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Source file src/syscall/syscall_linux.go

     1	// Copyright 2009 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
     2	// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
     3	// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
     4	
     5	// Linux system calls.
     6	// This file is compiled as ordinary Go code,
     7	// but it is also input to mksyscall,
     8	// which parses the //sys lines and generates system call stubs.
     9	// Note that sometimes we use a lowercase //sys name and
    10	// wrap it in our own nicer implementation.
    11	
    12	package syscall
    13	
    14	import "unsafe"
    15	
    16	/*
    17	 * Wrapped
    18	 */
    19	
    20	func Access(path string, mode uint32) (err error) {
    21		return Faccessat(_AT_FDCWD, path, mode, 0)
    22	}
    23	
    24	func Chmod(path string, mode uint32) (err error) {
    25		return Fchmodat(_AT_FDCWD, path, mode, 0)
    26	}
    27	
    28	func Chown(path string, uid int, gid int) (err error) {
    29		return Fchownat(_AT_FDCWD, path, uid, gid, 0)
    30	}
    31	
    32	func Creat(path string, mode uint32) (fd int, err error) {
    33		return Open(path, O_CREAT|O_WRONLY|O_TRUNC, mode)
    34	}
    35	
    36	//sys	linkat(olddirfd int, oldpath string, newdirfd int, newpath string, flags int) (err error)
    37	
    38	func Link(oldpath string, newpath string) (err error) {
    39		return linkat(_AT_FDCWD, oldpath, _AT_FDCWD, newpath, 0)
    40	}
    41	
    42	func Mkdir(path string, mode uint32) (err error) {
    43		return Mkdirat(_AT_FDCWD, path, mode)
    44	}
    45	
    46	func Mknod(path string, mode uint32, dev int) (err error) {
    47		return Mknodat(_AT_FDCWD, path, mode, dev)
    48	}
    49	
    50	func Open(path string, mode int, perm uint32) (fd int, err error) {
    51		return openat(_AT_FDCWD, path, mode|O_LARGEFILE, perm)
    52	}
    53	
    54	//sys	openat(dirfd int, path string, flags int, mode uint32) (fd int, err error)
    55	
    56	func Openat(dirfd int, path string, flags int, mode uint32) (fd int, err error) {
    57		return openat(dirfd, path, flags|O_LARGEFILE, mode)
    58	}
    59	
    60	//sys	readlinkat(dirfd int, path string, buf []byte) (n int, err error)
    61	
    62	func Readlink(path string, buf []byte) (n int, err error) {
    63		return readlinkat(_AT_FDCWD, path, buf)
    64	}
    65	
    66	func Rename(oldpath string, newpath string) (err error) {
    67		return Renameat(_AT_FDCWD, oldpath, _AT_FDCWD, newpath)
    68	}
    69	
    70	func Rmdir(path string) error {
    71		return unlinkat(_AT_FDCWD, path, _AT_REMOVEDIR)
    72	}
    73	
    74	//sys	symlinkat(oldpath string, newdirfd int, newpath string) (err error)
    75	
    76	func Symlink(oldpath string, newpath string) (err error) {
    77		return symlinkat(oldpath, _AT_FDCWD, newpath)
    78	}
    79	
    80	func Unlink(path string) error {
    81		return unlinkat(_AT_FDCWD, path, 0)
    82	}
    83	
    84	//sys	unlinkat(dirfd int, path string, flags int) (err error)
    85	
    86	func Unlinkat(dirfd int, path string) error {
    87		return unlinkat(dirfd, path, 0)
    88	}
    89	
    90	//sys	utimes(path string, times *[2]Timeval) (err error)
    91	
    92	func Utimes(path string, tv []Timeval) (err error) {
    93		if len(tv) != 2 {
    94			return EINVAL
    95		}
    96		return utimes(path, (*[2]Timeval)(unsafe.Pointer(&tv[0])))
    97	}
    98	
    99	//sys	utimensat(dirfd int, path string, times *[2]Timespec) (err error)
   100	
   101	func UtimesNano(path string, ts []Timespec) (err error) {
   102		if len(ts) != 2 {
   103			return EINVAL
   104		}
   105		err = utimensat(_AT_FDCWD, path, (*[2]Timespec)(unsafe.Pointer(&ts[0])))
   106		if err != ENOSYS {
   107			return err
   108		}
   109		// If the utimensat syscall isn't available (utimensat was added to Linux
   110		// in 2.6.22, Released, 8 July 2007) then fall back to utimes
   111		var tv [2]Timeval
   112		for i := 0; i < 2; i++ {
   113			tv[i].Sec = ts[i].Sec
   114			tv[i].Usec = ts[i].Nsec / 1000
   115		}
   116		return utimes(path, (*[2]Timeval)(unsafe.Pointer(&tv[0])))
   117	}
   118	
   119	//sys	futimesat(dirfd int, path *byte, times *[2]Timeval) (err error)
   120	
   121	func Futimesat(dirfd int, path string, tv []Timeval) (err error) {
   122		if len(tv) != 2 {
   123			return EINVAL
   124		}
   125		pathp, err := BytePtrFromString(path)
   126		if err != nil {
   127			return err
   128		}
   129		err = futimesat(dirfd, pathp, (*[2]Timeval)(unsafe.Pointer(&tv[0])))
   130		use(unsafe.Pointer(pathp))
   131		return err
   132	}
   133	
   134	func Futimes(fd int, tv []Timeval) (err error) {
   135		// Believe it or not, this is the best we can do on Linux
   136		// (and is what glibc does).
   137		return Utimes("/proc/self/fd/"+itoa(fd), tv)
   138	}
   139	
   140	const ImplementsGetwd = true
   141	
   142	//sys	Getcwd(buf []byte) (n int, err error)
   143	
   144	func Getwd() (wd string, err error) {
   145		var buf [PathMax]byte
   146		n, err := Getcwd(buf[0:])
   147		if err != nil {
   148			return "", err
   149		}
   150		// Getcwd returns the number of bytes written to buf, including the NUL.
   151		if n < 1 || n > len(buf) || buf[n-1] != 0 {
   152			return "", EINVAL
   153		}
   154		return string(buf[0 : n-1]), nil
   155	}
   156	
   157	func Getgroups() (gids []int, err error) {
   158		n, err := getgroups(0, nil)
   159		if err != nil {
   160			return nil, err
   161		}
   162		if n == 0 {
   163			return nil, nil
   164		}
   165	
   166		// Sanity check group count.  Max is 1<<16 on Linux.
   167		if n < 0 || n > 1<<20 {
   168			return nil, EINVAL
   169		}
   170	
   171		a := make([]_Gid_t, n)
   172		n, err = getgroups(n, &a[0])
   173		if err != nil {
   174			return nil, err
   175		}
   176		gids = make([]int, n)
   177		for i, v := range a[0:n] {
   178			gids[i] = int(v)
   179		}
   180		return
   181	}
   182	
   183	func Setgroups(gids []int) (err error) {
   184		if len(gids) == 0 {
   185			return setgroups(0, nil)
   186		}
   187	
   188		a := make([]_Gid_t, len(gids))
   189		for i, v := range gids {
   190			a[i] = _Gid_t(v)
   191		}
   192		return setgroups(len(a), &a[0])
   193	}
   194	
   195	type WaitStatus uint32
   196	
   197	// Wait status is 7 bits at bottom, either 0 (exited),
   198	// 0x7F (stopped), or a signal number that caused an exit.
   199	// The 0x80 bit is whether there was a core dump.
   200	// An extra number (exit code, signal causing a stop)
   201	// is in the high bits.  At least that's the idea.
   202	// There are various irregularities.  For example, the
   203	// "continued" status is 0xFFFF, distinguishing itself
   204	// from stopped via the core dump bit.
   205	
   206	const (
   207		mask    = 0x7F
   208		core    = 0x80
   209		exited  = 0x00
   210		stopped = 0x7F
   211		shift   = 8
   212	)
   213	
   214	func (w WaitStatus) Exited() bool { return w&mask == exited }
   215	
   216	func (w WaitStatus) Signaled() bool { return w&mask != stopped && w&mask != exited }
   217	
   218	func (w WaitStatus) Stopped() bool { return w&0xFF == stopped }
   219	
   220	func (w WaitStatus) Continued() bool { return w == 0xFFFF }
   221	
   222	func (w WaitStatus) CoreDump() bool { return w.Signaled() && w&core != 0 }
   223	
   224	func (w WaitStatus) ExitStatus() int {
   225		if !w.Exited() {
   226			return -1
   227		}
   228		return int(w>>shift) & 0xFF
   229	}
   230	
   231	func (w WaitStatus) Signal() Signal {
   232		if !w.Signaled() {
   233			return -1
   234		}
   235		return Signal(w & mask)
   236	}
   237	
   238	func (w WaitStatus) StopSignal() Signal {
   239		if !w.Stopped() {
   240			return -1
   241		}
   242		return Signal(w>>shift) & 0xFF
   243	}
   244	
   245	func (w WaitStatus) TrapCause() int {
   246		if w.StopSignal() != SIGTRAP {
   247			return -1
   248		}
   249		return int(w>>shift) >> 8
   250	}
   251	
   252	//sys	wait4(pid int, wstatus *_C_int, options int, rusage *Rusage) (wpid int, err error)
   253	
   254	func Wait4(pid int, wstatus *WaitStatus, options int, rusage *Rusage) (wpid int, err error) {
   255		var status _C_int
   256		wpid, err = wait4(pid, &status, options, rusage)
   257		if wstatus != nil {
   258			*wstatus = WaitStatus(status)
   259		}
   260		return
   261	}
   262	
   263	func Mkfifo(path string, mode uint32) (err error) {
   264		return Mknod(path, mode|S_IFIFO, 0)
   265	}
   266	
   267	func (sa *SockaddrInet4) sockaddr() (unsafe.Pointer, _Socklen, error) {
   268		if sa.Port < 0 || sa.Port > 0xFFFF {
   269			return nil, 0, EINVAL
   270		}
   271		sa.raw.Family = AF_INET
   272		p := (*[2]byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&sa.raw.Port))
   273		p[0] = byte(sa.Port >> 8)
   274		p[1] = byte(sa.Port)
   275		for i := 0; i < len(sa.Addr); i++ {
   276			sa.raw.Addr[i] = sa.Addr[i]
   277		}
   278		return unsafe.Pointer(&sa.raw), SizeofSockaddrInet4, nil
   279	}
   280	
   281	func (sa *SockaddrInet6) sockaddr() (unsafe.Pointer, _Socklen, error) {
   282		if sa.Port < 0 || sa.Port > 0xFFFF {
   283			return nil, 0, EINVAL
   284		}
   285		sa.raw.Family = AF_INET6
   286		p := (*[2]byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&sa.raw.Port))
   287		p[0] = byte(sa.Port >> 8)
   288		p[1] = byte(sa.Port)
   289		sa.raw.Scope_id = sa.ZoneId
   290		for i := 0; i < len(sa.Addr); i++ {
   291			sa.raw.Addr[i] = sa.Addr[i]
   292		}
   293		return unsafe.Pointer(&sa.raw), SizeofSockaddrInet6, nil
   294	}
   295	
   296	func (sa *SockaddrUnix) sockaddr() (unsafe.Pointer, _Socklen, error) {
   297		name := sa.Name
   298		n := len(name)
   299		if n >= len(sa.raw.Path) {
   300			return nil, 0, EINVAL
   301		}
   302		sa.raw.Family = AF_UNIX
   303		for i := 0; i < n; i++ {
   304			sa.raw.Path[i] = int8(name[i])
   305		}
   306		// length is family (uint16), name, NUL.
   307		sl := _Socklen(2)
   308		if n > 0 {
   309			sl += _Socklen(n) + 1
   310		}
   311		if sa.raw.Path[0] == '@' {
   312			sa.raw.Path[0] = 0
   313			// Don't count trailing NUL for abstract address.
   314			sl--
   315		}
   316	
   317		return unsafe.Pointer(&sa.raw), sl, nil
   318	}
   319	
   320	type SockaddrLinklayer struct {
   321		Protocol uint16
   322		Ifindex  int
   323		Hatype   uint16
   324		Pkttype  uint8
   325		Halen    uint8
   326		Addr     [8]byte
   327		raw      RawSockaddrLinklayer
   328	}
   329	
   330	func (sa *SockaddrLinklayer) sockaddr() (unsafe.Pointer, _Socklen, error) {
   331		if sa.Ifindex < 0 || sa.Ifindex > 0x7fffffff {
   332			return nil, 0, EINVAL
   333		}
   334		sa.raw.Family = AF_PACKET
   335		sa.raw.Protocol = sa.Protocol
   336		sa.raw.Ifindex = int32(sa.Ifindex)
   337		sa.raw.Hatype = sa.Hatype
   338		sa.raw.Pkttype = sa.Pkttype
   339		sa.raw.Halen = sa.Halen
   340		for i := 0; i < len(sa.Addr); i++ {
   341			sa.raw.Addr[i] = sa.Addr[i]
   342		}
   343		return unsafe.Pointer(&sa.raw), SizeofSockaddrLinklayer, nil
   344	}
   345	
   346	type SockaddrNetlink struct {
   347		Family uint16
   348		Pad    uint16
   349		Pid    uint32
   350		Groups uint32
   351		raw    RawSockaddrNetlink
   352	}
   353	
   354	func (sa *SockaddrNetlink) sockaddr() (unsafe.Pointer, _Socklen, error) {
   355		sa.raw.Family = AF_NETLINK
   356		sa.raw.Pad = sa.Pad
   357		sa.raw.Pid = sa.Pid
   358		sa.raw.Groups = sa.Groups
   359		return unsafe.Pointer(&sa.raw), SizeofSockaddrNetlink, nil
   360	}
   361	
   362	func anyToSockaddr(rsa *RawSockaddrAny) (Sockaddr, error) {
   363		switch rsa.Addr.Family {
   364		case AF_NETLINK:
   365			pp := (*RawSockaddrNetlink)(unsafe.Pointer(rsa))
   366			sa := new(SockaddrNetlink)
   367			sa.Family = pp.Family
   368			sa.Pad = pp.Pad
   369			sa.Pid = pp.Pid
   370			sa.Groups = pp.Groups
   371			return sa, nil
   372	
   373		case AF_PACKET:
   374			pp := (*RawSockaddrLinklayer)(unsafe.Pointer(rsa))
   375			sa := new(SockaddrLinklayer)
   376			sa.Protocol = pp.Protocol
   377			sa.Ifindex = int(pp.Ifindex)
   378			sa.Hatype = pp.Hatype
   379			sa.Pkttype = pp.Pkttype
   380			sa.Halen = pp.Halen
   381			for i := 0; i < len(sa.Addr); i++ {
   382				sa.Addr[i] = pp.Addr[i]
   383			}
   384			return sa, nil
   385	
   386		case AF_UNIX:
   387			pp := (*RawSockaddrUnix)(unsafe.Pointer(rsa))
   388			sa := new(SockaddrUnix)
   389			if pp.Path[0] == 0 {
   390				// "Abstract" Unix domain socket.
   391				// Rewrite leading NUL as @ for textual display.
   392				// (This is the standard convention.)
   393				// Not friendly to overwrite in place,
   394				// but the callers below don't care.
   395				pp.Path[0] = '@'
   396			}
   397	
   398			// Assume path ends at NUL.
   399			// This is not technically the Linux semantics for
   400			// abstract Unix domain sockets--they are supposed
   401			// to be uninterpreted fixed-size binary blobs--but
   402			// everyone uses this convention.
   403			n := 0
   404			for n < len(pp.Path) && pp.Path[n] != 0 {
   405				n++
   406			}
   407			bytes := (*[10000]byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&pp.Path[0]))[0:n]
   408			sa.Name = string(bytes)
   409			return sa, nil
   410	
   411		case AF_INET:
   412			pp := (*RawSockaddrInet4)(unsafe.Pointer(rsa))
   413			sa := new(SockaddrInet4)
   414			p := (*[2]byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&pp.Port))
   415			sa.Port = int(p[0])<<8 + int(p[1])
   416			for i := 0; i < len(sa.Addr); i++ {
   417				sa.Addr[i] = pp.Addr[i]
   418			}
   419			return sa, nil
   420	
   421		case AF_INET6:
   422			pp := (*RawSockaddrInet6)(unsafe.Pointer(rsa))
   423			sa := new(SockaddrInet6)
   424			p := (*[2]byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&pp.Port))
   425			sa.Port = int(p[0])<<8 + int(p[1])
   426			sa.ZoneId = pp.Scope_id
   427			for i := 0; i < len(sa.Addr); i++ {
   428				sa.Addr[i] = pp.Addr[i]
   429			}
   430			return sa, nil
   431		}
   432		return nil, EAFNOSUPPORT
   433	}
   434	
   435	func Accept(fd int) (nfd int, sa Sockaddr, err error) {
   436		var rsa RawSockaddrAny
   437		var len _Socklen = SizeofSockaddrAny
   438		nfd, err = accept(fd, &rsa, &len)
   439		if err != nil {
   440			return
   441		}
   442		sa, err = anyToSockaddr(&rsa)
   443		if err != nil {
   444			Close(nfd)
   445			nfd = 0
   446		}
   447		return
   448	}
   449	
   450	func Accept4(fd int, flags int) (nfd int, sa Sockaddr, err error) {
   451		var rsa RawSockaddrAny
   452		var len _Socklen = SizeofSockaddrAny
   453		nfd, err = accept4(fd, &rsa, &len, flags)
   454		if err != nil {
   455			return
   456		}
   457		if len > SizeofSockaddrAny {
   458			panic("RawSockaddrAny too small")
   459		}
   460		sa, err = anyToSockaddr(&rsa)
   461		if err != nil {
   462			Close(nfd)
   463			nfd = 0
   464		}
   465		return
   466	}
   467	
   468	func Getsockname(fd int) (sa Sockaddr, err error) {
   469		var rsa RawSockaddrAny
   470		var len _Socklen = SizeofSockaddrAny
   471		if err = getsockname(fd, &rsa, &len); err != nil {
   472			return
   473		}
   474		return anyToSockaddr(&rsa)
   475	}
   476	
   477	func GetsockoptInet4Addr(fd, level, opt int) (value [4]byte, err error) {
   478		vallen := _Socklen(4)
   479		err = getsockopt(fd, level, opt, unsafe.Pointer(&value[0]), &vallen)
   480		return value, err
   481	}
   482	
   483	func GetsockoptIPMreq(fd, level, opt int) (*IPMreq, error) {
   484		var value IPMreq
   485		vallen := _Socklen(SizeofIPMreq)
   486		err := getsockopt(fd, level, opt, unsafe.Pointer(&value), &vallen)
   487		return &value, err
   488	}
   489	
   490	func GetsockoptIPMreqn(fd, level, opt int) (*IPMreqn, error) {
   491		var value IPMreqn
   492		vallen := _Socklen(SizeofIPMreqn)
   493		err := getsockopt(fd, level, opt, unsafe.Pointer(&value), &vallen)
   494		return &value, err
   495	}
   496	
   497	func GetsockoptIPv6Mreq(fd, level, opt int) (*IPv6Mreq, error) {
   498		var value IPv6Mreq
   499		vallen := _Socklen(SizeofIPv6Mreq)
   500		err := getsockopt(fd, level, opt, unsafe.Pointer(&value), &vallen)
   501		return &value, err
   502	}
   503	
   504	func GetsockoptIPv6MTUInfo(fd, level, opt int) (*IPv6MTUInfo, error) {
   505		var value IPv6MTUInfo
   506		vallen := _Socklen(SizeofIPv6MTUInfo)
   507		err := getsockopt(fd, level, opt, unsafe.Pointer(&value), &vallen)
   508		return &value, err
   509	}
   510	
   511	func GetsockoptICMPv6Filter(fd, level, opt int) (*ICMPv6Filter, error) {
   512		var value ICMPv6Filter
   513		vallen := _Socklen(SizeofICMPv6Filter)
   514		err := getsockopt(fd, level, opt, unsafe.Pointer(&value), &vallen)
   515		return &value, err
   516	}
   517	
   518	func GetsockoptUcred(fd, level, opt int) (*Ucred, error) {
   519		var value Ucred
   520		vallen := _Socklen(SizeofUcred)
   521		err := getsockopt(fd, level, opt, unsafe.Pointer(&value), &vallen)
   522		return &value, err
   523	}
   524	
   525	func SetsockoptIPMreqn(fd, level, opt int, mreq *IPMreqn) (err error) {
   526		return setsockopt(fd, level, opt, unsafe.Pointer(mreq), unsafe.Sizeof(*mreq))
   527	}
   528	
   529	func Recvmsg(fd int, p, oob []byte, flags int) (n, oobn int, recvflags int, from Sockaddr, err error) {
   530		var msg Msghdr
   531		var rsa RawSockaddrAny
   532		msg.Name = (*byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&rsa))
   533		msg.Namelen = uint32(SizeofSockaddrAny)
   534		var iov Iovec
   535		if len(p) > 0 {
   536			iov.Base = (*byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&p[0]))
   537			iov.SetLen(len(p))
   538		}
   539		var dummy byte
   540		if len(oob) > 0 {
   541			// receive at least one normal byte
   542			if len(p) == 0 {
   543				iov.Base = &dummy
   544				iov.SetLen(1)
   545			}
   546			msg.Control = (*byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&oob[0]))
   547			msg.SetControllen(len(oob))
   548		}
   549		msg.Iov = &iov
   550		msg.Iovlen = 1
   551		if n, err = recvmsg(fd, &msg, flags); err != nil {
   552			return
   553		}
   554		oobn = int(msg.Controllen)
   555		recvflags = int(msg.Flags)
   556		// source address is only specified if the socket is unconnected
   557		if rsa.Addr.Family != AF_UNSPEC {
   558			from, err = anyToSockaddr(&rsa)
   559		}
   560		return
   561	}
   562	
   563	func Sendmsg(fd int, p, oob []byte, to Sockaddr, flags int) (err error) {
   564		_, err = SendmsgN(fd, p, oob, to, flags)
   565		return
   566	}
   567	
   568	func SendmsgN(fd int, p, oob []byte, to Sockaddr, flags int) (n int, err error) {
   569		var ptr unsafe.Pointer
   570		var salen _Socklen
   571		if to != nil {
   572			var err error
   573			ptr, salen, err = to.sockaddr()
   574			if err != nil {
   575				return 0, err
   576			}
   577		}
   578		var msg Msghdr
   579		msg.Name = (*byte)(unsafe.Pointer(ptr))
   580		msg.Namelen = uint32(salen)
   581		var iov Iovec
   582		if len(p) > 0 {
   583			iov.Base = (*byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&p[0]))
   584			iov.SetLen(len(p))
   585		}
   586		var dummy byte
   587		if len(oob) > 0 {
   588			// send at least one normal byte
   589			if len(p) == 0 {
   590				iov.Base = &dummy
   591				iov.SetLen(1)
   592			}
   593			msg.Control = (*byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&oob[0]))
   594			msg.SetControllen(len(oob))
   595		}
   596		msg.Iov = &iov
   597		msg.Iovlen = 1
   598		if n, err = sendmsg(fd, &msg, flags); err != nil {
   599			return 0, err
   600		}
   601		if len(oob) > 0 && len(p) == 0 {
   602			n = 0
   603		}
   604		return n, nil
   605	}
   606	
   607	// BindToDevice binds the socket associated with fd to device.
   608	func BindToDevice(fd int, device string) (err error) {
   609		return SetsockoptString(fd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_BINDTODEVICE, device)
   610	}
   611	
   612	//sys	ptrace(request int, pid int, addr uintptr, data uintptr) (err error)
   613	
   614	func ptracePeek(req int, pid int, addr uintptr, out []byte) (count int, err error) {
   615		// The peek requests are machine-size oriented, so we wrap it
   616		// to retrieve arbitrary-length data.
   617	
   618		// The ptrace syscall differs from glibc's ptrace.
   619		// Peeks returns the word in *data, not as the return value.
   620	
   621		var buf [sizeofPtr]byte
   622	
   623		// Leading edge.  PEEKTEXT/PEEKDATA don't require aligned
   624		// access (PEEKUSER warns that it might), but if we don't
   625		// align our reads, we might straddle an unmapped page
   626		// boundary and not get the bytes leading up to the page
   627		// boundary.
   628		n := 0
   629		if addr%sizeofPtr != 0 {
   630			err = ptrace(req, pid, addr-addr%sizeofPtr, uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(&buf[0])))
   631			if err != nil {
   632				return 0, err
   633			}
   634			n += copy(out, buf[addr%sizeofPtr:])
   635			out = out[n:]
   636		}
   637	
   638		// Remainder.
   639		for len(out) > 0 {
   640			// We use an internal buffer to guarantee alignment.
   641			// It's not documented if this is necessary, but we're paranoid.
   642			err = ptrace(req, pid, addr+uintptr(n), uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(&buf[0])))
   643			if err != nil {
   644				return n, err
   645			}
   646			copied := copy(out, buf[0:])
   647			n += copied
   648			out = out[copied:]
   649		}
   650	
   651		return n, nil
   652	}
   653	
   654	func PtracePeekText(pid int, addr uintptr, out []byte) (count int, err error) {
   655		return ptracePeek(PTRACE_PEEKTEXT, pid, addr, out)
   656	}
   657	
   658	func PtracePeekData(pid int, addr uintptr, out []byte) (count int, err error) {
   659		return ptracePeek(PTRACE_PEEKDATA, pid, addr, out)
   660	}
   661	
   662	func ptracePoke(pokeReq int, peekReq int, pid int, addr uintptr, data []byte) (count int, err error) {
   663		// As for ptracePeek, we need to align our accesses to deal
   664		// with the possibility of straddling an invalid page.
   665	
   666		// Leading edge.
   667		n := 0
   668		if addr%sizeofPtr != 0 {
   669			var buf [sizeofPtr]byte
   670			err = ptrace(peekReq, pid, addr-addr%sizeofPtr, uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(&buf[0])))
   671			if err != nil {
   672				return 0, err
   673			}
   674			n += copy(buf[addr%sizeofPtr:], data)
   675			word := *((*uintptr)(unsafe.Pointer(&buf[0])))
   676			err = ptrace(pokeReq, pid, addr-addr%sizeofPtr, word)
   677			if err != nil {
   678				return 0, err
   679			}
   680			data = data[n:]
   681		}
   682	
   683		// Interior.
   684		for len(data) > sizeofPtr {
   685			word := *((*uintptr)(unsafe.Pointer(&data[0])))
   686			err = ptrace(pokeReq, pid, addr+uintptr(n), word)
   687			if err != nil {
   688				return n, err
   689			}
   690			n += sizeofPtr
   691			data = data[sizeofPtr:]
   692		}
   693	
   694		// Trailing edge.
   695		if len(data) > 0 {
   696			var buf [sizeofPtr]byte
   697			err = ptrace(peekReq, pid, addr+uintptr(n), uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(&buf[0])))
   698			if err != nil {
   699				return n, err
   700			}
   701			copy(buf[0:], data)
   702			word := *((*uintptr)(unsafe.Pointer(&buf[0])))
   703			err = ptrace(pokeReq, pid, addr+uintptr(n), word)
   704			if err != nil {
   705				return n, err
   706			}
   707			n += len(data)
   708		}
   709	
   710		return n, nil
   711	}
   712	
   713	func PtracePokeText(pid int, addr uintptr, data []byte) (count int, err error) {
   714		return ptracePoke(PTRACE_POKETEXT, PTRACE_PEEKTEXT, pid, addr, data)
   715	}
   716	
   717	func PtracePokeData(pid int, addr uintptr, data []byte) (count int, err error) {
   718		return ptracePoke(PTRACE_POKEDATA, PTRACE_PEEKDATA, pid, addr, data)
   719	}
   720	
   721	func PtraceGetRegs(pid int, regsout *PtraceRegs) (err error) {
   722		return ptrace(PTRACE_GETREGS, pid, 0, uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(regsout)))
   723	}
   724	
   725	func PtraceSetRegs(pid int, regs *PtraceRegs) (err error) {
   726		return ptrace(PTRACE_SETREGS, pid, 0, uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(regs)))
   727	}
   728	
   729	func PtraceSetOptions(pid int, options int) (err error) {
   730		return ptrace(PTRACE_SETOPTIONS, pid, 0, uintptr(options))
   731	}
   732	
   733	func PtraceGetEventMsg(pid int) (msg uint, err error) {
   734		var data _C_long
   735		err = ptrace(PTRACE_GETEVENTMSG, pid, 0, uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(&data)))
   736		msg = uint(data)
   737		return
   738	}
   739	
   740	func PtraceCont(pid int, signal int) (err error) {
   741		return ptrace(PTRACE_CONT, pid, 0, uintptr(signal))
   742	}
   743	
   744	func PtraceSyscall(pid int, signal int) (err error) {
   745		return ptrace(PTRACE_SYSCALL, pid, 0, uintptr(signal))
   746	}
   747	
   748	func PtraceSingleStep(pid int) (err error) { return ptrace(PTRACE_SINGLESTEP, pid, 0, 0) }
   749	
   750	func PtraceAttach(pid int) (err error) { return ptrace(PTRACE_ATTACH, pid, 0, 0) }
   751	
   752	func PtraceDetach(pid int) (err error) { return ptrace(PTRACE_DETACH, pid, 0, 0) }
   753	
   754	//sys	reboot(magic1 uint, magic2 uint, cmd int, arg string) (err error)
   755	
   756	func Reboot(cmd int) (err error) {
   757		return reboot(LINUX_REBOOT_MAGIC1, LINUX_REBOOT_MAGIC2, cmd, "")
   758	}
   759	
   760	func clen(n []byte) int {
   761		for i := 0; i < len(n); i++ {
   762			if n[i] == 0 {
   763				return i
   764			}
   765		}
   766		return len(n)
   767	}
   768	
   769	func ReadDirent(fd int, buf []byte) (n int, err error) {
   770		return Getdents(fd, buf)
   771	}
   772	
   773	func ParseDirent(buf []byte, max int, names []string) (consumed int, count int, newnames []string) {
   774		origlen := len(buf)
   775		count = 0
   776		for max != 0 && len(buf) > 0 {
   777			dirent := (*Dirent)(unsafe.Pointer(&buf[0]))
   778			buf = buf[dirent.Reclen:]
   779			if dirent.Ino == 0 { // File absent in directory.
   780				continue
   781			}
   782			bytes := (*[10000]byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&dirent.Name[0]))
   783			var name = string(bytes[0:clen(bytes[:])])
   784			if name == "." || name == ".." { // Useless names
   785				continue
   786			}
   787			max--
   788			count++
   789			names = append(names, name)
   790		}
   791		return origlen - len(buf), count, names
   792	}
   793	
   794	//sys	mount(source string, target string, fstype string, flags uintptr, data *byte) (err error)
   795	
   796	func Mount(source string, target string, fstype string, flags uintptr, data string) (err error) {
   797		// Certain file systems get rather angry and EINVAL if you give
   798		// them an empty string of data, rather than NULL.
   799		if data == "" {
   800			return mount(source, target, fstype, flags, nil)
   801		}
   802		datap, err := BytePtrFromString(data)
   803		if err != nil {
   804			return err
   805		}
   806		err = mount(source, target, fstype, flags, datap)
   807		use(unsafe.Pointer(datap))
   808		return err
   809	}
   810	
   811	// Sendto
   812	// Recvfrom
   813	// Socketpair
   814	
   815	/*
   816	 * Direct access
   817	 */
   818	//sys	Acct(path string) (err error)
   819	//sys	Adjtimex(buf *Timex) (state int, err error)
   820	//sys	Chdir(path string) (err error)
   821	//sys	Chroot(path string) (err error)
   822	//sys	Close(fd int) (err error)
   823	//sys	Dup(oldfd int) (fd int, err error)
   824	//sys	Dup3(oldfd int, newfd int, flags int) (err error)
   825	//sysnb	EpollCreate(size int) (fd int, err error)
   826	//sysnb	EpollCreate1(flag int) (fd int, err error)
   827	//sysnb	EpollCtl(epfd int, op int, fd int, event *EpollEvent) (err error)
   828	//sys	EpollWait(epfd int, events []EpollEvent, msec int) (n int, err error)
   829	//sys	Exit(code int) = SYS_EXIT_GROUP
   830	//sys	Faccessat(dirfd int, path string, mode uint32, flags int) (err error)
   831	//sys	Fallocate(fd int, mode uint32, off int64, len int64) (err error)
   832	//sys	Fchdir(fd int) (err error)
   833	//sys	Fchmod(fd int, mode uint32) (err error)
   834	//sys	Fchmodat(dirfd int, path string, mode uint32, flags int) (err error)
   835	//sys	Fchownat(dirfd int, path string, uid int, gid int, flags int) (err error)
   836	//sys	fcntl(fd int, cmd int, arg int) (val int, err error)
   837	//sys	Fdatasync(fd int) (err error)
   838	//sys	Flock(fd int, how int) (err error)
   839	//sys	Fsync(fd int) (err error)
   840	//sys	Getdents(fd int, buf []byte) (n int, err error) = SYS_GETDENTS64
   841	//sysnb	Getpgid(pid int) (pgid int, err error)
   842	
   843	func Getpgrp() (pid int) {
   844		pid, _ = Getpgid(0)
   845		return
   846	}
   847	
   848	//sysnb	Getpid() (pid int)
   849	//sysnb	Getppid() (ppid int)
   850	//sys	Getpriority(which int, who int) (prio int, err error)
   851	//sysnb	Getrusage(who int, rusage *Rusage) (err error)
   852	//sysnb	Gettid() (tid int)
   853	//sys	Getxattr(path string, attr string, dest []byte) (sz int, err error)
   854	//sys	InotifyAddWatch(fd int, pathname string, mask uint32) (watchdesc int, err error)
   855	//sysnb	InotifyInit1(flags int) (fd int, err error)
   856	//sysnb	InotifyRmWatch(fd int, watchdesc uint32) (success int, err error)
   857	//sysnb	Kill(pid int, sig Signal) (err error)
   858	//sys	Klogctl(typ int, buf []byte) (n int, err error) = SYS_SYSLOG
   859	//sys	Listxattr(path string, dest []byte) (sz int, err error)
   860	//sys	Mkdirat(dirfd int, path string, mode uint32) (err error)
   861	//sys	Mknodat(dirfd int, path string, mode uint32, dev int) (err error)
   862	//sys	Nanosleep(time *Timespec, leftover *Timespec) (err error)
   863	//sys	Pause() (err error)
   864	//sys	PivotRoot(newroot string, putold string) (err error) = SYS_PIVOT_ROOT
   865	//sysnb prlimit(pid int, resource int, old *Rlimit, newlimit *Rlimit) (err error) = SYS_PRLIMIT64
   866	//sys	read(fd int, p []byte) (n int, err error)
   867	//sys	Removexattr(path string, attr string) (err error)
   868	//sys	Renameat(olddirfd int, oldpath string, newdirfd int, newpath string) (err error)
   869	//sys	Setdomainname(p []byte) (err error)
   870	//sys	Sethostname(p []byte) (err error)
   871	//sysnb	Setpgid(pid int, pgid int) (err error)
   872	//sysnb	Setsid() (pid int, err error)
   873	//sysnb	Settimeofday(tv *Timeval) (err error)
   874	
   875	// issue 1435.
   876	// On linux Setuid and Setgid only affects the current thread, not the process.
   877	// This does not match what most callers expect so we must return an error
   878	// here rather than letting the caller think that the call succeeded.
   879	
   880	func Setuid(uid int) (err error) {
   881		return EOPNOTSUPP
   882	}
   883	
   884	func Setgid(uid int) (err error) {
   885		return EOPNOTSUPP
   886	}
   887	
   888	//sys	Setpriority(which int, who int, prio int) (err error)
   889	//sys	Setxattr(path string, attr string, data []byte, flags int) (err error)
   890	//sys	Sync()
   891	//sysnb	Sysinfo(info *Sysinfo_t) (err error)
   892	//sys	Tee(rfd int, wfd int, len int, flags int) (n int64, err error)
   893	//sysnb	Tgkill(tgid int, tid int, sig Signal) (err error)
   894	//sysnb	Times(tms *Tms) (ticks uintptr, err error)
   895	//sysnb	Umask(mask int) (oldmask int)
   896	//sysnb	Uname(buf *Utsname) (err error)
   897	//sys	Unmount(target string, flags int) (err error) = SYS_UMOUNT2
   898	//sys	Unshare(flags int) (err error)
   899	//sys	Ustat(dev int, ubuf *Ustat_t) (err error)
   900	//sys	Utime(path string, buf *Utimbuf) (err error)
   901	//sys	write(fd int, p []byte) (n int, err error)
   902	//sys	exitThread(code int) (err error) = SYS_EXIT
   903	//sys	readlen(fd int, p *byte, np int) (n int, err error) = SYS_READ
   904	//sys	writelen(fd int, p *byte, np int) (n int, err error) = SYS_WRITE
   905	
   906	// mmap varies by architecture; see syscall_linux_*.go.
   907	//sys	munmap(addr uintptr, length uintptr) (err error)
   908	
   909	var mapper = &mmapper{
   910		active: make(map[*byte][]byte),
   911		mmap:   mmap,
   912		munmap: munmap,
   913	}
   914	
   915	func Mmap(fd int, offset int64, length int, prot int, flags int) (data []byte, err error) {
   916		return mapper.Mmap(fd, offset, length, prot, flags)
   917	}
   918	
   919	func Munmap(b []byte) (err error) {
   920		return mapper.Munmap(b)
   921	}
   922	
   923	//sys	Madvise(b []byte, advice int) (err error)
   924	//sys	Mprotect(b []byte, prot int) (err error)
   925	//sys	Mlock(b []byte) (err error)
   926	//sys	Munlock(b []byte) (err error)
   927	//sys	Mlockall(flags int) (err error)
   928	//sys	Munlockall() (err error)
   929	
   930	/*
   931	 * Unimplemented
   932	 */
   933	// AddKey
   934	// AfsSyscall
   935	// Alarm
   936	// ArchPrctl
   937	// Brk
   938	// Capget
   939	// Capset
   940	// ClockGetres
   941	// ClockGettime
   942	// ClockNanosleep
   943	// ClockSettime
   944	// Clone
   945	// CreateModule
   946	// DeleteModule
   947	// EpollCtlOld
   948	// EpollPwait
   949	// EpollWaitOld
   950	// Eventfd
   951	// Execve
   952	// Fadvise64
   953	// Fgetxattr
   954	// Flistxattr
   955	// Fork
   956	// Fremovexattr
   957	// Fsetxattr
   958	// Futex
   959	// GetKernelSyms
   960	// GetMempolicy
   961	// GetRobustList
   962	// GetThreadArea
   963	// Getitimer
   964	// Getpmsg
   965	// IoCancel
   966	// IoDestroy
   967	// IoGetevents
   968	// IoSetup
   969	// IoSubmit
   970	// Ioctl
   971	// IoprioGet
   972	// IoprioSet
   973	// KexecLoad
   974	// Keyctl
   975	// Lgetxattr
   976	// Llistxattr
   977	// LookupDcookie
   978	// Lremovexattr
   979	// Lsetxattr
   980	// Mbind
   981	// MigratePages
   982	// Mincore
   983	// ModifyLdt
   984	// Mount
   985	// MovePages
   986	// Mprotect
   987	// MqGetsetattr
   988	// MqNotify
   989	// MqOpen
   990	// MqTimedreceive
   991	// MqTimedsend
   992	// MqUnlink
   993	// Mremap
   994	// Msgctl
   995	// Msgget
   996	// Msgrcv
   997	// Msgsnd
   998	// Msync
   999	// Newfstatat
  1000	// Nfsservctl
  1001	// Personality
  1002	// Poll
  1003	// Ppoll
  1004	// Prctl
  1005	// Pselect6
  1006	// Ptrace
  1007	// Putpmsg
  1008	// QueryModule
  1009	// Quotactl
  1010	// Readahead
  1011	// Readv
  1012	// RemapFilePages
  1013	// RequestKey
  1014	// RestartSyscall
  1015	// RtSigaction
  1016	// RtSigpending
  1017	// RtSigprocmask
  1018	// RtSigqueueinfo
  1019	// RtSigreturn
  1020	// RtSigsuspend
  1021	// RtSigtimedwait
  1022	// SchedGetPriorityMax
  1023	// SchedGetPriorityMin
  1024	// SchedGetaffinity
  1025	// SchedGetparam
  1026	// SchedGetscheduler
  1027	// SchedRrGetInterval
  1028	// SchedSetaffinity
  1029	// SchedSetparam
  1030	// SchedYield
  1031	// Security
  1032	// Semctl
  1033	// Semget
  1034	// Semop
  1035	// Semtimedop
  1036	// SetMempolicy
  1037	// SetRobustList
  1038	// SetThreadArea
  1039	// SetTidAddress
  1040	// Shmat
  1041	// Shmctl
  1042	// Shmdt
  1043	// Shmget
  1044	// Sigaltstack
  1045	// Signalfd
  1046	// Swapoff
  1047	// Swapon
  1048	// Sysfs
  1049	// TimerCreate
  1050	// TimerDelete
  1051	// TimerGetoverrun
  1052	// TimerGettime
  1053	// TimerSettime
  1054	// Timerfd
  1055	// Tkill (obsolete)
  1056	// Tuxcall
  1057	// Umount2
  1058	// Uselib
  1059	// Utimensat
  1060	// Vfork
  1061	// Vhangup
  1062	// Vmsplice
  1063	// Vserver
  1064	// Waitid
  1065	// _Sysctl
  1066	

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