Run Format

Package testing

import "testing"
Overview
Index
Subdirectories

Overview ▾

Package testing provides support for automated testing of Go packages. It is intended to be used in concert with the “go test” command, which automates execution of any function of the form

func TestXxx(*testing.T)

where Xxx can be any alphanumeric string (but the first letter must not be in [a-z]) and serves to identify the test routine. These TestXxx routines should be declared within the package they are testing.

Tests and benchmarks may be skipped if not applicable like this:

func TestTimeConsuming(t *testing.T) {
    if testing.Short() {
        t.Skip("skipping test in short mode.")
    }
    ...
}

Benchmarks

Functions of the form

func BenchmarkXxx(*testing.B)

are considered benchmarks, and are executed by the "go test" command when its -bench flag is provided. Benchmarks are run sequentially.

For a description of the testing flags, see http://golang.org/cmd/go/#hdr-Description_of_testing_flags.

A sample benchmark function looks like this:

func BenchmarkHello(b *testing.B) {
    for i := 0; i < b.N; i++ {
        fmt.Sprintf("hello")
    }
}

The benchmark function must run the target code b.N times. The benchmark package will vary b.N until the benchmark function lasts long enough to be timed reliably. The output

BenchmarkHello    10000000    282 ns/op

means that the loop ran 10000000 times at a speed of 282 ns per loop.

If a benchmark needs some expensive setup before running, the timer may be reset:

func BenchmarkBigLen(b *testing.B) {
    big := NewBig()
    b.ResetTimer()
    for i := 0; i < b.N; i++ {
        big.Len()
    }
}

Examples

The package also runs and verifies example code. Example functions may include a concluding line comment that begins with "Output:" and is compared with the standard output of the function when the tests are run. (The comparison ignores leading and trailing space.) These are examples of an example:

func ExampleHello() {
        fmt.Println("hello")
        // Output: hello
}

func ExampleSalutations() {
        fmt.Println("hello, and")
        fmt.Println("goodbye")
        // Output:
        // hello, and
        // goodbye
}

Example functions without output comments are compiled but not executed.

The naming convention to declare examples for the package, a function F, a type T and method M on type T are:

func Example() { ... }
func ExampleF() { ... }
func ExampleT() { ... }
func ExampleT_M() { ... }

Multiple example functions for a package/type/function/method may be provided by appending a distinct suffix to the name. The suffix must start with a lower-case letter.

func Example_suffix() { ... }
func ExampleF_suffix() { ... }
func ExampleT_suffix() { ... }
func ExampleT_M_suffix() { ... }

The entire test file is presented as the example when it contains a single example function, at least one other function, type, variable, or constant declaration, and no test or benchmark functions.

Index ▾

func AllocsPerRun(runs int, f func()) (avg float64)
func Main(matchString func(pat, str string) (bool, error), tests []InternalTest, benchmarks []InternalBenchmark, examples []InternalExample)
func RegisterCover(c Cover)
func RunBenchmarks(matchString func(pat, str string) (bool, error), benchmarks []InternalBenchmark)
func RunExamples(matchString func(pat, str string) (bool, error), examples []InternalExample) (ok bool)
func RunTests(matchString func(pat, str string) (bool, error), tests []InternalTest) (ok bool)
func Short() bool
func Verbose() bool
type B
    func (c *B) Error(args ...interface{})
    func (c *B) Errorf(format string, args ...interface{})
    func (c *B) Fail()
    func (c *B) FailNow()
    func (c *B) Failed() bool
    func (c *B) Fatal(args ...interface{})
    func (c *B) Fatalf(format string, args ...interface{})
    func (c *B) Log(args ...interface{})
    func (c *B) Logf(format string, args ...interface{})
    func (b *B) ReportAllocs()
    func (b *B) ResetTimer()
    func (b *B) SetBytes(n int64)
    func (c *B) Skip(args ...interface{})
    func (c *B) SkipNow()
    func (c *B) Skipf(format string, args ...interface{})
    func (c *B) Skipped() bool
    func (b *B) StartTimer()
    func (b *B) StopTimer()
type BenchmarkResult
    func Benchmark(f func(b *B)) BenchmarkResult
    func (r BenchmarkResult) AllocedBytesPerOp() int64
    func (r BenchmarkResult) AllocsPerOp() int64
    func (r BenchmarkResult) MemString() string
    func (r BenchmarkResult) NsPerOp() int64
    func (r BenchmarkResult) String() string
type Cover
type CoverBlock
type InternalBenchmark
type InternalExample
type InternalTest
type T
    func (c *T) Error(args ...interface{})
    func (c *T) Errorf(format string, args ...interface{})
    func (c *T) Fail()
    func (c *T) FailNow()
    func (c *T) Failed() bool
    func (c *T) Fatal(args ...interface{})
    func (c *T) Fatalf(format string, args ...interface{})
    func (c *T) Log(args ...interface{})
    func (c *T) Logf(format string, args ...interface{})
    func (t *T) Parallel()
    func (c *T) Skip(args ...interface{})
    func (c *T) SkipNow()
    func (c *T) Skipf(format string, args ...interface{})
    func (c *T) Skipped() bool
type TB

Package files

allocs.go benchmark.go cover.go example.go testing.go

func AllocsPerRun

func AllocsPerRun(runs int, f func()) (avg float64)

AllocsPerRun returns the average number of allocations during calls to f. Although the return value has type float64, it will always be an integral value.

To compute the number of allocations, the function will first be run once as a warm-up. The average number of allocations over the specified number of runs will then be measured and returned.

AllocsPerRun sets GOMAXPROCS to 1 during its measurement and will restore it before returning.

func Main

func Main(matchString func(pat, str string) (bool, error), tests []InternalTest, benchmarks []InternalBenchmark, examples []InternalExample)

An internal function but exported because it is cross-package; part of the implementation of the "go test" command.

func RegisterCover

func RegisterCover(c Cover)

RegisterCover records the coverage data accumulators for the tests. NOTE: This function is internal to the testing infrastructure and may change. It is not covered (yet) by the Go 1 compatibility guidelines.

func RunBenchmarks

func RunBenchmarks(matchString func(pat, str string) (bool, error), benchmarks []InternalBenchmark)

An internal function but exported because it is cross-package; part of the implementation of the "go test" command.

func RunExamples

func RunExamples(matchString func(pat, str string) (bool, error), examples []InternalExample) (ok bool)

func RunTests

func RunTests(matchString func(pat, str string) (bool, error), tests []InternalTest) (ok bool)

func Short

func Short() bool

Short reports whether the -test.short flag is set.

func Verbose

func Verbose() bool

Verbose reports whether the -test.v flag is set.

type B

type B struct {
        N int
        // contains filtered or unexported fields
}

B is a type passed to Benchmark functions to manage benchmark timing and to specify the number of iterations to run.

func (*B) Error

func (c *B) Error(args ...interface{})

Error is equivalent to Log followed by Fail.

func (*B) Errorf

func (c *B) Errorf(format string, args ...interface{})

Errorf is equivalent to Logf followed by Fail.

func (*B) Fail

func (c *B) Fail()

Fail marks the function as having failed but continues execution.

func (*B) FailNow

func (c *B) FailNow()

FailNow marks the function as having failed and stops its execution. Execution will continue at the next test or benchmark. FailNow must be called from the goroutine running the test or benchmark function, not from other goroutines created during the test. Calling FailNow does not stop those other goroutines.

func (*B) Failed

func (c *B) Failed() bool

Failed reports whether the function has failed.

func (*B) Fatal

func (c *B) Fatal(args ...interface{})

Fatal is equivalent to Log followed by FailNow.

func (*B) Fatalf

func (c *B) Fatalf(format string, args ...interface{})

Fatalf is equivalent to Logf followed by FailNow.

func (*B) Log

func (c *B) Log(args ...interface{})

Log formats its arguments using default formatting, analogous to Println, and records the text in the error log. The text will be printed only if the test fails or the -test.v flag is set.

func (*B) Logf

func (c *B) Logf(format string, args ...interface{})

Logf formats its arguments according to the format, analogous to Printf, and records the text in the error log. The text will be printed only if the test fails or the -test.v flag is set.

func (*B) ReportAllocs

func (b *B) ReportAllocs()

ReportAllocs enables malloc statistics for this benchmark. It is equivalent to setting -test.benchmem, but it only affects the benchmark function that calls ReportAllocs.

func (*B) ResetTimer

func (b *B) ResetTimer()

ResetTimer sets the elapsed benchmark time to zero. It does not affect whether the timer is running.

func (*B) SetBytes

func (b *B) SetBytes(n int64)

SetBytes records the number of bytes processed in a single operation. If this is called, the benchmark will report ns/op and MB/s.

func (*B) Skip

func (c *B) Skip(args ...interface{})

Skip is equivalent to Log followed by SkipNow.

func (*B) SkipNow

func (c *B) SkipNow()

SkipNow marks the test as having been skipped and stops its execution. Execution will continue at the next test or benchmark. See also FailNow. SkipNow must be called from the goroutine running the test, not from other goroutines created during the test. Calling SkipNow does not stop those other goroutines.

func (*B) Skipf

func (c *B) Skipf(format string, args ...interface{})

Skipf is equivalent to Logf followed by SkipNow.

func (*B) Skipped

func (c *B) Skipped() bool

Skipped reports whether the test was skipped.

func (*B) StartTimer

func (b *B) StartTimer()

StartTimer starts timing a test. This function is called automatically before a benchmark starts, but it can also used to resume timing after a call to StopTimer.

func (*B) StopTimer

func (b *B) StopTimer()

StopTimer stops timing a test. This can be used to pause the timer while performing complex initialization that you don't want to measure.

type BenchmarkResult

type BenchmarkResult struct {
        N         int           // The number of iterations.
        T         time.Duration // The total time taken.
        Bytes     int64         // Bytes processed in one iteration.
        MemAllocs uint64        // The total number of memory allocations.
        MemBytes  uint64        // The total number of bytes allocated.
}

The results of a benchmark run.

func Benchmark

func Benchmark(f func(b *B)) BenchmarkResult

Benchmark benchmarks a single function. Useful for creating custom benchmarks that do not use the "go test" command.

func (BenchmarkResult) AllocedBytesPerOp

func (r BenchmarkResult) AllocedBytesPerOp() int64

func (BenchmarkResult) AllocsPerOp

func (r BenchmarkResult) AllocsPerOp() int64

func (BenchmarkResult) MemString

func (r BenchmarkResult) MemString() string

func (BenchmarkResult) NsPerOp

func (r BenchmarkResult) NsPerOp() int64

func (BenchmarkResult) String

func (r BenchmarkResult) String() string

type Cover

type Cover struct {
        Mode            string
        Counters        map[string][]uint32
        Blocks          map[string][]CoverBlock
        CoveredPackages string
}

Cover records information about test coverage checking. NOTE: This struct is internal to the testing infrastructure and may change. It is not covered (yet) by the Go 1 compatibility guidelines.

type CoverBlock

type CoverBlock struct {
        Line0 uint32
        Col0  uint16
        Line1 uint32
        Col1  uint16
        Stmts uint16
}

CoverBlock records the coverage data for a single basic block. NOTE: This struct is internal to the testing infrastructure and may change. It is not covered (yet) by the Go 1 compatibility guidelines.

type InternalBenchmark

type InternalBenchmark struct {
        Name string
        F    func(b *B)
}

An internal type but exported because it is cross-package; part of the implementation of the "go test" command.

type InternalExample

type InternalExample struct {
        Name   string
        F      func()
        Output string
}

type InternalTest

type InternalTest struct {
        Name string
        F    func(*T)
}

An internal type but exported because it is cross-package; part of the implementation of the "go test" command.

type T

type T struct {
        // contains filtered or unexported fields
}

T is a type passed to Test functions to manage test state and support formatted test logs. Logs are accumulated during execution and dumped to standard error when done.

func (*T) Error

func (c *T) Error(args ...interface{})

Error is equivalent to Log followed by Fail.

func (*T) Errorf

func (c *T) Errorf(format string, args ...interface{})

Errorf is equivalent to Logf followed by Fail.

func (*T) Fail

func (c *T) Fail()

Fail marks the function as having failed but continues execution.

func (*T) FailNow

func (c *T) FailNow()

FailNow marks the function as having failed and stops its execution. Execution will continue at the next test or benchmark. FailNow must be called from the goroutine running the test or benchmark function, not from other goroutines created during the test. Calling FailNow does not stop those other goroutines.

func (*T) Failed

func (c *T) Failed() bool

Failed reports whether the function has failed.

func (*T) Fatal

func (c *T) Fatal(args ...interface{})

Fatal is equivalent to Log followed by FailNow.

func (*T) Fatalf

func (c *T) Fatalf(format string, args ...interface{})

Fatalf is equivalent to Logf followed by FailNow.

func (*T) Log

func (c *T) Log(args ...interface{})

Log formats its arguments using default formatting, analogous to Println, and records the text in the error log. The text will be printed only if the test fails or the -test.v flag is set.

func (*T) Logf

func (c *T) Logf(format string, args ...interface{})

Logf formats its arguments according to the format, analogous to Printf, and records the text in the error log. The text will be printed only if the test fails or the -test.v flag is set.

func (*T) Parallel

func (t *T) Parallel()

Parallel signals that this test is to be run in parallel with (and only with) other parallel tests.

func (*T) Skip

func (c *T) Skip(args ...interface{})

Skip is equivalent to Log followed by SkipNow.

func (*T) SkipNow

func (c *T) SkipNow()

SkipNow marks the test as having been skipped and stops its execution. Execution will continue at the next test or benchmark. See also FailNow. SkipNow must be called from the goroutine running the test, not from other goroutines created during the test. Calling SkipNow does not stop those other goroutines.

func (*T) Skipf

func (c *T) Skipf(format string, args ...interface{})

Skipf is equivalent to Logf followed by SkipNow.

func (*T) Skipped

func (c *T) Skipped() bool

Skipped reports whether the test was skipped.

type TB

type TB interface {
        Error(args ...interface{})
        Errorf(format string, args ...interface{})
        Fail()
        FailNow()
        Failed() bool
        Fatal(args ...interface{})
        Fatalf(format string, args ...interface{})
        Log(args ...interface{})
        Logf(format string, args ...interface{})
        Skip(args ...interface{})
        SkipNow()
        Skipf(format string, args ...interface{})
        Skipped() bool
        // contains filtered or unexported methods
}

TB is the interface common to T and B.

Subdirectories

Name      Synopsis
..
iotest      Package iotest implements Readers and Writers useful mainly for testing.
quick      Package quick implements utility functions to help with black box testing.