Run Format

Package time

import "time"
Overview
Index
Examples

Overview ▾

Package time provides functionality for measuring and displaying time.

The calendrical calculations always assume a Gregorian calendar.

Index ▾

Constants
func After(d Duration) <-chan Time
func Sleep(d Duration)
func Tick(d Duration) <-chan Time
type Duration
    func ParseDuration(s string) (Duration, error)
    func Since(t Time) Duration
    func (d Duration) Hours() float64
    func (d Duration) Minutes() float64
    func (d Duration) Nanoseconds() int64
    func (d Duration) Seconds() float64
    func (d Duration) String() string
type Location
    func FixedZone(name string, offset int) *Location
    func LoadLocation(name string) (*Location, error)
    func (l *Location) String() string
type Month
    func (m Month) String() string
type ParseError
    func (e *ParseError) Error() string
type Ticker
    func NewTicker(d Duration) *Ticker
    func (t *Ticker) Stop()
type Time
    func Date(year int, month Month, day, hour, min, sec, nsec int, loc *Location) Time
    func Now() Time
    func Parse(layout, value string) (Time, error)
    func ParseInLocation(layout, value string, loc *Location) (Time, error)
    func Unix(sec int64, nsec int64) Time
    func (t Time) Add(d Duration) Time
    func (t Time) AddDate(years int, months int, days int) Time
    func (t Time) After(u Time) bool
    func (t Time) Before(u Time) bool
    func (t Time) Clock() (hour, min, sec int)
    func (t Time) Date() (year int, month Month, day int)
    func (t Time) Day() int
    func (t Time) Equal(u Time) bool
    func (t Time) Format(layout string) string
    func (t *Time) GobDecode(data []byte) error
    func (t Time) GobEncode() ([]byte, error)
    func (t Time) Hour() int
    func (t Time) ISOWeek() (year, week int)
    func (t Time) In(loc *Location) Time
    func (t Time) IsZero() bool
    func (t Time) Local() Time
    func (t Time) Location() *Location
    func (t Time) MarshalBinary() ([]byte, error)
    func (t Time) MarshalJSON() ([]byte, error)
    func (t Time) MarshalText() ([]byte, error)
    func (t Time) Minute() int
    func (t Time) Month() Month
    func (t Time) Nanosecond() int
    func (t Time) Round(d Duration) Time
    func (t Time) Second() int
    func (t Time) String() string
    func (t Time) Sub(u Time) Duration
    func (t Time) Truncate(d Duration) Time
    func (t Time) UTC() Time
    func (t Time) Unix() int64
    func (t Time) UnixNano() int64
    func (t *Time) UnmarshalBinary(data []byte) error
    func (t *Time) UnmarshalJSON(data []byte) (err error)
    func (t *Time) UnmarshalText(data []byte) (err error)
    func (t Time) Weekday() Weekday
    func (t Time) Year() int
    func (t Time) YearDay() int
    func (t Time) Zone() (name string, offset int)
type Timer
    func AfterFunc(d Duration, f func()) *Timer
    func NewTimer(d Duration) *Timer
    func (t *Timer) Reset(d Duration) bool
    func (t *Timer) Stop() bool
type Weekday
    func (d Weekday) String() string

Package files

format.go sleep.go sys_unix.go tick.go time.go zoneinfo.go zoneinfo_read.go zoneinfo_unix.go

Constants

const (
        ANSIC       = "Mon Jan _2 15:04:05 2006"
        UnixDate    = "Mon Jan _2 15:04:05 MST 2006"
        RubyDate    = "Mon Jan 02 15:04:05 -0700 2006"
        RFC822      = "02 Jan 06 15:04 MST"
        RFC822Z     = "02 Jan 06 15:04 -0700" // RFC822 with numeric zone
        RFC850      = "Monday, 02-Jan-06 15:04:05 MST"
        RFC1123     = "Mon, 02 Jan 2006 15:04:05 MST"
        RFC1123Z    = "Mon, 02 Jan 2006 15:04:05 -0700" // RFC1123 with numeric zone
        RFC3339     = "2006-01-02T15:04:05Z07:00"
        RFC3339Nano = "2006-01-02T15:04:05.999999999Z07:00"
        Kitchen     = "3:04PM"
        // Handy time stamps.
        Stamp      = "Jan _2 15:04:05"
        StampMilli = "Jan _2 15:04:05.000"
        StampMicro = "Jan _2 15:04:05.000000"
        StampNano  = "Jan _2 15:04:05.000000000"
)

These are predefined layouts for use in Time.Format and Time.Parse. The reference time used in the layouts is:

Mon Jan 2 15:04:05 MST 2006

which is Unix time 1136239445. Since MST is GMT-0700, the reference time can be thought of as

01/02 03:04:05PM '06 -0700

To define your own format, write down what the reference time would look like formatted your way; see the values of constants like ANSIC, StampMicro or Kitchen for examples. The model is to demonstrate what the reference time looks like so that the Format and Parse methods can apply the same transformation to a general time value.

Within the format string, an underscore _ represents a space that may be replaced by a digit if the following number (a day) has two digits; for compatibility with fixed-width Unix time formats.

A decimal point followed by one or more zeros represents a fractional second, printed to the given number of decimal places. A decimal point followed by one or more nines represents a fractional second, printed to the given number of decimal places, with trailing zeros removed. When parsing (only), the input may contain a fractional second field immediately after the seconds field, even if the layout does not signify its presence. In that case a decimal point followed by a maximal series of digits is parsed as a fractional second.

Numeric time zone offsets format as follows:

-0700  ±hhmm
-07:00 ±hh:mm

Replacing the sign in the format with a Z triggers the ISO 8601 behavior of printing Z instead of an offset for the UTC zone. Thus:

Z0700  Z or ±hhmm
Z07:00 Z or ±hh:mm

func After

func After(d Duration) <-chan Time

After waits for the duration to elapse and then sends the current time on the returned channel. It is equivalent to NewTimer(d).C.

Example

Code:

    select {
    case m := <-c:
            handle(m)
    case <-time.After(5 * time.Minute):
            fmt.Println("timed out")
    }

func Sleep

func Sleep(d Duration)

Sleep pauses the current goroutine for at least the duration d. A negative or zero duration causes Sleep to return immediately.

Example

func Tick

func Tick(d Duration) <-chan Time

Tick is a convenience wrapper for NewTicker providing access to the ticking channel only. Useful for clients that have no need to shut down the ticker.

Example

Code:

    c := time.Tick(1 * time.Minute)
    for now := range c {
            fmt.Printf("%v %s\n", now, statusUpdate())
    }

type Duration

type Duration int64

A Duration represents the elapsed time between two instants as an int64 nanosecond count. The representation limits the largest representable duration to approximately 290 years.

const (
        Nanosecond  Duration = 1
        Microsecond          = 1000 * Nanosecond
        Millisecond          = 1000 * Microsecond
        Second               = 1000 * Millisecond
        Minute               = 60 * Second
        Hour                 = 60 * Minute
)

Common durations. There is no definition for units of Day or larger to avoid confusion across daylight savings time zone transitions.

To count the number of units in a Duration, divide:

second := time.Second
fmt.Print(int64(second/time.Millisecond)) // prints 1000

To convert an integer number of units to a Duration, multiply:

seconds := 10
fmt.Print(time.Duration(seconds)*time.Second) // prints 10s

Example

Code:

    t0 := time.Now()
    expensiveCall()
    t1 := time.Now()
    fmt.Printf("The call took %v to run.\n", t1.Sub(t0))

func ParseDuration

func ParseDuration(s string) (Duration, error)

ParseDuration parses a duration string. A duration string is a possibly signed sequence of decimal numbers, each with optional fraction and a unit suffix, such as "300ms", "-1.5h" or "2h45m". Valid time units are "ns", "us" (or "µs"), "ms", "s", "m", "h".

func Since

func Since(t Time) Duration

Since returns the time elapsed since t. It is shorthand for time.Now().Sub(t).

func (Duration) Hours

func (d Duration) Hours() float64

Hours returns the duration as a floating point number of hours.

func (Duration) Minutes

func (d Duration) Minutes() float64

Minutes returns the duration as a floating point number of minutes.

func (Duration) Nanoseconds

func (d Duration) Nanoseconds() int64

Nanoseconds returns the duration as an integer nanosecond count.

func (Duration) Seconds

func (d Duration) Seconds() float64

Seconds returns the duration as a floating point number of seconds.

func (Duration) String

func (d Duration) String() string

String returns a string representing the duration in the form "72h3m0.5s". Leading zero units are omitted. As a special case, durations less than one second format use a smaller unit (milli-, micro-, or nanoseconds) to ensure that the leading digit is non-zero. The zero duration formats as 0, with no unit.

type Location

type Location struct {
        // contains filtered or unexported fields
}

A Location maps time instants to the zone in use at that time. Typically, the Location represents the collection of time offsets in use in a geographical area, such as CEST and CET for central Europe.

var Local *Location = &localLoc

Local represents the system's local time zone.

var UTC *Location = &utcLoc

UTC represents Universal Coordinated Time (UTC).

func FixedZone

func FixedZone(name string, offset int) *Location

FixedZone returns a Location that always uses the given zone name and offset (seconds east of UTC).

func LoadLocation

func LoadLocation(name string) (*Location, error)

LoadLocation returns the Location with the given name.

If the name is "" or "UTC", LoadLocation returns UTC. If the name is "Local", LoadLocation returns Local.

Otherwise, the name is taken to be a location name corresponding to a file in the IANA Time Zone database, such as "America/New_York".

The time zone database needed by LoadLocation may not be present on all systems, especially non-Unix systems. LoadLocation looks in the directory or uncompressed zip file named by the ZONEINFO environment variable, if any, then looks in known installation locations on Unix systems, and finally looks in $GOROOT/lib/time/zoneinfo.zip.

func (*Location) String

func (l *Location) String() string

String returns a descriptive name for the time zone information, corresponding to the argument to LoadLocation.

type Month

type Month int

A Month specifies a month of the year (January = 1, ...).

const (
        January Month = 1 + iota
        February
        March
        April
        May
        June
        July
        August
        September
        October
        November
        December
)

Example

func (Month) String

func (m Month) String() string

String returns the English name of the month ("January", "February", ...).

type ParseError

type ParseError struct {
        Layout     string
        Value      string
        LayoutElem string
        ValueElem  string
        Message    string
}

ParseError describes a problem parsing a time string.

func (*ParseError) Error

func (e *ParseError) Error() string

Error returns the string representation of a ParseError.

type Ticker

type Ticker struct {
        C <-chan Time // The channel on which the ticks are delivered.
        // contains filtered or unexported fields
}

A Ticker holds a channel that delivers `ticks' of a clock at intervals.

func NewTicker

func NewTicker(d Duration) *Ticker

NewTicker returns a new Ticker containing a channel that will send the time with a period specified by the duration argument. It adjusts the intervals or drops ticks to make up for slow receivers. The duration d must be greater than zero; if not, NewTicker will panic.

func (*Ticker) Stop

func (t *Ticker) Stop()

Stop turns off a ticker. After Stop, no more ticks will be sent. Stop does not close the channel, to prevent a read from the channel succeeding incorrectly.

type Time

type Time struct {
        // contains filtered or unexported fields
}

A Time represents an instant in time with nanosecond precision.

Programs using times should typically store and pass them as values, not pointers. That is, time variables and struct fields should be of type time.Time, not *time.Time. A Time value can be used by multiple goroutines simultaneously.

Time instants can be compared using the Before, After, and Equal methods. The Sub method subtracts two instants, producing a Duration. The Add method adds a Time and a Duration, producing a Time.

The zero value of type Time is January 1, year 1, 00:00:00.000000000 UTC. As this time is unlikely to come up in practice, the IsZero method gives a simple way of detecting a time that has not been initialized explicitly.

Each Time has associated with it a Location, consulted when computing the presentation form of the time, such as in the Format, Hour, and Year methods. The methods Local, UTC, and In return a Time with a specific location. Changing the location in this way changes only the presentation; it does not change the instant in time being denoted and therefore does not affect the computations described in earlier paragraphs.

func Date

func Date(year int, month Month, day, hour, min, sec, nsec int, loc *Location) Time

Date returns the Time corresponding to

yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss + nsec nanoseconds

in the appropriate zone for that time in the given location.

The month, day, hour, min, sec, and nsec values may be outside their usual ranges and will be normalized during the conversion. For example, October 32 converts to November 1.

A daylight savings time transition skips or repeats times. For example, in the United States, March 13, 2011 2:15am never occurred, while November 6, 2011 1:15am occurred twice. In such cases, the choice of time zone, and therefore the time, is not well-defined. Date returns a time that is correct in one of the two zones involved in the transition, but it does not guarantee which.

Date panics if loc is nil.

Example

Go launched at 2009-11-10 15:00:00 -0800 PST

func Now

func Now() Time

Now returns the current local time.

func Parse

func Parse(layout, value string) (Time, error)

Parse parses a formatted string and returns the time value it represents. The layout defines the format by showing how the reference time,

Mon Jan 2 15:04:05 -0700 MST 2006

would be interpreted if it were the value; it serves as an example of the input format. The same interpretation will then be made to the input string. Predefined layouts ANSIC, UnixDate, RFC3339 and others describe standard and convenient representations of the reference time. For more information about the formats and the definition of the reference time, see the documentation for ANSIC and the other constants defined by this package.

Elements omitted from the value are assumed to be zero or, when zero is impossible, one, so parsing "3:04pm" returns the time corresponding to Jan 1, year 0, 15:04:00 UTC (note that because the year is 0, this time is before the zero Time). Years must be in the range 0000..9999. The day of the week is checked for syntax but it is otherwise ignored.

In the absence of a time zone indicator, Parse returns a time in UTC.

When parsing a time with a zone offset like -0700, if the offset corresponds to a time zone used by the current location (Local), then Parse uses that location and zone in the returned time. Otherwise it records the time as being in a fabricated location with time fixed at the given zone offset.

When parsing a time with a zone abbreviation like MST, if the zone abbreviation has a defined offset in the current location, then that offset is used. The zone abbreviation "UTC" is recognized as UTC regardless of location. If the zone abbreviation is unknown, Parse records the time as being in a fabricated location with the given zone abbreviation and a zero offset. This choice means that such a time can be parse and reformatted with the same layout losslessly, but the exact instant used in the representation will differ by the actual zone offset. To avoid such problems, prefer time layouts that use a numeric zone offset, or use ParseInLocation.

Example

Code:

// longForm shows by example how the reference time would be represented in
    // the desired layout.
    const longForm = "Jan 2, 2006 at 3:04pm (MST)"
    t, _ := time.Parse(longForm, "Feb 3, 2013 at 7:54pm (PST)")
    fmt.Println(t)

    // shortForm is another way the reference time would be represented
    // in the desired layout; it has no time zone present.
    // Note: without explicit zone, returns time in UTC.
    const shortForm = "2006-Jan-02"
    t, _ = time.Parse(shortForm, "2013-Feb-03")
    fmt.Println(t)

    

Output:

2013-02-03 19:54:00 -0800 PST
2013-02-03 00:00:00 +0000 UTC

func ParseInLocation

func ParseInLocation(layout, value string, loc *Location) (Time, error)

ParseInLocation is like Parse but differs in two important ways. First, in the absence of time zone information, Parse interprets a time as UTC; ParseInLocation interprets the time as in the given location. Second, when given a zone offset or abbreviation, Parse tries to match it against the Local location; ParseInLocation uses the given location.

Example

Code:

loc, _ := time.LoadLocation("Europe/Berlin")

    const longForm = "Jan 2, 2006 at 3:04pm (MST)"
    t, _ := time.ParseInLocation(longForm, "Jul 9, 2012 at 5:02am (CEST)", loc)
    fmt.Println(t)

    // Note: without explicit zone, returns time in given location.
    const shortForm = "2006-Jan-02"
    t, _ = time.ParseInLocation(shortForm, "2012-Jul-09", loc)
    fmt.Println(t)

    

Output:

2012-07-09 05:02:00 +0200 CEST
2012-07-09 00:00:00 +0200 CEST

func Unix

func Unix(sec int64, nsec int64) Time

Unix returns the local Time corresponding to the given Unix time, sec seconds and nsec nanoseconds since January 1, 1970 UTC. It is valid to pass nsec outside the range [0, 999999999].

func (Time) Add

func (t Time) Add(d Duration) Time

Add returns the time t+d.

func (Time) AddDate

func (t Time) AddDate(years int, months int, days int) Time

AddDate returns the time corresponding to adding the given number of years, months, and days to t. For example, AddDate(-1, 2, 3) applied to January 1, 2011 returns March 4, 2010.

AddDate normalizes its result in the same way that Date does, so, for example, adding one month to October 31 yields December 1, the normalized form for November 31.

func (Time) After

func (t Time) After(u Time) bool

After reports whether the time instant t is after u.

func (Time) Before

func (t Time) Before(u Time) bool

Before reports whether the time instant t is before u.

func (Time) Clock

func (t Time) Clock() (hour, min, sec int)

Clock returns the hour, minute, and second within the day specified by t.

func (Time) Date

func (t Time) Date() (year int, month Month, day int)

Date returns the year, month, and day in which t occurs.

func (Time) Day

func (t Time) Day() int

Day returns the day of the month specified by t.

func (Time) Equal

func (t Time) Equal(u Time) bool

Equal reports whether t and u represent the same time instant. Two times can be equal even if they are in different locations. For example, 6:00 +0200 CEST and 4:00 UTC are Equal. This comparison is different from using t == u, which also compares the locations.

func (Time) Format

func (t Time) Format(layout string) string

Format returns a textual representation of the time value formatted according to layout, which defines the format by showing how the reference time,

Mon Jan 2 15:04:05 -0700 MST 2006

would be displayed if it were the value; it serves as an example of the desired output. The same display rules will then be applied to the time value. Predefined layouts ANSIC, UnixDate, RFC3339 and others describe standard and convenient representations of the reference time. For more information about the formats and the definition of the reference time, see the documentation for ANSIC and the other constants defined by this package.

Example

Nov 10, 2009 at 3:00pm (PST)
Nov 10, 2009 at 11:00pm (UTC)

func (*Time) GobDecode

func (t *Time) GobDecode(data []byte) error

GobDecode implements the gob.GobDecoder interface.

func (Time) GobEncode

func (t Time) GobEncode() ([]byte, error)

GobEncode implements the gob.GobEncoder interface.

func (Time) Hour

func (t Time) Hour() int

Hour returns the hour within the day specified by t, in the range [0, 23].

func (Time) ISOWeek

func (t Time) ISOWeek() (year, week int)

ISOWeek returns the ISO 8601 year and week number in which t occurs. Week ranges from 1 to 53. Jan 01 to Jan 03 of year n might belong to week 52 or 53 of year n-1, and Dec 29 to Dec 31 might belong to week 1 of year n+1.

func (Time) In

func (t Time) In(loc *Location) Time

In returns t with the location information set to loc.

In panics if loc is nil.

func (Time) IsZero

func (t Time) IsZero() bool

IsZero reports whether t represents the zero time instant, January 1, year 1, 00:00:00 UTC.

func (Time) Local

func (t Time) Local() Time

Local returns t with the location set to local time.

func (Time) Location

func (t Time) Location() *Location

Location returns the time zone information associated with t.

func (Time) MarshalBinary

func (t Time) MarshalBinary() ([]byte, error)

MarshalBinary implements the encoding.BinaryMarshaler interface.

func (Time) MarshalJSON

func (t Time) MarshalJSON() ([]byte, error)

MarshalJSON implements the json.Marshaler interface. The time is a quoted string in RFC 3339 format, with sub-second precision added if present.

func (Time) MarshalText

func (t Time) MarshalText() ([]byte, error)

MarshalText implements the encoding.TextMarshaler interface. The time is formatted in RFC 3339 format, with sub-second precision added if present.

func (Time) Minute

func (t Time) Minute() int

Minute returns the minute offset within the hour specified by t, in the range [0, 59].

func (Time) Month

func (t Time) Month() Month

Month returns the month of the year specified by t.

func (Time) Nanosecond

func (t Time) Nanosecond() int

Nanosecond returns the nanosecond offset within the second specified by t, in the range [0, 999999999].

func (Time) Round

func (t Time) Round(d Duration) Time

Round returns the result of rounding t to the nearest multiple of d (since the zero time). The rounding behavior for halfway values is to round up. If d <= 0, Round returns t unchanged.

Example

t.Round(   1ns) = 12:15:30.918273645
t.Round(   1us) = 12:15:30.918274
t.Round(   1ms) = 12:15:30.918
t.Round(    1s) = 12:15:31
t.Round(    2s) = 12:15:30
t.Round(  1m0s) = 12:16:00
t.Round( 10m0s) = 12:20:00
t.Round(1h0m0s) = 12:00:00

func (Time) Second

func (t Time) Second() int

Second returns the second offset within the minute specified by t, in the range [0, 59].

func (Time) String

func (t Time) String() string

String returns the time formatted using the format string

"2006-01-02 15:04:05.999999999 -0700 MST"

func (Time) Sub

func (t Time) Sub(u Time) Duration

Sub returns the duration t-u. If the result exceeds the maximum (or minimum) value that can be stored in a Duration, the maximum (or minimum) duration will be returned. To compute t-d for a duration d, use t.Add(-d).

func (Time) Truncate

func (t Time) Truncate(d Duration) Time

Truncate returns the result of rounding t down to a multiple of d (since the zero time). If d <= 0, Truncate returns t unchanged.

Example

t.Truncate(   1ns) = 12:15:30.918273645
t.Truncate(   1us) = 12:15:30.918273
t.Truncate(   1ms) = 12:15:30.918
t.Truncate(    1s) = 12:15:30
t.Truncate(    2s) = 12:15:30
t.Truncate(  1m0s) = 12:15:00
t.Truncate( 10m0s) = 12:10:00
t.Truncate(1h0m0s) = 12:00:00

func (Time) UTC

func (t Time) UTC() Time

UTC returns t with the location set to UTC.

func (Time) Unix

func (t Time) Unix() int64

Unix returns t as a Unix time, the number of seconds elapsed since January 1, 1970 UTC.

func (Time) UnixNano

func (t Time) UnixNano() int64

UnixNano returns t as a Unix time, the number of nanoseconds elapsed since January 1, 1970 UTC. The result is undefined if the Unix time in nanoseconds cannot be represented by an int64. Note that this means the result of calling UnixNano on the zero Time is undefined.

func (*Time) UnmarshalBinary

func (t *Time) UnmarshalBinary(data []byte) error

UnmarshalBinary implements the encoding.BinaryUnmarshaler interface.

func (*Time) UnmarshalJSON

func (t *Time) UnmarshalJSON(data []byte) (err error)

UnmarshalJSON implements the json.Unmarshaler interface. The time is expected to be a quoted string in RFC 3339 format.

func (*Time) UnmarshalText

func (t *Time) UnmarshalText(data []byte) (err error)

UnmarshalText implements the encoding.TextUnmarshaler interface. The time is expected to be in RFC 3339 format.

func (Time) Weekday

func (t Time) Weekday() Weekday

Weekday returns the day of the week specified by t.

func (Time) Year

func (t Time) Year() int

Year returns the year in which t occurs.

func (Time) YearDay

func (t Time) YearDay() int

YearDay returns the day of the year specified by t, in the range [1,365] for non-leap years, and [1,366] in leap years.

func (Time) Zone

func (t Time) Zone() (name string, offset int)

Zone computes the time zone in effect at time t, returning the abbreviated name of the zone (such as "CET") and its offset in seconds east of UTC.

type Timer

type Timer struct {
        C <-chan Time
        // contains filtered or unexported fields
}

The Timer type represents a single event. When the Timer expires, the current time will be sent on C, unless the Timer was created by AfterFunc.

func AfterFunc

func AfterFunc(d Duration, f func()) *Timer

AfterFunc waits for the duration to elapse and then calls f in its own goroutine. It returns a Timer that can be used to cancel the call using its Stop method.

func NewTimer

func NewTimer(d Duration) *Timer

NewTimer creates a new Timer that will send the current time on its channel after at least duration d.

func (*Timer) Reset

func (t *Timer) Reset(d Duration) bool

Reset changes the timer to expire after duration d. It returns true if the timer had been active, false if the timer had expired or been stopped.

func (*Timer) Stop

func (t *Timer) Stop() bool

Stop prevents the Timer from firing. It returns true if the call stops the timer, false if the timer has already expired or been stopped. Stop does not close the channel, to prevent a read from the channel succeeding incorrectly.

type Weekday

type Weekday int

A Weekday specifies a day of the week (Sunday = 0, ...).

const (
        Sunday Weekday = iota
        Monday
        Tuesday
        Wednesday
        Thursday
        Friday
        Saturday
)

func (Weekday) String

func (d Weekday) String() string

String returns the English name of the day ("Sunday", "Monday", ...).