

func Gamma

Gamma returns the Gamma function of x.

Special cases are:

Gamma(+Inf) = +Inf
Gamma(+0) = +Inf
Gamma(-0) = -Inf
Gamma(x) = NaN for integer x < 0
Gamma(-Inf) = NaN
Gamma(NaN) = NaN
func Gamma(x float64) float64

func Hypot

Hypot returns Sqrt(p*p + q*q), taking care to avoid unnecessary overflow and underflow.

Special cases are:

Hypot(±Inf, q) = +Inf
Hypot(p, ±Inf) = +Inf
Hypot(NaN, q) = NaN
Hypot(p, NaN) = NaN
func Hypot(p, q float64) float64

func Ilogb

Ilogb returns the binary exponent of x as an integer.

Special cases are:

Ilogb(±Inf) = MaxInt32
Ilogb(0) = MinInt32
Ilogb(NaN) = MaxInt32
func Ilogb(x float64) int

func Inf

Inf returns positive infinity if sign >= 0, negative infinity if sign < 0.

func Inf(sign int) float64

func IsInf

IsInf reports whether f is an infinity, according to sign. If sign > 0, IsInf reports whether f is positive infinity. If sign < 0, IsInf reports whether f is negative infinity. If sign == 0, IsInf reports whether f is either infinity.

func IsInf(f float64, sign int) bool

func IsNaN

IsNaN reports whether f is an IEEE 754 “not-a-number” value.

func IsNaN(f float64) (is bool)

func J0

J0 returns the order-zero Bessel function of the first kind.

Special cases are:

J0(±Inf) = 0
J0(0) = 1
J0(NaN) = NaN
func J0(x float64) float64

func J1

J1 returns the order-one Bessel function of the first kind.

Special cases are:

J1(±Inf) = 0
J1(NaN) = NaN
func J1(x float64) float64

func Jn

Jn returns the order-n Bessel function of the first kind.

Special cases are:

Jn(n, ±Inf) = 0
Jn(n, NaN) = NaN
func Jn(n int, x float64) float64

func Ldexp

Ldexp is the inverse of Frexp. It returns frac × 2**exp.

Special cases are:

Ldexp(±0, exp) = ±0
Ldexp(±Inf, exp) = ±Inf
Ldexp(NaN, exp) = NaN
func Ldexp(frac float64, exp int) float64

func Lgamma

Lgamma returns the natural logarithm and sign (-1 or +1) of Gamma(x).

Special cases are:

Lgamma(+Inf) = +Inf
Lgamma(0) = +Inf
Lgamma(-integer) = +Inf
Lgamma(-Inf) = -Inf
Lgamma(NaN) = NaN
func Lgamma(x float64) (lgamma float64, sign int)

func Log

Log returns the natural logarithm of x.

Special cases are:

Log(+Inf) = +Inf
Log(0) = -Inf
Log(x < 0) = NaN
Log(NaN) = NaN
func Log(x float64) float64

func Log10

Log10 returns the decimal logarithm of x. The special cases are the same as for Log.

func Log10(x float64) float64

func Log1p

Log1p returns the natural logarithm of 1 plus its argument x. It is more accurate than Log(1 + x) when x is near zero.

Special cases are:

Log1p(+Inf) = +Inf
Log1p(±0) = ±0
Log1p(-1) = -Inf
Log1p(x < -1) = NaN
Log1p(NaN) = NaN
func Log1p(x float64) float64

func Log2

Log2 returns the binary logarithm of x. The special cases are the same as for Log.

func Log2(x float64) float64

func Logb

Logb returns the binary exponent of x.

Special cases are:

Logb(±Inf) = +Inf
Logb(0) = -Inf
Logb(NaN) = NaN
func Logb(x float64) float64

func Max

Max returns the larger of x or y.

Special cases are:

Max(x, +Inf) = Max(+Inf, x) = +Inf
Max(x, NaN) = Max(NaN, x) = NaN
Max(+0, ±0) = Max(±0, +0) = +0
Max(-0, -0) = -0
func Max(x, y float64) float64

func Min

Min returns the smaller of x or y.

Special cases are:

Min(x, -Inf) = Min(-Inf, x) = -Inf
Min(x, NaN) = Min(NaN, x) = NaN
Min(-0, ±0) = Min(±0, -0) = -0
func Min(x, y float64) float64

func Mod

Mod returns the floating-point remainder of x/y. The magnitude of the result is less than y and its sign agrees with that of x.

Special cases are:

Mod(±Inf, y) = NaN
Mod(NaN, y) = NaN
Mod(x, 0) = NaN
Mod(x, ±Inf) = x
Mod(x, NaN) = NaN
func Mod(x, y float64) float64

func Modf

Modf returns integer and fractional floating-point numbers that sum to f. Both values have the same sign as f.

Special cases are:

Modf(±Inf) = ±Inf, NaN
Modf(NaN) = NaN, NaN
func Modf(f float64) (int float64, frac float64)

func NaN

NaN returns an IEEE 754 “not-a-number” value.

func NaN() float64

func Nextafter

Nextafter returns the next representable float64 value after x towards y.

Special cases are:

Nextafter(x, x)   = x
Nextafter(NaN, y) = NaN
Nextafter(x, NaN) = NaN
func Nextafter(x, y float64) (r float64)

func Nextafter32

Nextafter32 returns the next representable float32 value after x towards y.

Special cases are:

Nextafter32(x, x)   = x
Nextafter32(NaN, y) = NaN
Nextafter32(x, NaN) = NaN
func Nextafter32(x, y float32) (r float32)

func Pow

Pow returns x**y, the base-x exponential of y.

Special cases are (in order):

Pow(x, ±0) = 1 for any x
Pow(1, y) = 1 for any y
Pow(x, 1) = x for any x
Pow(NaN, y) = NaN
Pow(x, NaN) = NaN
Pow(±0, y) = ±Inf for y an odd integer < 0
Pow(±0, -Inf) = +Inf
Pow(±0, +Inf) = +0
Pow(±0, y) = +Inf for finite y < 0 and not an odd integer
Pow(±0, y) = ±0 for y an odd integer > 0
Pow(±0, y) = +0 for finite y > 0 and not an odd integer
Pow(-1, ±Inf) = 1
Pow(x, +Inf) = +Inf for |x| > 1
Pow(x, -Inf) = +0 for |x| > 1
Pow(x, +Inf) = +0 for |x| < 1
Pow(x, -Inf) = +Inf for |x| < 1
Pow(+Inf, y) = +Inf for y > 0
Pow(+Inf, y) = +0 for y < 0
Pow(-Inf, y) = Pow(-0, -y)
Pow(x, y) = NaN for finite x < 0 and finite non-integer y
func Pow(x, y float64) float64

func Pow10

Pow10 returns 10**e, the base-10 exponential of e.

Special cases are:

Pow10(e) = +Inf for e > 309
Pow10(e) = 0 for e < -324
func Pow10(e int) float64

func Remainder

Remainder returns the IEEE 754 floating-point remainder of x/y.

Special cases are:

Remainder(±Inf, y) = NaN
Remainder(NaN, y) = NaN
Remainder(x, 0) = NaN
Remainder(x, ±Inf) = x
Remainder(x, NaN) = NaN
func Remainder(x, y float64) float64

func Signbit

Signbit returns true if x is negative or negative zero.

func Signbit(x float64) bool

func Sin

Sin returns the sine of the radian argument x.

Special cases are:

Sin(±0) = ±0
Sin(±Inf) = NaN
Sin(NaN) = NaN
func Sin(x float64) float64

func Sincos

Sincos returns Sin(x), Cos(x).

Special cases are:

Sincos(±0) = ±0, 1
Sincos(±Inf) = NaN, NaN
Sincos(NaN) = NaN, NaN
func Sincos(x float64) (sin, cos float64)

func Sinh

Sinh returns the hyperbolic sine of x.

Special cases are:

Sinh(±0) = ±0
Sinh(±Inf) = ±Inf
Sinh(NaN) = NaN
func Sinh(x float64) float64

func Sqrt

Sqrt returns the square root of x.

Special cases are:

Sqrt(+Inf) = +Inf
Sqrt(±0) = ±0
Sqrt(x < 0) = NaN
Sqrt(NaN) = NaN
func Sqrt(x float64) float64

func Tan

Tan returns the tangent of the radian argument x.

Special cases are:

Tan(±0) = ±0
Tan(±Inf) = NaN
Tan(NaN) = NaN
func Tan(x float64) float64

func Tanh

Tanh returns the hyperbolic tangent of x.

Special cases are:

Tanh(±0) = ±0
Tanh(±Inf) = ±1
Tanh(NaN) = NaN
func Tanh(x float64) float64

func Trunc

Trunc returns the integer value of x.

Special cases are:

Trunc(±0) = ±0
Trunc(±Inf) = ±Inf
Trunc(NaN) = NaN
func Trunc(x float64) float64

func Y0

Y0 returns the order-zero Bessel function of the second kind.

Special cases are:

Y0(+Inf) = 0
Y0(0) = -Inf
Y0(x < 0) = NaN
Y0(NaN) = NaN
func Y0(x float64) float64

func Y1

Y1 returns the order-one Bessel function of the second kind.

Special cases are:

Y1(+Inf) = 0
Y1(0) = -Inf
Y1(x < 0) = NaN
Y1(NaN) = NaN
func Y1(x float64) float64

func Yn

Yn returns the order-n Bessel function of the second kind.

Special cases are:

Yn(n, +Inf) = 0
Yn(n > 0, 0) = -Inf
Yn(n < 0, 0) = +Inf if n is odd, -Inf if n is even
Y1(n, x < 0) = NaN
Y1(n, NaN) = NaN
func Yn(n int, x float64) float64

Subdirectories

Name Synopsis
..
big Package big implements arbitrary-precision arithmetic (big numbers).
cmplx Package cmplx provides basic constants and mathematical functions for complex numbers.
rand Package rand implements pseudo-random number generators.