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Source file src/syscall/syscall_linux.go

     1	// Copyright 2009 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
     2	// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
     3	// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
     4	
     5	// Linux system calls.
     6	// This file is compiled as ordinary Go code,
     7	// but it is also input to mksyscall,
     8	// which parses the //sys lines and generates system call stubs.
     9	// Note that sometimes we use a lowercase //sys name and
    10	// wrap it in our own nicer implementation.
    11	
    12	package syscall
    13	
    14	import "unsafe"
    15	
    16	/*
    17	 * Wrapped
    18	 */
    19	
    20	//sys	open(path string, mode int, perm uint32) (fd int, err error)
    21	
    22	func Open(path string, mode int, perm uint32) (fd int, err error) {
    23		return open(path, mode|O_LARGEFILE, perm)
    24	}
    25	
    26	//sys	openat(dirfd int, path string, flags int, mode uint32) (fd int, err error)
    27	
    28	func Openat(dirfd int, path string, flags int, mode uint32) (fd int, err error) {
    29		return openat(dirfd, path, flags|O_LARGEFILE, mode)
    30	}
    31	
    32	//sysnb	pipe(p *[2]_C_int) (err error)
    33	
    34	func Pipe(p []int) (err error) {
    35		if len(p) != 2 {
    36			return EINVAL
    37		}
    38		var pp [2]_C_int
    39		err = pipe(&pp)
    40		p[0] = int(pp[0])
    41		p[1] = int(pp[1])
    42		return
    43	}
    44	
    45	//sysnb pipe2(p *[2]_C_int, flags int) (err error)
    46	
    47	func Pipe2(p []int, flags int) (err error) {
    48		if len(p) != 2 {
    49			return EINVAL
    50		}
    51		var pp [2]_C_int
    52		err = pipe2(&pp, flags)
    53		p[0] = int(pp[0])
    54		p[1] = int(pp[1])
    55		return
    56	}
    57	
    58	//sys	utimes(path string, times *[2]Timeval) (err error)
    59	
    60	func Utimes(path string, tv []Timeval) (err error) {
    61		if len(tv) != 2 {
    62			return EINVAL
    63		}
    64		return utimes(path, (*[2]Timeval)(unsafe.Pointer(&tv[0])))
    65	}
    66	
    67	//sys	utimensat(dirfd int, path string, times *[2]Timespec) (err error)
    68	
    69	func UtimesNano(path string, ts []Timespec) (err error) {
    70		if len(ts) != 2 {
    71			return EINVAL
    72		}
    73		err = utimensat(_AT_FDCWD, path, (*[2]Timespec)(unsafe.Pointer(&ts[0])))
    74		if err != ENOSYS {
    75			return err
    76		}
    77		// If the utimensat syscall isn't available (utimensat was added to Linux
    78		// in 2.6.22, Released, 8 July 2007) then fall back to utimes
    79		var tv [2]Timeval
    80		for i := 0; i < 2; i++ {
    81			tv[i].Sec = ts[i].Sec
    82			tv[i].Usec = ts[i].Nsec / 1000
    83		}
    84		return utimes(path, (*[2]Timeval)(unsafe.Pointer(&tv[0])))
    85	}
    86	
    87	//sys	futimesat(dirfd int, path *byte, times *[2]Timeval) (err error)
    88	
    89	func Futimesat(dirfd int, path string, tv []Timeval) (err error) {
    90		if len(tv) != 2 {
    91			return EINVAL
    92		}
    93		pathp, err := BytePtrFromString(path)
    94		if err != nil {
    95			return err
    96		}
    97		err = futimesat(dirfd, pathp, (*[2]Timeval)(unsafe.Pointer(&tv[0])))
    98		use(unsafe.Pointer(pathp))
    99		return err
   100	}
   101	
   102	func Futimes(fd int, tv []Timeval) (err error) {
   103		// Believe it or not, this is the best we can do on Linux
   104		// (and is what glibc does).
   105		return Utimes("/proc/self/fd/"+itoa(fd), tv)
   106	}
   107	
   108	const ImplementsGetwd = true
   109	
   110	//sys	Getcwd(buf []byte) (n int, err error)
   111	
   112	func Getwd() (wd string, err error) {
   113		var buf [PathMax]byte
   114		n, err := Getcwd(buf[0:])
   115		if err != nil {
   116			return "", err
   117		}
   118		// Getcwd returns the number of bytes written to buf, including the NUL.
   119		if n < 1 || n > len(buf) || buf[n-1] != 0 {
   120			return "", EINVAL
   121		}
   122		return string(buf[0 : n-1]), nil
   123	}
   124	
   125	func Getgroups() (gids []int, err error) {
   126		n, err := getgroups(0, nil)
   127		if err != nil {
   128			return nil, err
   129		}
   130		if n == 0 {
   131			return nil, nil
   132		}
   133	
   134		// Sanity check group count.  Max is 1<<16 on Linux.
   135		if n < 0 || n > 1<<20 {
   136			return nil, EINVAL
   137		}
   138	
   139		a := make([]_Gid_t, n)
   140		n, err = getgroups(n, &a[0])
   141		if err != nil {
   142			return nil, err
   143		}
   144		gids = make([]int, n)
   145		for i, v := range a[0:n] {
   146			gids[i] = int(v)
   147		}
   148		return
   149	}
   150	
   151	func Setgroups(gids []int) (err error) {
   152		if len(gids) == 0 {
   153			return setgroups(0, nil)
   154		}
   155	
   156		a := make([]_Gid_t, len(gids))
   157		for i, v := range gids {
   158			a[i] = _Gid_t(v)
   159		}
   160		return setgroups(len(a), &a[0])
   161	}
   162	
   163	type WaitStatus uint32
   164	
   165	// Wait status is 7 bits at bottom, either 0 (exited),
   166	// 0x7F (stopped), or a signal number that caused an exit.
   167	// The 0x80 bit is whether there was a core dump.
   168	// An extra number (exit code, signal causing a stop)
   169	// is in the high bits.  At least that's the idea.
   170	// There are various irregularities.  For example, the
   171	// "continued" status is 0xFFFF, distinguishing itself
   172	// from stopped via the core dump bit.
   173	
   174	const (
   175		mask    = 0x7F
   176		core    = 0x80
   177		exited  = 0x00
   178		stopped = 0x7F
   179		shift   = 8
   180	)
   181	
   182	func (w WaitStatus) Exited() bool { return w&mask == exited }
   183	
   184	func (w WaitStatus) Signaled() bool { return w&mask != stopped && w&mask != exited }
   185	
   186	func (w WaitStatus) Stopped() bool { return w&0xFF == stopped }
   187	
   188	func (w WaitStatus) Continued() bool { return w == 0xFFFF }
   189	
   190	func (w WaitStatus) CoreDump() bool { return w.Signaled() && w&core != 0 }
   191	
   192	func (w WaitStatus) ExitStatus() int {
   193		if !w.Exited() {
   194			return -1
   195		}
   196		return int(w>>shift) & 0xFF
   197	}
   198	
   199	func (w WaitStatus) Signal() Signal {
   200		if !w.Signaled() {
   201			return -1
   202		}
   203		return Signal(w & mask)
   204	}
   205	
   206	func (w WaitStatus) StopSignal() Signal {
   207		if !w.Stopped() {
   208			return -1
   209		}
   210		return Signal(w>>shift) & 0xFF
   211	}
   212	
   213	func (w WaitStatus) TrapCause() int {
   214		if w.StopSignal() != SIGTRAP {
   215			return -1
   216		}
   217		return int(w>>shift) >> 8
   218	}
   219	
   220	//sys	wait4(pid int, wstatus *_C_int, options int, rusage *Rusage) (wpid int, err error)
   221	
   222	func Wait4(pid int, wstatus *WaitStatus, options int, rusage *Rusage) (wpid int, err error) {
   223		var status _C_int
   224		wpid, err = wait4(pid, &status, options, rusage)
   225		if wstatus != nil {
   226			*wstatus = WaitStatus(status)
   227		}
   228		return
   229	}
   230	
   231	func Mkfifo(path string, mode uint32) (err error) {
   232		return Mknod(path, mode|S_IFIFO, 0)
   233	}
   234	
   235	func (sa *SockaddrInet4) sockaddr() (unsafe.Pointer, _Socklen, error) {
   236		if sa.Port < 0 || sa.Port > 0xFFFF {
   237			return nil, 0, EINVAL
   238		}
   239		sa.raw.Family = AF_INET
   240		p := (*[2]byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&sa.raw.Port))
   241		p[0] = byte(sa.Port >> 8)
   242		p[1] = byte(sa.Port)
   243		for i := 0; i < len(sa.Addr); i++ {
   244			sa.raw.Addr[i] = sa.Addr[i]
   245		}
   246		return unsafe.Pointer(&sa.raw), SizeofSockaddrInet4, nil
   247	}
   248	
   249	func (sa *SockaddrInet6) sockaddr() (unsafe.Pointer, _Socklen, error) {
   250		if sa.Port < 0 || sa.Port > 0xFFFF {
   251			return nil, 0, EINVAL
   252		}
   253		sa.raw.Family = AF_INET6
   254		p := (*[2]byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&sa.raw.Port))
   255		p[0] = byte(sa.Port >> 8)
   256		p[1] = byte(sa.Port)
   257		sa.raw.Scope_id = sa.ZoneId
   258		for i := 0; i < len(sa.Addr); i++ {
   259			sa.raw.Addr[i] = sa.Addr[i]
   260		}
   261		return unsafe.Pointer(&sa.raw), SizeofSockaddrInet6, nil
   262	}
   263	
   264	func (sa *SockaddrUnix) sockaddr() (unsafe.Pointer, _Socklen, error) {
   265		name := sa.Name
   266		n := len(name)
   267		if n >= len(sa.raw.Path) {
   268			return nil, 0, EINVAL
   269		}
   270		sa.raw.Family = AF_UNIX
   271		for i := 0; i < n; i++ {
   272			sa.raw.Path[i] = int8(name[i])
   273		}
   274		// length is family (uint16), name, NUL.
   275		sl := _Socklen(2)
   276		if n > 0 {
   277			sl += _Socklen(n) + 1
   278		}
   279		if sa.raw.Path[0] == '@' {
   280			sa.raw.Path[0] = 0
   281			// Don't count trailing NUL for abstract address.
   282			sl--
   283		}
   284	
   285		return unsafe.Pointer(&sa.raw), sl, nil
   286	}
   287	
   288	type SockaddrLinklayer struct {
   289		Protocol uint16
   290		Ifindex  int
   291		Hatype   uint16
   292		Pkttype  uint8
   293		Halen    uint8
   294		Addr     [8]byte
   295		raw      RawSockaddrLinklayer
   296	}
   297	
   298	func (sa *SockaddrLinklayer) sockaddr() (unsafe.Pointer, _Socklen, error) {
   299		if sa.Ifindex < 0 || sa.Ifindex > 0x7fffffff {
   300			return nil, 0, EINVAL
   301		}
   302		sa.raw.Family = AF_PACKET
   303		sa.raw.Protocol = sa.Protocol
   304		sa.raw.Ifindex = int32(sa.Ifindex)
   305		sa.raw.Hatype = sa.Hatype
   306		sa.raw.Pkttype = sa.Pkttype
   307		sa.raw.Halen = sa.Halen
   308		for i := 0; i < len(sa.Addr); i++ {
   309			sa.raw.Addr[i] = sa.Addr[i]
   310		}
   311		return unsafe.Pointer(&sa.raw), SizeofSockaddrLinklayer, nil
   312	}
   313	
   314	type SockaddrNetlink struct {
   315		Family uint16
   316		Pad    uint16
   317		Pid    uint32
   318		Groups uint32
   319		raw    RawSockaddrNetlink
   320	}
   321	
   322	func (sa *SockaddrNetlink) sockaddr() (unsafe.Pointer, _Socklen, error) {
   323		sa.raw.Family = AF_NETLINK
   324		sa.raw.Pad = sa.Pad
   325		sa.raw.Pid = sa.Pid
   326		sa.raw.Groups = sa.Groups
   327		return unsafe.Pointer(&sa.raw), SizeofSockaddrNetlink, nil
   328	}
   329	
   330	func anyToSockaddr(rsa *RawSockaddrAny) (Sockaddr, error) {
   331		switch rsa.Addr.Family {
   332		case AF_NETLINK:
   333			pp := (*RawSockaddrNetlink)(unsafe.Pointer(rsa))
   334			sa := new(SockaddrNetlink)
   335			sa.Family = pp.Family
   336			sa.Pad = pp.Pad
   337			sa.Pid = pp.Pid
   338			sa.Groups = pp.Groups
   339			return sa, nil
   340	
   341		case AF_PACKET:
   342			pp := (*RawSockaddrLinklayer)(unsafe.Pointer(rsa))
   343			sa := new(SockaddrLinklayer)
   344			sa.Protocol = pp.Protocol
   345			sa.Ifindex = int(pp.Ifindex)
   346			sa.Hatype = pp.Hatype
   347			sa.Pkttype = pp.Pkttype
   348			sa.Halen = pp.Halen
   349			for i := 0; i < len(sa.Addr); i++ {
   350				sa.Addr[i] = pp.Addr[i]
   351			}
   352			return sa, nil
   353	
   354		case AF_UNIX:
   355			pp := (*RawSockaddrUnix)(unsafe.Pointer(rsa))
   356			sa := new(SockaddrUnix)
   357			if pp.Path[0] == 0 {
   358				// "Abstract" Unix domain socket.
   359				// Rewrite leading NUL as @ for textual display.
   360				// (This is the standard convention.)
   361				// Not friendly to overwrite in place,
   362				// but the callers below don't care.
   363				pp.Path[0] = '@'
   364			}
   365	
   366			// Assume path ends at NUL.
   367			// This is not technically the Linux semantics for
   368			// abstract Unix domain sockets--they are supposed
   369			// to be uninterpreted fixed-size binary blobs--but
   370			// everyone uses this convention.
   371			n := 0
   372			for n < len(pp.Path) && pp.Path[n] != 0 {
   373				n++
   374			}
   375			bytes := (*[10000]byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&pp.Path[0]))[0:n]
   376			sa.Name = string(bytes)
   377			return sa, nil
   378	
   379		case AF_INET:
   380			pp := (*RawSockaddrInet4)(unsafe.Pointer(rsa))
   381			sa := new(SockaddrInet4)
   382			p := (*[2]byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&pp.Port))
   383			sa.Port = int(p[0])<<8 + int(p[1])
   384			for i := 0; i < len(sa.Addr); i++ {
   385				sa.Addr[i] = pp.Addr[i]
   386			}
   387			return sa, nil
   388	
   389		case AF_INET6:
   390			pp := (*RawSockaddrInet6)(unsafe.Pointer(rsa))
   391			sa := new(SockaddrInet6)
   392			p := (*[2]byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&pp.Port))
   393			sa.Port = int(p[0])<<8 + int(p[1])
   394			sa.ZoneId = pp.Scope_id
   395			for i := 0; i < len(sa.Addr); i++ {
   396				sa.Addr[i] = pp.Addr[i]
   397			}
   398			return sa, nil
   399		}
   400		return nil, EAFNOSUPPORT
   401	}
   402	
   403	func Accept(fd int) (nfd int, sa Sockaddr, err error) {
   404		var rsa RawSockaddrAny
   405		var len _Socklen = SizeofSockaddrAny
   406		nfd, err = accept(fd, &rsa, &len)
   407		if err != nil {
   408			return
   409		}
   410		sa, err = anyToSockaddr(&rsa)
   411		if err != nil {
   412			Close(nfd)
   413			nfd = 0
   414		}
   415		return
   416	}
   417	
   418	func Accept4(fd int, flags int) (nfd int, sa Sockaddr, err error) {
   419		var rsa RawSockaddrAny
   420		var len _Socklen = SizeofSockaddrAny
   421		nfd, err = accept4(fd, &rsa, &len, flags)
   422		if err != nil {
   423			return
   424		}
   425		if len > SizeofSockaddrAny {
   426			panic("RawSockaddrAny too small")
   427		}
   428		sa, err = anyToSockaddr(&rsa)
   429		if err != nil {
   430			Close(nfd)
   431			nfd = 0
   432		}
   433		return
   434	}
   435	
   436	func Getsockname(fd int) (sa Sockaddr, err error) {
   437		var rsa RawSockaddrAny
   438		var len _Socklen = SizeofSockaddrAny
   439		if err = getsockname(fd, &rsa, &len); err != nil {
   440			return
   441		}
   442		return anyToSockaddr(&rsa)
   443	}
   444	
   445	func GetsockoptInet4Addr(fd, level, opt int) (value [4]byte, err error) {
   446		vallen := _Socklen(4)
   447		err = getsockopt(fd, level, opt, unsafe.Pointer(&value[0]), &vallen)
   448		return value, err
   449	}
   450	
   451	func GetsockoptIPMreq(fd, level, opt int) (*IPMreq, error) {
   452		var value IPMreq
   453		vallen := _Socklen(SizeofIPMreq)
   454		err := getsockopt(fd, level, opt, unsafe.Pointer(&value), &vallen)
   455		return &value, err
   456	}
   457	
   458	func GetsockoptIPMreqn(fd, level, opt int) (*IPMreqn, error) {
   459		var value IPMreqn
   460		vallen := _Socklen(SizeofIPMreqn)
   461		err := getsockopt(fd, level, opt, unsafe.Pointer(&value), &vallen)
   462		return &value, err
   463	}
   464	
   465	func GetsockoptIPv6Mreq(fd, level, opt int) (*IPv6Mreq, error) {
   466		var value IPv6Mreq
   467		vallen := _Socklen(SizeofIPv6Mreq)
   468		err := getsockopt(fd, level, opt, unsafe.Pointer(&value), &vallen)
   469		return &value, err
   470	}
   471	
   472	func GetsockoptIPv6MTUInfo(fd, level, opt int) (*IPv6MTUInfo, error) {
   473		var value IPv6MTUInfo
   474		vallen := _Socklen(SizeofIPv6MTUInfo)
   475		err := getsockopt(fd, level, opt, unsafe.Pointer(&value), &vallen)
   476		return &value, err
   477	}
   478	
   479	func GetsockoptICMPv6Filter(fd, level, opt int) (*ICMPv6Filter, error) {
   480		var value ICMPv6Filter
   481		vallen := _Socklen(SizeofICMPv6Filter)
   482		err := getsockopt(fd, level, opt, unsafe.Pointer(&value), &vallen)
   483		return &value, err
   484	}
   485	
   486	func GetsockoptUcred(fd, level, opt int) (*Ucred, error) {
   487		var value Ucred
   488		vallen := _Socklen(SizeofUcred)
   489		err := getsockopt(fd, level, opt, unsafe.Pointer(&value), &vallen)
   490		return &value, err
   491	}
   492	
   493	func SetsockoptIPMreqn(fd, level, opt int, mreq *IPMreqn) (err error) {
   494		return setsockopt(fd, level, opt, unsafe.Pointer(mreq), unsafe.Sizeof(*mreq))
   495	}
   496	
   497	func Recvmsg(fd int, p, oob []byte, flags int) (n, oobn int, recvflags int, from Sockaddr, err error) {
   498		var msg Msghdr
   499		var rsa RawSockaddrAny
   500		msg.Name = (*byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&rsa))
   501		msg.Namelen = uint32(SizeofSockaddrAny)
   502		var iov Iovec
   503		if len(p) > 0 {
   504			iov.Base = (*byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&p[0]))
   505			iov.SetLen(len(p))
   506		}
   507		var dummy byte
   508		if len(oob) > 0 {
   509			// receive at least one normal byte
   510			if len(p) == 0 {
   511				iov.Base = &dummy
   512				iov.SetLen(1)
   513			}
   514			msg.Control = (*byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&oob[0]))
   515			msg.SetControllen(len(oob))
   516		}
   517		msg.Iov = &iov
   518		msg.Iovlen = 1
   519		if n, err = recvmsg(fd, &msg, flags); err != nil {
   520			return
   521		}
   522		oobn = int(msg.Controllen)
   523		recvflags = int(msg.Flags)
   524		// source address is only specified if the socket is unconnected
   525		if rsa.Addr.Family != AF_UNSPEC {
   526			from, err = anyToSockaddr(&rsa)
   527		}
   528		return
   529	}
   530	
   531	func Sendmsg(fd int, p, oob []byte, to Sockaddr, flags int) (err error) {
   532		_, err = SendmsgN(fd, p, oob, to, flags)
   533		return
   534	}
   535	
   536	func SendmsgN(fd int, p, oob []byte, to Sockaddr, flags int) (n int, err error) {
   537		var ptr unsafe.Pointer
   538		var salen _Socklen
   539		if to != nil {
   540			var err error
   541			ptr, salen, err = to.sockaddr()
   542			if err != nil {
   543				return 0, err
   544			}
   545		}
   546		var msg Msghdr
   547		msg.Name = (*byte)(unsafe.Pointer(ptr))
   548		msg.Namelen = uint32(salen)
   549		var iov Iovec
   550		if len(p) > 0 {
   551			iov.Base = (*byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&p[0]))
   552			iov.SetLen(len(p))
   553		}
   554		var dummy byte
   555		if len(oob) > 0 {
   556			// send at least one normal byte
   557			if len(p) == 0 {
   558				iov.Base = &dummy
   559				iov.SetLen(1)
   560			}
   561			msg.Control = (*byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&oob[0]))
   562			msg.SetControllen(len(oob))
   563		}
   564		msg.Iov = &iov
   565		msg.Iovlen = 1
   566		if n, err = sendmsg(fd, &msg, flags); err != nil {
   567			return 0, err
   568		}
   569		if len(oob) > 0 && len(p) == 0 {
   570			n = 0
   571		}
   572		return n, nil
   573	}
   574	
   575	// BindToDevice binds the socket associated with fd to device.
   576	func BindToDevice(fd int, device string) (err error) {
   577		return SetsockoptString(fd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_BINDTODEVICE, device)
   578	}
   579	
   580	//sys	ptrace(request int, pid int, addr uintptr, data uintptr) (err error)
   581	
   582	func ptracePeek(req int, pid int, addr uintptr, out []byte) (count int, err error) {
   583		// The peek requests are machine-size oriented, so we wrap it
   584		// to retrieve arbitrary-length data.
   585	
   586		// The ptrace syscall differs from glibc's ptrace.
   587		// Peeks returns the word in *data, not as the return value.
   588	
   589		var buf [sizeofPtr]byte
   590	
   591		// Leading edge.  PEEKTEXT/PEEKDATA don't require aligned
   592		// access (PEEKUSER warns that it might), but if we don't
   593		// align our reads, we might straddle an unmapped page
   594		// boundary and not get the bytes leading up to the page
   595		// boundary.
   596		n := 0
   597		if addr%sizeofPtr != 0 {
   598			err = ptrace(req, pid, addr-addr%sizeofPtr, uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(&buf[0])))
   599			if err != nil {
   600				return 0, err
   601			}
   602			n += copy(out, buf[addr%sizeofPtr:])
   603			out = out[n:]
   604		}
   605	
   606		// Remainder.
   607		for len(out) > 0 {
   608			// We use an internal buffer to guarantee alignment.
   609			// It's not documented if this is necessary, but we're paranoid.
   610			err = ptrace(req, pid, addr+uintptr(n), uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(&buf[0])))
   611			if err != nil {
   612				return n, err
   613			}
   614			copied := copy(out, buf[0:])
   615			n += copied
   616			out = out[copied:]
   617		}
   618	
   619		return n, nil
   620	}
   621	
   622	func PtracePeekText(pid int, addr uintptr, out []byte) (count int, err error) {
   623		return ptracePeek(PTRACE_PEEKTEXT, pid, addr, out)
   624	}
   625	
   626	func PtracePeekData(pid int, addr uintptr, out []byte) (count int, err error) {
   627		return ptracePeek(PTRACE_PEEKDATA, pid, addr, out)
   628	}
   629	
   630	func ptracePoke(pokeReq int, peekReq int, pid int, addr uintptr, data []byte) (count int, err error) {
   631		// As for ptracePeek, we need to align our accesses to deal
   632		// with the possibility of straddling an invalid page.
   633	
   634		// Leading edge.
   635		n := 0
   636		if addr%sizeofPtr != 0 {
   637			var buf [sizeofPtr]byte
   638			err = ptrace(peekReq, pid, addr-addr%sizeofPtr, uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(&buf[0])))
   639			if err != nil {
   640				return 0, err
   641			}
   642			n += copy(buf[addr%sizeofPtr:], data)
   643			word := *((*uintptr)(unsafe.Pointer(&buf[0])))
   644			err = ptrace(pokeReq, pid, addr-addr%sizeofPtr, word)
   645			if err != nil {
   646				return 0, err
   647			}
   648			data = data[n:]
   649		}
   650	
   651		// Interior.
   652		for len(data) > sizeofPtr {
   653			word := *((*uintptr)(unsafe.Pointer(&data[0])))
   654			err = ptrace(pokeReq, pid, addr+uintptr(n), word)
   655			if err != nil {
   656				return n, err
   657			}
   658			n += sizeofPtr
   659			data = data[sizeofPtr:]
   660		}
   661	
   662		// Trailing edge.
   663		if len(data) > 0 {
   664			var buf [sizeofPtr]byte
   665			err = ptrace(peekReq, pid, addr+uintptr(n), uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(&buf[0])))
   666			if err != nil {
   667				return n, err
   668			}
   669			copy(buf[0:], data)
   670			word := *((*uintptr)(unsafe.Pointer(&buf[0])))
   671			err = ptrace(pokeReq, pid, addr+uintptr(n), word)
   672			if err != nil {
   673				return n, err
   674			}
   675			n += len(data)
   676		}
   677	
   678		return n, nil
   679	}
   680	
   681	func PtracePokeText(pid int, addr uintptr, data []byte) (count int, err error) {
   682		return ptracePoke(PTRACE_POKETEXT, PTRACE_PEEKTEXT, pid, addr, data)
   683	}
   684	
   685	func PtracePokeData(pid int, addr uintptr, data []byte) (count int, err error) {
   686		return ptracePoke(PTRACE_POKEDATA, PTRACE_PEEKDATA, pid, addr, data)
   687	}
   688	
   689	func PtraceGetRegs(pid int, regsout *PtraceRegs) (err error) {
   690		return ptrace(PTRACE_GETREGS, pid, 0, uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(regsout)))
   691	}
   692	
   693	func PtraceSetRegs(pid int, regs *PtraceRegs) (err error) {
   694		return ptrace(PTRACE_SETREGS, pid, 0, uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(regs)))
   695	}
   696	
   697	func PtraceSetOptions(pid int, options int) (err error) {
   698		return ptrace(PTRACE_SETOPTIONS, pid, 0, uintptr(options))
   699	}
   700	
   701	func PtraceGetEventMsg(pid int) (msg uint, err error) {
   702		var data _C_long
   703		err = ptrace(PTRACE_GETEVENTMSG, pid, 0, uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(&data)))
   704		msg = uint(data)
   705		return
   706	}
   707	
   708	func PtraceCont(pid int, signal int) (err error) {
   709		return ptrace(PTRACE_CONT, pid, 0, uintptr(signal))
   710	}
   711	
   712	func PtraceSyscall(pid int, signal int) (err error) {
   713		return ptrace(PTRACE_SYSCALL, pid, 0, uintptr(signal))
   714	}
   715	
   716	func PtraceSingleStep(pid int) (err error) { return ptrace(PTRACE_SINGLESTEP, pid, 0, 0) }
   717	
   718	func PtraceAttach(pid int) (err error) { return ptrace(PTRACE_ATTACH, pid, 0, 0) }
   719	
   720	func PtraceDetach(pid int) (err error) { return ptrace(PTRACE_DETACH, pid, 0, 0) }
   721	
   722	//sys	reboot(magic1 uint, magic2 uint, cmd int, arg string) (err error)
   723	
   724	func Reboot(cmd int) (err error) {
   725		return reboot(LINUX_REBOOT_MAGIC1, LINUX_REBOOT_MAGIC2, cmd, "")
   726	}
   727	
   728	func clen(n []byte) int {
   729		for i := 0; i < len(n); i++ {
   730			if n[i] == 0 {
   731				return i
   732			}
   733		}
   734		return len(n)
   735	}
   736	
   737	func ReadDirent(fd int, buf []byte) (n int, err error) {
   738		return Getdents(fd, buf)
   739	}
   740	
   741	func ParseDirent(buf []byte, max int, names []string) (consumed int, count int, newnames []string) {
   742		origlen := len(buf)
   743		count = 0
   744		for max != 0 && len(buf) > 0 {
   745			dirent := (*Dirent)(unsafe.Pointer(&buf[0]))
   746			buf = buf[dirent.Reclen:]
   747			if dirent.Ino == 0 { // File absent in directory.
   748				continue
   749			}
   750			bytes := (*[10000]byte)(unsafe.Pointer(&dirent.Name[0]))
   751			var name = string(bytes[0:clen(bytes[:])])
   752			if name == "." || name == ".." { // Useless names
   753				continue
   754			}
   755			max--
   756			count++
   757			names = append(names, name)
   758		}
   759		return origlen - len(buf), count, names
   760	}
   761	
   762	//sys	mount(source string, target string, fstype string, flags uintptr, data *byte) (err error)
   763	
   764	func Mount(source string, target string, fstype string, flags uintptr, data string) (err error) {
   765		// Certain file systems get rather angry and EINVAL if you give
   766		// them an empty string of data, rather than NULL.
   767		if data == "" {
   768			return mount(source, target, fstype, flags, nil)
   769		}
   770		datap, err := BytePtrFromString(data)
   771		if err != nil {
   772			return err
   773		}
   774		err = mount(source, target, fstype, flags, datap)
   775		use(unsafe.Pointer(datap))
   776		return err
   777	}
   778	
   779	// Sendto
   780	// Recvfrom
   781	// Socketpair
   782	
   783	/*
   784	 * Direct access
   785	 */
   786	//sys	Access(path string, mode uint32) (err error)
   787	//sys	Acct(path string) (err error)
   788	//sys	Adjtimex(buf *Timex) (state int, err error)
   789	//sys	Chdir(path string) (err error)
   790	//sys	Chmod(path string, mode uint32) (err error)
   791	//sys	Chroot(path string) (err error)
   792	//sys	Close(fd int) (err error)
   793	//sys	Creat(path string, mode uint32) (fd int, err error)
   794	//sysnb	Dup(oldfd int) (fd int, err error)
   795	//sysnb	Dup2(oldfd int, newfd int) (err error)
   796	//sysnb	Dup3(oldfd int, newfd int, flags int) (err error)
   797	//sysnb	EpollCreate(size int) (fd int, err error)
   798	//sysnb	EpollCreate1(flag int) (fd int, err error)
   799	//sysnb	EpollCtl(epfd int, op int, fd int, event *EpollEvent) (err error)
   800	//sys	EpollWait(epfd int, events []EpollEvent, msec int) (n int, err error)
   801	//sys	Exit(code int) = SYS_EXIT_GROUP
   802	//sys	Faccessat(dirfd int, path string, mode uint32, flags int) (err error)
   803	//sys	Fallocate(fd int, mode uint32, off int64, len int64) (err error)
   804	//sys	Fchdir(fd int) (err error)
   805	//sys	Fchmod(fd int, mode uint32) (err error)
   806	//sys	Fchmodat(dirfd int, path string, mode uint32, flags int) (err error)
   807	//sys	Fchownat(dirfd int, path string, uid int, gid int, flags int) (err error)
   808	//sys	fcntl(fd int, cmd int, arg int) (val int, err error)
   809	//sys	Fdatasync(fd int) (err error)
   810	//sys	Flock(fd int, how int) (err error)
   811	//sys	Fsync(fd int) (err error)
   812	//sys	Getdents(fd int, buf []byte) (n int, err error) = SYS_GETDENTS64
   813	//sysnb	Getpgid(pid int) (pgid int, err error)
   814	//sysnb	Getpgrp() (pid int)
   815	//sysnb	Getpid() (pid int)
   816	//sysnb	Getppid() (ppid int)
   817	//sys	Getpriority(which int, who int) (prio int, err error)
   818	//sysnb	Getrusage(who int, rusage *Rusage) (err error)
   819	//sysnb	Gettid() (tid int)
   820	//sys	Getxattr(path string, attr string, dest []byte) (sz int, err error)
   821	//sys	InotifyAddWatch(fd int, pathname string, mask uint32) (watchdesc int, err error)
   822	//sysnb	InotifyInit() (fd int, err error)
   823	//sysnb	InotifyInit1(flags int) (fd int, err error)
   824	//sysnb	InotifyRmWatch(fd int, watchdesc uint32) (success int, err error)
   825	//sysnb	Kill(pid int, sig Signal) (err error)
   826	//sys	Klogctl(typ int, buf []byte) (n int, err error) = SYS_SYSLOG
   827	//sys	Link(oldpath string, newpath string) (err error)
   828	//sys	Listxattr(path string, dest []byte) (sz int, err error)
   829	//sys	Mkdir(path string, mode uint32) (err error)
   830	//sys	Mkdirat(dirfd int, path string, mode uint32) (err error)
   831	//sys	Mknod(path string, mode uint32, dev int) (err error)
   832	//sys	Mknodat(dirfd int, path string, mode uint32, dev int) (err error)
   833	//sys	Nanosleep(time *Timespec, leftover *Timespec) (err error)
   834	//sys	Pause() (err error)
   835	//sys	PivotRoot(newroot string, putold string) (err error) = SYS_PIVOT_ROOT
   836	//sysnb prlimit(pid int, resource int, old *Rlimit, newlimit *Rlimit) (err error) = SYS_PRLIMIT64
   837	//sys	read(fd int, p []byte) (n int, err error)
   838	//sys	Readlink(path string, buf []byte) (n int, err error)
   839	//sys	Removexattr(path string, attr string) (err error)
   840	//sys	Rename(oldpath string, newpath string) (err error)
   841	//sys	Renameat(olddirfd int, oldpath string, newdirfd int, newpath string) (err error)
   842	//sys	Rmdir(path string) (err error)
   843	//sys	Setdomainname(p []byte) (err error)
   844	//sys	Sethostname(p []byte) (err error)
   845	//sysnb	Setpgid(pid int, pgid int) (err error)
   846	//sysnb	Setsid() (pid int, err error)
   847	//sysnb	Settimeofday(tv *Timeval) (err error)
   848	
   849	// issue 1435.
   850	// On linux Setuid and Setgid only affects the current thread, not the process.
   851	// This does not match what most callers expect so we must return an error
   852	// here rather than letting the caller think that the call succeeded.
   853	
   854	func Setuid(uid int) (err error) {
   855		return EOPNOTSUPP
   856	}
   857	
   858	func Setgid(uid int) (err error) {
   859		return EOPNOTSUPP
   860	}
   861	
   862	//sys	Setpriority(which int, who int, prio int) (err error)
   863	//sys	Setxattr(path string, attr string, data []byte, flags int) (err error)
   864	//sys	Symlink(oldpath string, newpath string) (err error)
   865	//sys	Sync()
   866	//sysnb	Sysinfo(info *Sysinfo_t) (err error)
   867	//sys	Tee(rfd int, wfd int, len int, flags int) (n int64, err error)
   868	//sysnb	Tgkill(tgid int, tid int, sig Signal) (err error)
   869	//sysnb	Times(tms *Tms) (ticks uintptr, err error)
   870	//sysnb	Umask(mask int) (oldmask int)
   871	//sysnb	Uname(buf *Utsname) (err error)
   872	//sys	Unlink(path string) (err error)
   873	//sys	Unlinkat(dirfd int, path string) (err error)
   874	//sys	Unmount(target string, flags int) (err error) = SYS_UMOUNT2
   875	//sys	Unshare(flags int) (err error)
   876	//sys	Ustat(dev int, ubuf *Ustat_t) (err error)
   877	//sys	Utime(path string, buf *Utimbuf) (err error)
   878	//sys	write(fd int, p []byte) (n int, err error)
   879	//sys	exitThread(code int) (err error) = SYS_EXIT
   880	//sys	readlen(fd int, p *byte, np int) (n int, err error) = SYS_READ
   881	//sys	writelen(fd int, p *byte, np int) (n int, err error) = SYS_WRITE
   882	
   883	// mmap varies by architecture; see syscall_linux_*.go.
   884	//sys	munmap(addr uintptr, length uintptr) (err error)
   885	
   886	var mapper = &mmapper{
   887		active: make(map[*byte][]byte),
   888		mmap:   mmap,
   889		munmap: munmap,
   890	}
   891	
   892	func Mmap(fd int, offset int64, length int, prot int, flags int) (data []byte, err error) {
   893		return mapper.Mmap(fd, offset, length, prot, flags)
   894	}
   895	
   896	func Munmap(b []byte) (err error) {
   897		return mapper.Munmap(b)
   898	}
   899	
   900	//sys	Madvise(b []byte, advice int) (err error)
   901	//sys	Mprotect(b []byte, prot int) (err error)
   902	//sys	Mlock(b []byte) (err error)
   903	//sys	Munlock(b []byte) (err error)
   904	//sys	Mlockall(flags int) (err error)
   905	//sys	Munlockall() (err error)
   906	
   907	/*
   908	 * Unimplemented
   909	 */
   910	// AddKey
   911	// AfsSyscall
   912	// Alarm
   913	// ArchPrctl
   914	// Brk
   915	// Capget
   916	// Capset
   917	// ClockGetres
   918	// ClockGettime
   919	// ClockNanosleep
   920	// ClockSettime
   921	// Clone
   922	// CreateModule
   923	// DeleteModule
   924	// EpollCtlOld
   925	// EpollPwait
   926	// EpollWaitOld
   927	// Eventfd
   928	// Execve
   929	// Fadvise64
   930	// Fgetxattr
   931	// Flistxattr
   932	// Fork
   933	// Fremovexattr
   934	// Fsetxattr
   935	// Futex
   936	// GetKernelSyms
   937	// GetMempolicy
   938	// GetRobustList
   939	// GetThreadArea
   940	// Getitimer
   941	// Getpmsg
   942	// IoCancel
   943	// IoDestroy
   944	// IoGetevents
   945	// IoSetup
   946	// IoSubmit
   947	// Ioctl
   948	// IoprioGet
   949	// IoprioSet
   950	// KexecLoad
   951	// Keyctl
   952	// Lgetxattr
   953	// Llistxattr
   954	// LookupDcookie
   955	// Lremovexattr
   956	// Lsetxattr
   957	// Mbind
   958	// MigratePages
   959	// Mincore
   960	// ModifyLdt
   961	// Mount
   962	// MovePages
   963	// Mprotect
   964	// MqGetsetattr
   965	// MqNotify
   966	// MqOpen
   967	// MqTimedreceive
   968	// MqTimedsend
   969	// MqUnlink
   970	// Mremap
   971	// Msgctl
   972	// Msgget
   973	// Msgrcv
   974	// Msgsnd
   975	// Msync
   976	// Newfstatat
   977	// Nfsservctl
   978	// Personality
   979	// Poll
   980	// Ppoll
   981	// Prctl
   982	// Pselect6
   983	// Ptrace
   984	// Putpmsg
   985	// QueryModule
   986	// Quotactl
   987	// Readahead
   988	// Readv
   989	// RemapFilePages
   990	// RequestKey
   991	// RestartSyscall
   992	// RtSigaction
   993	// RtSigpending
   994	// RtSigprocmask
   995	// RtSigqueueinfo
   996	// RtSigreturn
   997	// RtSigsuspend
   998	// RtSigtimedwait
   999	// SchedGetPriorityMax
  1000	// SchedGetPriorityMin
  1001	// SchedGetaffinity
  1002	// SchedGetparam
  1003	// SchedGetscheduler
  1004	// SchedRrGetInterval
  1005	// SchedSetaffinity
  1006	// SchedSetparam
  1007	// SchedYield
  1008	// Security
  1009	// Semctl
  1010	// Semget
  1011	// Semop
  1012	// Semtimedop
  1013	// SetMempolicy
  1014	// SetRobustList
  1015	// SetThreadArea
  1016	// SetTidAddress
  1017	// Shmat
  1018	// Shmctl
  1019	// Shmdt
  1020	// Shmget
  1021	// Sigaltstack
  1022	// Signalfd
  1023	// Swapoff
  1024	// Swapon
  1025	// Sysfs
  1026	// TimerCreate
  1027	// TimerDelete
  1028	// TimerGetoverrun
  1029	// TimerGettime
  1030	// TimerSettime
  1031	// Timerfd
  1032	// Tkill (obsolete)
  1033	// Tuxcall
  1034	// Umount2
  1035	// Uselib
  1036	// Utimensat
  1037	// Vfork
  1038	// Vhangup
  1039	// Vmsplice
  1040	// Vserver
  1041	// Waitid
  1042	// _Sysctl
  1043	

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